Bone is a complex biological material that consists of both an inorganic and organic phase, which undergoes continuous dynamic biological processes within the body. This complex structure and the need to acquire accurate data have resulted in a wide variety of methods applied in the physical analysis of bone in vivo and in vitro. Each method has its own strengths and applications depending on the information sought by the clinician or researcher.
The Physical Measurement of Bone provides a detailed description of all the major methods of bone analysis, including brief comments on clinical evaluation. The physics of each method are introduced as well as a summary of practical procedures. The book is essential reading for practicing medical physicists and technicians who need to know about the many methods of bone analysis open to them, and, more importantly, the wide coverage provides a good introductory framework for students of medical physics and biomedical engineering.
Table of Contents
LIST OF CONTRIBUTORS, PREFACE, SECTION 1 INTRODUCTION, 1. ANATOMY, PHYSIOLOGY AND DISEASE, 1.1. Introduction, 1.2. Bone morphology and organization, 1.3. Bone tissue I: the role of bone cells, 1.3.1. The osteoclast, 1.3.2. The osteoblast, 1.3.3. The osteocytes, 1.4. Bone tissue II: the bony matrix, 1.5. Bone composition: mineralization of bone matrix, 1.6. Metabolic disorders of bone, 1.6.1. Introduction, 1.7. Osteoporosis, 1.7.1. Introduction, 1.7.2. Pathophysiology of osteoporosis, 1.7.3. Etiologic factors in osteoporosis, 1.7.4. Epidemiology, 1.8. Summary, References, 2. BIOLOGICAL SAFETY CONSIDERATIONS, 2.1. Introduction, 2.2. Duties and responsibilities, 2.3. Environmental protection, 2.4. Risk assessment, 2.5. Quantifying risk, 2.6. Acceptable risk, 2.7. Risk reduction, 2.8. Hierarchy of risk reduction, 2.9. Specific risks associated with the processing of bone, 2.9.1. Hazard identification, 2.10. Mechanical hazards, 2.10.1. Sawing bone, 2.10.2. Electrical hazards, 2.10.3. Chemical hazards, 2.11. Hazard identification, 2.11.1. Toxicity hazard, 2.11.2. Corrosive hazards, 2.11.3. Exposure limits, 2.11.4. Reactive hazards, 2.11.5. Flammability hazards, 2.12. Extinguishers, 2.13. Risk reduction and control: chemicals, 2.13.1. Fume cupboards, 2.13.2. Biological hazards, 2.14. Hazard categories of biological agents, 2.15. Hazard identification and hazard reduction at source, 2.15.1. For human bone, 2.15.2. For animal bone, 2.16. Prion diseases, 2.17. Biological control measures, 2.17.1. Allergens: control of exposure, 2.17.2. Microbiological safety cabinets, 2.17.3. Disinfectants, 2.17.4. Disinfection of cryostats, 2.17.5. Fumigation, 2.17.6. Disinfection of mechanical testing equipment and machine tools, 2.17.7. Autoclaves, 2.17.8. Disposal of biological waste, 2.17.9. Removal of equipment, 2.18. Use of personal protective equipment, 2.19. General managerial considerations, 2.19.1. Restricted access and permits to work, 2.19.2. Occupational health screening, 2.19.3
Dr Christian M Langton Centre for Metabolic Bone Disease, Hull Royal Infirmary, Anlaby Road, Hull HU3 2RW, UK Dr Christopher F Njeh The John Hopkins University, School of Medicine, Division of Radiation Oncology, The Harry and Jeanette Weinberg Building, 401 North Broadway, Suite 1440, Baltimore, MD 21231-1240, USA