1st Edition

The Routledge Handbook of Collective Intelligence for Democracy and Governance

    552 Pages 36 B/W Illustrations
    by Routledge

    The Routledge Handbook of Collective Intelligence for Democracy and Governance explores the concepts, methodologies, and implications of collective intelligence for democratic governance, in the first comprehensive survey of this field.

    Illustrated by a collection of inspiring case studies and edited by three pioneers in collective intelligence, this handbook serves as a unique primer on the science of collective intelligence applied to public challenges and will inspire public actors, academics, students, and activists across the world to apply collective intelligence in policymaking and administration to explore its potential, both to foster policy innovations and reinvent democracy.

    The Routledge Handbook of Collective Intelligence for Democracy and Governance

    is essential reading and an authoritative reference for scholars, students, researchers and practitioners of public policy, public administration, governance, public management, information technology and systems, innovation and democracy as well as more broadly for political science, psychology, management studies, public organizations and individual policy practitioners, public authorities, civil society activists and service providers.

    Visit the handbook's dedicated website, Smarter Together, for complementary material.

    Part 1: Foundations

    1. A brief history of collective intelligence, democracy, and governance

    Lex Paulson

    2. From the Knowledge Society to the Collective Intelligence Society: Collective Tacit Knowledge and Artificial Intelligence for Policymaking

    Carina Antonia Hallin

    3. Smarter together? Collective Intelligence and change in government

    Stephen Boucher

    4. Collective intelligence and governance: Imagining government as a shared brain

    Geoff Mulgan

    5. Measuring the effect of collective intelligence processes that leverage participation and deliberation

    Paolo Spada and Lex Paulson

    6. Key defining concepts: Collective intelligence, democracy and governance

    Stephen Boucher, Carina Antonia Hallin, David Leal Garcia, Lex Paulson and Nino Javakhishvili-Larsen

    Part 2: Reinventing Democracy: New Modes of Representation


    Lex Paulson

    7. Deliberative Policy-making During COVID-19: The case of Taiwan

    Helen K. Liu and Lin Tze-Luen

    8. Crowdsourcing a Constitution: The world's first crowdsourced constitution rises from the ashes in Iceland

    Elisa Lironi

    9. Collective creativity and political entrepreneurship: The Alternative in Denmark (or why failure is an option)

    Stephen Boucher and Jeff van Luijk, with Uffe Elbaek

    10. How to facilitate the convergence of conflicting constellations of interests: Germany's "Agora Energiewende"

    Lars Grotewold

    11. How Collective Political Intelligence produced better policy: Political Task Committees in Gentofte, Denmark

    Eva Sørensen and Jacob Torfing

    12. From Shouting Matches to Argument Maps: An Online Deliberation Experiment in Italy

    Mark Klein, Paolo Spada and Lex Paulson

    13. Achieving Parity with Human Moderators: A Self-Moderating Platform for Online Deliberation

    Lodewijk Gelauff, Liubov Nikolenko, Sukolsak Sakshuwong, James Fishkin, Ashish Goel, Kamesh Munagala and Alice Siu

    14. Hacking start-up policy reforms: Innovating public policy in Senegal

    Jon Stever and Eva Sow Ebion

    Part 3: Eliciting Citizen Knowledge for Collective Intelligence as a Public Good


    Carina Antonia Hallin

    15. Reinventing Local Government Through Collective Intelligence and Artificial Intelligence: How a Danish Municipality Harnessed Citizen Insights

    Carina Antonia Hallin and Naima Lipka

    16. Slowing down to better tackle a region’s challenges: Lessons from Co-Intelligence Wallonia

    Pierre Portevin

    17. Turning problem makers into creative problem solvers: How New York State creatively shifted the paradigm from managing troubled kids to engaging them

    Tim Switalski

    18. Tacit knowledge speaks the language of story: Morocco’s Commission spéciale sur le modèle de développement

    Lex Paulson and Marwane Fachane

    Part 4: Reinventing Public Administration: New Modes of Collaboration


    Stephen Boucher

    19. Challenging received wisdom and spreading innovation: Lessons from the Youth Justice Board

    Stephen Boucher and Jonathan Oates

    20. Hearing the marginalized: The jan sunwai in India

    Stéphanie Tawa Lama

    21. Creating collaborative young communities through school participatory budgeting

    Ankitha Cheerakathil

    22. Dreaming, remembering, scaling and innovating boldly: How a small French town initiated a journey towards "Zero unemployment"

    Stephen Boucher

    23. Public challenges to kindle innovation: How one telegram forever changed public policy in Australia

    Luis Lafosse

    24. Creating a ‘voice’ of collective change through simple mobile phones

    Aaditeshwar Seth

    25. Collective intelligence and digital participatory platforms: Learnings from Barcelona´s DECIDIM

    David Leal García, Antonio Calleja-López and Juan Linares-Lanzman

    Part 5: Social Innovation and Bottom-up Power


    Lex Paulson

    26. Smarter mediation, better dialogue: Lessons from a Swedish protest for local healthcare

    Bernard Le Roux

    27. The power of different perspectives for conflict resolution and community change: "An eagle watches over us"

    David Baum

    28. To transform the community, change the story: The Fab City Global Initiative

    Mary-Alice Arthur

    29. Scaling personal initiatives into collective action: The citizen powerhouse of Sager der Samler in Aarhus, Denmark

    Paul Natorp

    30. Pioneering Asia Pacific’s first community-driven investment process through blockchain: Impact Collective

    Charlotte Arribe, Stephanie Arrowsmith, Songyi Lee and Eunielle Yi

    Part 6: Reimagining International Governance


    Stephen Boucher

    31. Unlocking the collaborative potential of national parliaments: The Open European Dialogue

    Verena Ringler and Chiara Rosselli

    32. Crowd forecasting infectious disease outbreaks

    Emile Servan-Schreiber and Camille Larmanou

    33. Mobilizing collective intelligence and diversity towards Sustainable Development Goals: From global innovation labs to collective intelligence assemblies for sustainable development

    Catherine Jacquet and Mamello Thinyane

    34. Bridging science and diplomacy to build a universal agreement on the science of climate change: The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change

    Kari De Pryck

    35. Nurturing the right context for fruitful dialogue: The case of Helmut Kohl's "gastrosophy"

    Knut Bergmann

    36. Thinking ahead collectively: The case of African Digital Futures

    Passy Amayo Ogolla and Julie Anne Jenson

    Part 7: Collective Intelligence, Technology and Collective Consciousness


    Carina Antonia Hallin

    37. Smarter Crowdsourcing to tackle Covid-19: Beyond the Open Call

    Anirudh Dinesh

    38. Mobilizing collective intelligence for adapting to climate change in the Arctic: The case of monitoring Svalbard’s and Greenland’s environment by expedition cruises

    Gitte Kragh, Michael K. Poulsen, Lisbeth Iversen, Ted Cheeseman and Finn Danielsen

    39. Using Collective Intelligence to Assess the Future with the Pandemic Supermind

    Annalyn Bachmann, Adriana König, Robert Laubacher and David Kong

    40. Using political bots and artificial intelligence to facilitate the interaction between citizens and lawmakers

    Cristiano Ferri Soares de Faria

    41. Turning organizations into innovation ecosystems: The Hexagon of Public Innovation (HIP) model

    Raúl Oliván and Pilar Balet

    42. Co-initiating, sensing, presencing, creating and shaping: How the Scottish government applied Theory U for collective leadership against Covid-19

    Keira Oliver and Karen Lawson

    Closing Thoughts

    Concluding dialogue: Collective intelligence and democracy, today and tomorrow

    Lex Paulson with Oumar Ba, Helen Liu, Cristiano Ferri Faria and Ksana Nechyporenko


    Stephen Boucher is the founder and CEO of Dreamocracy and teaches at the Free University of Brussels (ULB), Sciences Po-Paris, and the Centre International de Formation Européenne (CIFE).

    Carina Antonia Hallin is the Founder and Research Coordinator of the Collective Intelligence Research Group at the IT University of Copenhagen (ITU), Denmark, and Co-Founder of the Academy of Management's Community on Knowledge Integration, Synthesis and Engineering, and Co-Founder of the CI company Mindpool and Global Mindpool in collaboration with the UNDP.

    Lex Paulson is the Executive Director of the UM6P School of Collective Intelligence, Morocco, and lectures in advocacy at Sciences Po-Paris, France.

    "Democracy is in crisis because today’s governments largely fail to capitalize on their greatest untapped resource : the collective intelligence of their citizens. The cases in this book show the way to the smarter, more open democracy that humanity deserves."
    Prof. Helene Landemore, Yale University, author of Democratic Reason (2013) and Open Democracy (2020)

    "None of this century’s hardest problems will be solved by a single stroke of genius -- rather, we can only make progress by inventing new and better forms of collaboration. This book gives an essential guide to our emerging field."
    Prof. Thomas Malone, Founder, MIT Center for Collective Intelligence

    "Addressing the crises of the new world  requires new tools based on the transformative participation of connected local communities on a South/South and not just North/South basis. This book feeds into such governance perspectives that can be one of the remedies to the most serious crisis: the crisis of trust in institutions."
    Isabelle Durant, Former Deputy Prime Minister of Belgium, Vice-President of the European Parliament and Deputy Secretary General of UNCTAD.

    "The Routledge Handbook fills a gap in an emerging literature on collective intelligence and public innovation as a process of finding new way to provide people with public goods. This long-awaited book with a comprehensive view of the most sophisticated analyses, concepts and methodologies in the field."
    Florent Parmentier, Sciences Po, France

    "The extent of the movement toward deliberative democracy has been poorly understood until now. The Routledge Handbook of Collective Intelligence for Democracy and Governance enhances our understanding of the breadth of activity across geographies and social institutions, while providing a valuable resource for insights from a host of experiments in collective intelligence."
    Dawn Nakagawa, Executive Vice President of the Berggruen Institute, USA

    "A key challenge presented in The Routledge Handbook of Collective Intelligence for Democracy & Governance, that of moving from the individual knowledge society to one that elicits the collective intelligence of all citizens, might be the greatest area of potential impact for democracy and governance today."
    Andy E. Williams, Founder, Executive Director, Nobeah Technologies Foundation, Nairobi, Kenya