The Right-Wing Critique of Europe
Nationalist, Souverainist and Right-Wing Populist Attitudes to the EU
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The Right-Wing Critique of Europe analyses the opposition to the European Union from a variety of right-wing organisations in Western, Central and Eastern Europe.
In recent years, opposition to the processes of globalisation and the programme of closer European integration, understood as a threat to the sovereignty of individual member states, has led to an intensification of Eurosceptic sentiments on the Old Continent. The results of the European parliamentary elections in 2014 and 2019, the Brexit referendum and electoral results in different European countries are all testament to the considerable growth of radical populist-nationalist and conservative-souverainist movements and parties. The common idea that binds these groups, both in Western Europe and in Central and Eastern Europe, is a hostile attitude towards the idea of (an ever more integrated) united Europe. These parties reject not only the project of building a European federation, but also the current model of the European Union and the values underlying its attitudes. They are united by their criticism of EU policies, in particular those concerning security, emigration, multiculturalism, gender equality, the rights of minorities, as well as economic liberalism and the common currency. However, this criticism manifests itself with varying degrees of intensity, and not all parties fit the classic definition of Euroscepticism but instead represent its mild form, Eurorealism. The authors bring together reflections on the organic and complex critique of the European Union, its policies and cultural and ideological character. The book provides a comparative analysis of this criticism at the transnational level.
This book will be of interest to researchers of European politics, the radical right and Euroscepticism.
Table of Contents
Joanna Sondel-Cedarmas and Francesco Berti
Part I. Current Nationalisms and European Integration Process
1. Against Europe or Against Germany? European Integration and Germanophobia in France, Great Britain, and Italy
2. Right-wing Populism, Euroscepticism, and Neo-traditionalism in Central/Eastern Europe
Part II. Nationalist, Souverainist and National-populist Parties in Europe
3. The Nationalism of the New Right in the Federal Republic of Germany
4. Pro-European, Anti-EU? The National Rally and European Integration
5. Giorgia Meloni's New Europe: Europe of Sovereign Nations in the Brothers of Italy Party Manifestos
6. The League of Salvini: From a Europe of Regions to a Europe of Nations
Gianluca Passarelli and Dario Tuorto
7. English Nationalism and its Role in Building Support for Brexit: The Case of UKIP and the Brexit Party
8. Ally, Opponent or Means to an End? The Role of the European Union in the Catalan Independence Process
9. ‘Poland in Europe, Europe for Poland’: National Populist Narratives on the Example of Kukiz’15
Małgorzata Maria Fijał
10. Considerations on the Role of Hungary and the Hungarian Nation in the European Union After 1989
11. Between the Past and the Future: Eurosceptic Political Parties and the EU Integration of Serbia
Natasza Styczyńska and Haris Dajč
12. The Main Varieties of Russian Nationalism in the Post-Soviet Period and their Relationship to European Heritage and Contemporariness
Part III. Right-wing Populist Attitudes Towards the EU
13. United in Diversity? The Preferences of Populist Parties in the European Parliament
Giorgia Nesti and Paolo Graziano
14. (Momentarily) Drifting into Ideocracy in Central Europe: The Case of Law and Justice and Fidesz
15. A European Legal War? Nationalist Populism, the Rule of Law and the Language of Constitutionalism
16. Between Patriotism and Nationalism: National Identity in the Education Policy of Prawo i Sprawiedliwość. Comments on the 2017 Education Reform
Elżbieta M. Mach
Part IV. By Way of a Conclusion
17. Francis on Europe
Joanna Sondel-Cedarmas is Associate Professor of Political Science at the Jagiellonian University of Kraków, Poland. Her research interests include nationalism, fascism, and the far right, as well as memory of totalitarianism and authoritarianism.
Francesco Berti is Associate Professor of History of Political Doctrines at the University of Padova, Italy. Among other subjects, he has published on nationalism and the Shoah.