The Psychology of Attention  book cover
1st Edition

The Psychology of Attention

Edited By

Michael I Posner

ISBN 9781138848320
Published November 25, 2016 by Routledge
2340 Pages 614 B/W Illustrations

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Book Description

Attention has long been recognized as a central topic in human psychology. And, in an increasingly ‘connected’ world, understanding our attentional networks—in particular, their role in the selection of information, the maintenance of alertness and self-control, and the management of emotions—is, arguably, more important than ever.

As research in and around the psychology of attention continues to flourish, this new four-volume collection from Routledge meets the need for an authoritative reference work to make sense of a complex body of research. The materials gathered in Volume I include explorations of the limits of attention and early empirical work on methods to probe brain activity. The major works collected in the second volume examine critical theories that allow computer programs to simulate and predict how attention operates, while Volume III is organized around the use of brain imaging, cellular recording, and optogenetics to delineate how the brain carries out the functions of attention. The final volume connects studies of attention to applications, including: connectivity to electronic media; brain-based educational curricula, the economics of decision making, and psychopathologies.

With a full index, together with a comprehensive introduction, newly written by the editor, which places the collected material in its historical and intellectual context, The Psychology of Attention is an essential work of reference. The collection will be particularly useful as a database allowing scattered and often fugitive material to be easily located. It will also be welcomed as a crucial tool permitting rapid access to less familiar—and sometimes overlooked—texts. For researchers and advanced students, it is a vital one-stop research and instructional resource.

Table of Contents

Table of Contents

Volume. I History of Attention from Ancient to Modern Times

Posner, M.I. Attention: a two and a half millennia guide to its sources


1. Ancient Origins

1. Unknown, Bhagavad Gita (Book 6 Verse 34-35) Selection from Bhagavad Gita Home Study Program Swami Dayanand Saraswati Arsha Vidya Gurukulum Saylorsburg Pa USA

2. Lao-Tzu, The Way of Life, Chapter 16, Lau-Tzu, Tao Te Ching translated by Gia-Fu Feng and Jane English, New York: Random House, Vantage Books 1972

2. Conceptual Foundations

3. Descartes R (1989) The passions of the soul An English translation of Les Passion de l’ame Article 24-42 translated by Stephen Voss pp 32-41 Indianapolis/Cambridge Hackett Publishing Co.

4. Lewes, G.H. (1859) The physiology of common life, Volume II, 37-41

5. James, W. (1890). The Principles of Psychology. New York: Henry Holt, Vol. 1, pp. 402-458.(402-425)

6. Titchener, E.B. (1908) Lectures on the Elementary Psychology of Feeling and Attention, New York: Macmillan Co. Lecture V. Attention as Sensory Clearness pp161-206

7. Ribot Th (1898) The psychology of Attention. The Psychology of Attention Chicago: Open Court Publishing pp 105-114

3. Neuropsychology

8. Moruzzi, G., & Magoun, H.W., (1949) Brain stem reticular formation and activation of the EEG. EEG Clin. Neurophysiol.1: 455–473.

9. Hebb DO. 1949. Organization of Behavior. New York: Wiley. Pp 3-11

10. McCallum, W.C. & Walter, W.G. (1968) Effect of attention and distraction on contingent negative variation in normal and neurotic subjects. Electroencephalography and clinical neurophysiology. 25/4, 319-329

11. Luria, A.R. (1973) The Working Brain: an introduction to neuropsychology, New York: Basic Books Ch. 10-256-279

4. Information Processing

12. Shannon, C.E. & Weaver, W. (1949) The Mathematical Theory of Communication Urbana Ill: University of Illinois Press pp31-35

13. Craik, K J. W. (1948). "Theory of the human operator in control systems. II: Man as an element in a control system". British Journal of Psychology. General Section 38 (3): 142–148. doi:10.1111/j.2044-8295.1948.tb01149.x

14. Hick, WE (1948). On the rate of gain of information. Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology 4:11-26

15, Broadbent, D.E. (1958) Perception and Communication. London: Pergamon Ch. 12 pp 297-299

5. Empirical Methods

16. Hamilton, W. (1859). Lectures on metaphysics. Vol 1 New York: Sheldon and Co. Pp 175-178

17. Jevons, W. S. (1871). Power of numerical discrimination. Nature, 3, 2 281-282.

18. Donders, F.C. (1869). On the speed of mental processes. In W. G. Koster (Ed.), Attention and Performance II. Acta Psychologica, 30, 412-431. (Original work published in 1868.)

19. Helmholtz, H. von (1896/1989). Physiological Optics (1896 - 2nd German Edition, translated by M. Mackeben,  from Nakayama and Mackeben, Vision Research  29:11, 1631 - 1647, 1989)

20. Jersild, A.T. (1927) Mental set and shifting. Archives of Psychology #89 Introduction pp1-11

21. Gibson, J.J. (1941). A critical review of the concept of set in contemporary experimental psychology, Psychological Bulletin 38, 781-815

22. Bills, A.G. (1931) Principles of mental fatigue, American Journal of Psychology 43/2 pp 230-245

23. Telford, C. W. (1931). The refractory phase of voluntary and associative response. Journal of Experimental Psychology, 14, 1-35.

24, Stroop, J.Ridley (1935) Stuides of interference in serial verbal reactions, Journal of Experimental Psychology 18/6, 643-662

25. Mackworth, N. H. (1948). The breakdown of vigilance during prolonged visual search. Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, 1, pp 6-21

26. Cherry, E.C. Some experiments on the recognition of speech, with one and two ears. Journal of the Acoustical Society, 25:975-979

27. Leonard, J. A. (1953). Partial advance information in a choice reaction time task British. Journal of Psychology, 49(2), 89–96.

Volume. II- Empirical Studies of Attention

6. Processing Stages and Effort

28. Kahneman, D., 1973. Attention and Effort. Prentice Hall, Englewood Cliffs, pp 13-49

29, Ostry, D., Moray, N., & Marks, G. (1976) Attention, practice and semantic targets, Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, HPP 2, 326-336

30. Pashler, H. (1984). Processing stages in overlapping tasks: Evidence for a central bottleneck. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance, 1910, 358-377

7. Orienting of Attention

Behavioral methods

31.Sperling G. (1960) The information available in brief visual presentations, Psychological Monographs 74 (11, whole no. 498 1-28

32. Bouma, H. (1973). Visual interference in the parafoveal recognition of initial and 15 final letters of words. Vision Research 13, 767-782

33. Duncan, J. (1980). The locus of interference in the perception of simultaneous stimuli.

Psychological Review, 87, 272–300

34. Posner, M.I., 1980. Orienting of attention. The 7th Sir F.C. Bartlett Lecture. Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology .32, 3–25.

35. Posner, M.I. & Cohen, Y. (1984). Components of attention. In H. Bouma and D. Bowhuis (eds.), Attention and Performance X. Hillsdale N.J.:Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, (pp. 531-556).

36. Rensink, R.A., O'Regan, J.K., Clark, J.J., 1997. To see or not to see: the need for attention to perceive changes in scenes. Psychology Science 8, 368–373.

37. Yeshurun, Y.,&Carrasco,M.(1998). Attention improvesor impairs visual performance by enhancing spatial resolution. Nature, 396, 72–75.

Imaging Studies

38. Fan, J., McCandliss, B.D., Fossella, J., Flombaum, J.I., Posner, M.I., 2005. The activation of attentional networks. NeuroImage 26, 471–479.

39. Dosenbach, N.U.F., Fair, D.A., Miezin, F.M., Cohen, A.L., Wenger, K.K.R., Dosenbach, A.T.,Fox, M.D., Snyder, A.Z., Vincent, J.L., Raichle, M.E., Schlaggar, B.L., Petersen, S.E., 2007. Distinct brain networks for adaptive and stable task control in humans. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. U. S. A. 104, 1073–1978.

40 Corbetta, M., Shulman, G.L., 2002. Control of goal-directed and stimulus-driven attention in the brain. Nature: Neuroscience Review. 3, 201–215.

41. Crottaz-Herbette S, Menon V. 2006. Where and when the anterior cingulate cortex modulates attentional response: combined fMRI and ERP evidence. Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience. 18:766–80

42. Heinze, H.J., Mangun, G.R., Burchert, W., Hinrichs, H., Scholtz, M., Muntel, T. F., Gosel,A., Scherg, M., Johannes, S., Hundeshagen, H., Gazzaniga, M.S., and Hillyard, S.A. (1994). Combined spatial and temporal imaging of brain activity during visual selective attention in humans. Nature, 372:543-546.

43. Hillyard, S.A., Hink, R.F., Schwent, V.L. & Picton, T.W. (1973) Electrical signs of selective attention in the human brain. Science 182 177-180

44. Womelsdorf, T., Schoffelen, J.M., Oostenveld, R., Singer, W., Desimone, R., 4 Engel, A.K., Fries, P., 2007. Modulation of neuronal interactions through neuronal, Synchronization. Science 316, 1609–1612

45, Saalman, Y.B., Pigarev, I.N., & Vidyasagar, T.R. (2007) Neural mechanisms of visual attention: how top down feedback highlights relevant locations. Science 316, 1612-1615

Cellular Studies

46. Mountcastle, V.M. (1978). The world around us: Neural command functions for selective attention. Neuroscience Research Progress Bulletin, 14(Suppl):1–47.

47. Wurtz, R.H., Goldberg, E., and Robinson, D.L. (1982). Brain mechanisms of visual attention, Scientific American 246/6 124-134

48, Moran, J & Desimone, R.(1985) Selective Attention Gates Visual Processing in the Extrastriate Cortex Science, 229,4715, 782-784.

49. Thompson, K. G., Biscoe, K. L. & Sato, T. R. (2005). Neuronal basis of covert spatial attention in the frontaleye fields. Journal of Neuroscience, 25, 9479–9487.

50.Schafer RJ, Moore T. 2007. Attention governs action in the primate frontal eye field. Neuron 56:541–51

8. Executive Network

51. Pardo, J., Pardo, P.J., Janer, K. W., & Raichle, M.E. (1990) The anterior cingulate cortex mediates processing selection in the stroop attentional conflict paradigm, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 87, 256-259

52. Corbetta, M., Miezin, F.M., Dobmeyer, S., Shulman, G.L., and Petersen, S.E. (1991). Selective and divided attention during visual discriminations of shape, color, and speed: Functional anatomy by positron emission tomography. Journal of Neuroscience, 11:2383-2402.

53. Duncan, J., Seitz, R.J.,. Kolodny, J., or, D., Herzog, H., Ahmed, A., Newell, F.N., & Emslie, H. (2000) A neural basis for general intelligence. Science 289 457-460

54. Christoff, K., Gordon, A.M., Smallwood, J., Smith, R., & Schooler, J.W. (2009) Experience sampling during fMRI reveals efault network and executive executive system contributions to mind wandering. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 106/21 8719-8724.

9. Alerting

55, Coull JT, FrithCD, Buchel C, Nobre AC. 2000. Orienting attention in time: behavioural and neuroanatomical distinction between exogenous and endogenous shifts. Neuropsychologia 38:808–19

56. Sturm W, & Willmes K. 2001. On the functional neuroanatomy of intrinsic and phasic alertness. Neuroimage 14:S76–84

Volume. III- Theories of Attention

10. Behavioral- Computational Models

Visual Search

57. Treisman, A.M. (1988) Features and Objects: The Fourteenth Bartlett, Memorial Lecture Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology. 40A(2) 201-237 58. Wolfe, J.M. (1994) A revised model of visual search, Guided Search 2.0 Psychonomic Bulletin & Review 1 (2), 202-238

58. Wolfe, J.M. (1994) A revised model of visual search, Guided Search 2.0 Psychonomic Bulletin & Review 1 (2), 202-2

59. Xtti, L & Koch, C (2001) Computational Modelling of Visual Attention, Nature Reviews Neuroscience 2, 194-203

Executive Attention

60. Treisman, A.M., 1969. Strategies and models of selective attention. Psychology Review. 76,282–299.

61. Navon, D. Gopher, D. (1979). "On the economy of the human processing system

Psychological Review, 86, 214-253.

62. Meyer DE, & Kieras DE. (1997) A computational theory of executive cognitive processes and multiple-task performance: Part 1. Basic mechanisms. Psychology Review. 104(1):3-65. Pages 3-18

63. Bundesen, C. (1990). A theory of visual attention. Psychological Review, 97(4), 523-547

64. Dehaene, S., Sergent, C. and Changeux, J.-P. (2003). A neuronal network model linking subjective reports and objective physiological data during conscious perception. Proc. National Academy of Science (USA) 100. 14: 8520-8525.

11. Neuronal Models

65. Anderson, C.H., Van Essen, D.C., and Olshausen, B.A. (2005) Directed visual attention and the dynamic control of information flow. In: Neurobiology of Attention (eds. L. Itti, G. Rees, J. Tsotsos) Elsevier, San Diego, pp. 11-16

66. Cohen MR and Maunsell JHR (2009). Attention improves performance primarily by reducing interneuronal correlations. Nature Neuroscience, 12(12):1594-1600 6

67. Astin-Jones, G. & Cohen, J.D. (2005) An integrative theory of locus-coeruleus norepinepherine function: adaptive gain and optimal performance, Annual Review of Neuroscience 28, 403-450

12. Neural System Models

68. Desimone, R. & Duncan, J. (1995( Neural mechanisms of selective visual attention. Annual Review of Neuroscience 18:192-222

69. Formisano, S & Goebel, R (2003) Tracking cognitive processes with functional MRI mental chronometry, Current Opinion in Neurobiology 13:174–181

70. Rizzolatti, G., Riggio, L., Dascola, I., & Umilta, C.(1987). Reorienting attention across the horizontal and vertical meridians: Evidence in favor of the premotor theory of attention. Neuropsychologia, 25, 31–40.

13. Connectionist Models

71. Rumelhart, De & Mccelland, JL an Interactive Activation Model of Context Effects in Ltter Perception. 2. The Contextual Enhancement Effect and some Tests and Extensions of the Model, Psychological Review 89/ 1 60-94

72. Cohen JD Dunbar K,& McClelland JL. On the control of automatic processes: a parallel distributed processing account of the Stroop effect, Psychology Review. 1990 Jul; 97(3):332-61.
73. Sigman, M & Dehaene, S (2005) Parsing a cognitive task: a characterization of the mind's bottleneck, PLoS biology 2/8 e37

74. Botvinick, M.M., Braver, T.S., Barch, D.M., Carter, C.S. and Cohen, J.D. (2001). Conflict monitoring and cognitive control. Psychological Review, 108:624-652


Volume. IV- Applications of Attention

14. Development

75. Columbo, J. (2001) The development of attention in infancy, Annual Review of Psychology 52:37. 337-367

76, Haith, M. M., Hazan, C., & Goodman, G. S. (1988). Expectation and anticipation of dynamic visual events by 3.5-month-old babies. Child Development, 59, 467- 479

77. Fjell, AMK.Walhovd, KBT. Bro, Twn et al., "Multi modal imaging of the self-regulating brain," Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, vol. 109, no.

48, pp. 19620–19625, 2012

78. Fair, D.A., Dosenbach, N.U.F., Church, J.A., Cohen, A.L., Brahmbhatt, S., Miezin, F.M., et al., 2007. Development of distinct control networks through segregation and integration. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences U. S. A. 104 (33), 13507–13512.

15. Consciousness

79. Koch, C. & Tsuchiya, N. (2007) Attention and consciousness: two distinct brain processes.

Trends in Cognitive Sciences Journal 11, 16-22

80. Meyer,D.E. & Schvaneveldt, R.W. (1976) Meaning, memory structure and mental processes, Science 192 no 4234, 27-33

81. Posner, M.I. & Snyder, C.R.R. (1975) Attention and Cognitive Control. In R. Solso (ed) Information Processing and Cognition: The Loyola Symposium Hillsdale NJ:Lawrence Erlbaum Assoc. Ch. 355-85

82. Neely, J.H. (1977) Semantic priming and retrieval from lexical memory: roles of inhibition less spreading activation and limited capacity attention. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General 106:226-254

82. Broadbent, D.E., Cooper, P.F., FitzGerald, P., & Parkes, K.R. (1982) The cognitive failures questionnaire (CFQ) and its correlates, British Journal of Clinical Psychology 21/1, 1-16

83. Roca,M. Parr A., Thompson, R., Woolgar, A., Torralva T., Nagui,A. Manes, F., & Duncan, J. (2010) Executive function and fluid intelligence after frontal lobe lesions Brain. 133(1): 234–247.

16. Human Performance

84. Broadbent, D.E., Cooper, P.F., FitzGerald, P., & Parkes, K.R. (1982). The cognitive failures questionnaire (CFQ) and its correlates, British Journal of Clinical Psychology 21/1, 1-16

85. North, R.A. and Gopher, D. (1976) "Measures of attention as predictors of flight performance", Human Factors, 18, 1-14.

86. Parasuraman, R., Greenwood, P.M., Kumar, R., & Fossella, J. (2005). Beyondheritability: Neurotransmitter genes differentially modulate visuospatial attention, Psychological Science 16/3 200-207

17. Training

87. Green, C. S., & Bavelier, D. (2006). Effect of Action Video Games on the Spatial Distribution

Of Visuospatial Attention. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and

Performance, 32 (6), 1465-1478.

88. Terry, P., Samuels, S.J. & La Berge, D. (1976) The effects of letter degradation and letter

spacing on word recognition. Journal of verbal learning and verbal behavior. 15, 577-585

89. Tang, Y. & Posner, M.I. (2009) Attention training and Attention State Training. Trends in Cognitive Science 13, 222-227

18. Pathology

90. Corbetta, M. & Shulman, G.L. (2011) Spatial neglect and attention networks. Annual Review of Neuroscience 34: 569-599

91. Posner, M.I., Walker, J.A., Friedrich, F. J. & Rafal, R.D. (1984). Effects of parietal lobe injury

on covert orienting of visual attention. Journal of Neuroscience, 4: 1863-1874.

92. Courchesne, E., Townsend, J., Akshoomoff, N.A., Saitoh,O. Yeung-Courchesne, R., Lincoln, A.J. James, H.E. Haas, R.H., Schreibman, L. & Lau, L (1994) Impairment in Shifting Attention in Autistic and Cerebellar Patients, Behavioral Neuroscience 108, No. 5, 848-865

93. Halperin, J.M. and K.P. Schulz. (2006). Revisiting the role of the prefrontal cortex in the pathophysiology of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Psychological Bulletin, 132:560-581. 52-59

94. Swanson J, Oosterlaan J, Murias M, Schuck S, Flodman P, Spence MA, Wasdell M, Ding Y, Chi H, Smith M, Mann M, Carlson C, Kennedy MJ, Sergeant J, Leung P, Zhang Y, Sadeh A, Chen C,Moyzis R, & Posner MI. (2000). Attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder children with a 7-repeat allele of the dopamine receptor D4 gene have extreme behavior but normal performance on critical neuropsychological tests of attention. Proceedings of National Academy of Sciences, 97: 4754-4759.

95. Westerberg, H. & Klingerg, T. (2007) Changes in cortical activity after training of working memory – a single subject analysis. Physiology and Behavior 92 /1-2 186-192

96. Nuechterlein, K. M., (1977) Reaction time and attention in schizophrenia: critical evaluation of the data and theories. Schizophrenia Bulletin 3:373-428

97. Silbersweig D., Clarkin JF, Goldstein M., Kernberg OF., Tuescher O., Levy KN, Brendel,G Pan H Beutel M., Pavony ME., Epstein J. Lenzenweger MF., Thomas KM., Posner MI,& Stern E (2007) Failure of frontolimbic inhibitory function in the context of negative emotion in borderline personality disorder, American Journal of Psychiatry 164: 1832-41.

98. Zeier, J.D., Maxwell, J.S., and Newman, J.P. (2009). Attention moderates the processing of inhibitory information in primary psychopathy. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 118:554-563.

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