1st Edition

The Routledge Encyclopedia of Citizen Media

    640 Pages 1 B/W Illustrations
    by Routledge

    640 Pages 1 B/W Illustrations
    by Routledge

    This is the first authoritative reference work to map the multifaceted and vibrant site of citizen media research and practice, incorporating insights from across a wide range of scholarly areas.

    Citizen media is a fast-evolving terrain that cuts across a variety of disciplines. It explores the physical artefacts, digital content, performative interventions, practices and discursive expressions of affective sociality that ordinary citizens produce as they participate in public life to effect aesthetic or socio-political change. The seventy-seven entries featured in this pioneering resource provide a rigorous overview of extant scholarship, deliver a robust critique of key research themes and anticipate new directions for research on a variety of topics. Cross-references and recommended reading suggestions are included at the end of each entry to allow scholars from different disciplinary backgrounds to identify relevant connections across diverse areas of citizen media scholarship and explore further avenues of research.

    Featuring contributions by leading scholars and supported by an international panel of consultant editors, the Encyclopedia is essential reading for undergraduate and postgraduate students as well as researchers in media studies, social movement studies, performance studies, political science and a variety of other disciplines across the humanities and social sciences. It will also be of interest to non-academics involved in activist movements and those working to effect change in various areas of social life.


    Activism Christina Neumayer

    Amateur Karen Cross

    Anthropology and citizen media Nina Grønlykke Mollerup

    Archiving Jess Baines

    Authenticity Lina Dencik

    Autonomous movements Cristina Flesher Fominaya

    Big data Stefania Milan

    Citizen journalism Einar Thorsen

    Citizen science Gwen Ottinger

    Citizenship Engin Isin

    Civil disobedience Ian Alan Paul

    Civil society Manès Weisskircher

    Commons Fruela Fernández

    Community media Clemencia Rodríguez

    Conflict & humanitarian studies and citizen media Derya Yüksek

    Content moderation and volunteer participation Martin Johannes Riedl

    Convergence Henry Jones

    Co-optation Julia Rone

    Crowdsourcing and crowdfunding Alexandra Reynolds

    Culture jamming Vince Carducci

    Digital storytelling Çiğdem Bozdağ and Sigrid Kannengießer

    Direct action Benjamin Franks

    Disability media Filippo Trevisan

    Diversity Julie Boéri

    Documentary film making Mark R. Westmoreland

    Ethics of citizen media research Sandra Smeltzer

    Facebook Zoetanya Sujon

    Fandom Eva Cheuk-Yin Li

    Film studies and citizen media Jens Eder and Britta Hartmann

    Flash mobs Christian DuComb

    Graffiti and street art Myrto Tsilimpounidi and Konstantinos Avramidis

    Hacking and hacktivism Julia Rone

    Hip-hop Christopher Vito

    Hyperlocal media Jerome Turner and David Harte

    Immaterial labour Dario Lolli

    Indymedia Dorothy Kidd

    Journalism studies and citizen media Karin Wahl-Jorgensen

    Media Marwan M. Kraidy

    Media ecologies Emiliano Treré

    Media event Evgenia Nim

    Media practices Hilde C. Stephansen and Emiliano Treré

    Mediatization Andreas Hepp

    Migration studies and citizen media Moira Inghilleri

    Mobile technologies Michael Daubs

    Networks and networked society Dorismilda Flores-Márquez

    Parkour Michael Atkinson and Kristina Smith

    Performance studies and citizen media Maria Chatzichristodoulou

    Philosophy and citizen media Omid Tofighian

    Photography Karen Cross

    Political science and citizen media Mette Marie Roslyng

    Popular culture and citizen media Randa Aboubakr

    Postcolonial studies and citizen media Bolette B. Blaagaard

    Precarity Jacob Breslow

    Prefiguration Marianne Maeckelbergh

    Process vs. event Carlie D. Trott

    Public sphere Petros Iosifidis

    Publics (and networked publics) Elaine Yuan

    Race & ethnicity studies and citizen media Gavan Titley

    Remediation Owen Gallagher

    Selfies Mette Mortensen

    Self-mediation Katie Warfield

    Social media Neil Sadler

    Social movements studies and citizen media Tina Askanius

    Solidarity Alex Khasnabish

    Sousveillance Paul Reilly

    Space and place Matilda Tudor

    Subjectivity Aoileann Ní Mhurchú

    Surveillance Arne Hintz

    Temporality Anne Kaun

    Twitter and hashtags Neil Sadler

    User-generated content Melissa Wall

    Video games Tonguc Ibrahim Sezen and Digdem Sezen

    Weibo Eileen Le Han

    Wikis Henry Jones

    Witnessing/testimony Daniela Mansbach

    World Social Forum Hilde C. Stephansen

    YouTube Abigail Keating


    Mona Baker is Professor Emerita of Translation Studies, University of Manchester, UK, and Director of the Baker Centre for Translation & Intercultural Studies, Shanghai International Studies University. She is co-coordinator of the Genealogies of Knowledge Research Network, author of Translation and Conflict (2006/ 2019), editor of Translating Dissent (2016) and co-editor of Citizen Media and Public Spaces (2016).

    Bolette B. Blaagaard is Associate Professor of Communication at Aalborg University, Copenhagen, Denmark. Her research focuses on the intersections of culture and journalism with an emphasis on citizen media and postcoloniality. Blaagaard is the author of Citizen Journalism as Conceptual Practice (2018) and co-editor of Citizen Media and Public Spaces (2016).

    Henry Jones is Lecturer in Translation and Intercultural Communication at Aston University, Birmingham, UK, and co-coordinator of the Genealogies of Knowledge Research Network. He has published on translation practices in emerging online contexts, media theory and corpus-based methodologies.

    Luis Pérez-González is Professor of Translation Studies and Co-director of the Centre for Translation and Intercultural Studies at the University of Manchester, UK. He is author of Audiovisual Translation: Theories, Methods and Issues (2014) and editor of The Routledge Handbook of Audiovisual Translation (2018).

    A remarkably impressive achievement, this Encyclopedia represents a major step forward in the formalisation of this area of enquiry for researchers, journalists and civic activists alike. Entries are perceptively alert to why citizen media are vital for democracy, affording the reader an informed appreciation of key issues, concepts and debates while, at the same time, inspiring new points of engagement. An essential resource, it promises to enrich critical interventions for years to come.

    Stuart Allan, Professor and Head of the School of Journalism, Media and Culture at Cardiff University, UK


    Ordinary citizens everywhere enact and perform citizenship through media practices in their daily lives. In this timely volume, distinguished scholars from around the world analyze the key concepts and themes in the study of these citizen media practices. They map a dynamic field of interdisciplinary scholarship and point toward exciting new directions for future research.

    Guobin Yang, Grace Lee Boggs Professor of Communication and Sociology, University of Pennsylvania, USA