Danish sport has been associated with Europe and the World; not least through I.P. Muller and Niels Bukh and the Danish Gymnastics revolution with its emphasis on male aesthetics and hygiene in the first half of the twentieth century. At the same time, Denmark has stood apart from Europe in the early moments of its history of sport with the rural revolution of the farming communities as a statement of political independence and assertion. However, during the German occupation of Denmark, Danish sport was part of a European collaboration which characterized a number of the occupied countries not least in the Nordic area. After the Second World War, Denmark embraced international body cultures with other European nations in particular Eastern martial arts. Denmark too, as part of trends in the European region and the world, became caught up in sport as a powerful contemporary political statement.
This book was previously published as a special issue of the International Journal of the History of Sport.
Table of Contents
1. Foreword 2. Prologue: Globalization, Regionalsim, Nationalism: Danish idiosyncrasy Revolution: Danish sport - Breakthrough 3. The Time and Speed Ideology: 19th century industrialisation and sport 4. Political Assertion: rural revolutionary gymnastics The Gymnastics Cult: National and International Perspectives 5. From Hygiene to Salvation: I.P. Muller, international advocate of gymnastics 6. The Devil in the Flesh: "Captain Jespersen", preacher of the pure body The Ascent of Right-wing Masculinity 7. The Gymnastics 'Sexual Revolution': Niels Bukh, male aesthetics and homophilea 8. Nationalism in the Age of Extremes: taking Danish gymnastics to the world 9. The Struggle for Danish Youth: Fascism, Sport, democracy Sport with the enemy 10. Danish Sport and the Nazi Seizure of Power: indoctrination, propaganda and confrontation 11. Revolt: Danish resistance to sports collaboration with Nazi Germany 12. Turn of the Tide: Nordic ideological change Oriental Martial Arts: World, Modernity and European Youth 13. Return of Ritual: martial arts and the young's revolt against the youth rebellion Sport and Contemporary European Society 14. The Great Male Cycle: sport, politics and European masculinity today 15. Sport, the Olympics and Politics: European responses to Beijing 2008 16. Epilogue: Globalization before Globalization: Denmark sets a European fashion
Hans Bonde is a professor, Ph.D. and D.Phil in history, at the Department of Exercise and Sport Sciences, University of Copenhagen, Denmark. He is Leader of the Danish Research Education Program in Sport Sciences (http://reps.ku.dk/). In 2007 the Danish version of his book Football with the Foe was awarded the prize as The Danish History Book of the Year.