1st Edition

The Routledge Handbook of Differentiation in the European Union

Edited By Benjamin Leruth, Stefan Gänzle, Jarle Trondal Copyright 2022
    770 Pages 21 B/W Illustrations
    by Routledge

    770 Pages 21 B/W Illustrations
    by Routledge

    The Routledge Handbook of Differentiation in the European Union offers an essential collection of groundbreaking chapters reflecting on the causes and consequences of this complex phenomenon.

    With contributions from key experts in this subfield of European Studies, it will become a key volume used for those interested in learning the nuts and bolts of differentiation as a mechanism of (dis)integration in the European Union, especially in the light of Brexit. Organised around five key themes, it offers an authoritative "encyclopaedia" of differentiation and addresses questions such as:

    • How can one define differentiation in the European Union in the light of the most recent events?
    • Does differentiation create more challenges or opportunities for the European Union?
    • Is Europe moving away from an "ever closer Union" and heading towards an "ever more differentiated Union", especially as leading political figures across Europe favour the use of differentiation to reconcile divergences between member states?

    This handbook is essential reading and an authoritative reference for scholars, students, researchers and practitioners involved in, and actively concerned about, research in the study of European integration. As European differentiation is multifaceted and involves a wide range of actors and policies, it will be of further interest to those working on countries and/or in policy areas where differentiation is an increasingly relevant feature.


    The Introduction and chapters 13, 21, 30, and 35 of this book is available for free in PDF format as Open Access from the individual product page at www.routledge.com. It has been made available under a Creative Commons Attribution-Non Commercial-No Derivatives 4.0 license.

    1. Introduction
    Benjamin Leruth, Stefan Gänzle and Jarle Trondal

    Part 1: Conceptualising differentiation


    Jarle Trondal, Benjamin Leruth and Stefan Gänzle

    2. Studying differentiated integration: Methods & Data
    Marian Burk and Dirk Leuffen

    3. On the legitimacy of differentiated integration
    Erik Oddvar Eriksen

    4. Differentiated (dis)integration beyond Europe: A Comparative Regionalism Approach
    Stefan Gänzle and Jens Uwe Wunderlich

    5. De facto Differentiation in the European Union: Circumventing Rules, Law, and Rule of Law
    Tobias C. Hofelich

    6. Constitutive differentiation
    John Erik Fossum

    7. EU External Differentiated Integration and Compliance: Theoretical and Legal Aspects
    Anne Pintsch and Marina Rabinovich

    8. From Integration to Fragmegration: Political symbols and the emergence of differentiated European identities
    Russell Foster

    9. Differentiation and segmentation
    Josef Batora and John Erik Fossum

    Part 2: Institutionally-based differentiation


    Jarle Trondal, Stefan Gänzle and Benjamin Leruth

    10. An ever more fragmented Union? On the emerging relevance of differentiated integration for governance structures within the EU
    Alexander Schilin

    11. Promise Unfulfilled? Managing Differentiated Integration in EU Secondary Law Through Enhanced Cooperation
    Daniela Kroll

    12. Differentiation in the European Parliament: United about diversity?
    Guri Rosén

    13. Differentiation and the European Central Bank: A bulwark against (differentiated) disintegration?
    Daniel Schulz and Amy Verdun

    14. Differentiation and the European Commission
    Diane Fromage and Cristina Fasone

    15. Differentiation and the European Court of Justice
    Sabine Saurugger and Fabien Terpan

    16. Third country participation in EU agencies: Towards "condominio"?
    Sandra Lavenex

    17. The Council of the European Union: Organizational and Social Dynamics of Differentiation
    Jeff Lewis

    Part 3: Policy-based differentiation


    Stefan Gänzle, Benjamin Leruth and Jarle Trondal

    18. Differentiated integration in EU energy market policy
    Torbjørg Jevnaker

    19. Brexit and the Common Fisheries Policy: Opportunities for multi-level differentiated (dis)integration?
    Arno van der Zwet, John Connolly, Christopher Huggins and Craig McAngus

    20. The European Asylum Policy: Core state powers, flexibility and differentiated integration

    Foteini Asderaki and Eleftheria Markozani

    21. Differentiated integration in EU climate policy
    Elin Lerum Boasson, Merethe Dotterud Leiren and Jørgen Wettestad

    22. Differentiated integration in European External Action
    Thomas Henökl

    23. PESCO: A formula for positive integration in European defence
    Steven Blockmans and Dylan Macchiarini Crosson

    24. The Increasingly Differentiated European Single Market?
    David Howarth

    25. Differentiation and social policy: A sustainable way forward?
    Benjamin Leruth and Sven Schreurs

    26. Differentiation in EU Security and Defense Policy
    Stephan Klose, Elie Perot

    Part 4: Territorial differentiation


    Benjamin Leruth, Stefan Gänzle and Jarle Trondal

    27. The Nordic countries as pioneers of differentiation

    Benjamin Leruth and Jarle Trondal

    28. Risky Advantageous Differentiation: Iceland and the EEA
    Baldur Thorhallsson

    29. The Swiss and Liechtenstein relations with the EU – an ongoing institutional challenge
    Christian Frommelt

    30. Turkey’s external differentiated integration with the EU in the field of migration governance: the case of border management
    Ebru Turhan and Ayselin Yildiz

    31. Visegrad Four and EU Differentiated Integration: Activities, Perception and Self-Perception after the Refugee Crisis
    Petr Kaniok, Vratislav Havlík and Veronika Zapletalová

    32. Poland as the (new) awkward partner: Differentiated integration or differentiated disintegration?
    Agnieszka Cianciara

    33. Trajectories of Differentiated EU Integration for the Western Balkans
    Marko Milenkovic

    34. European Neighbourhood Policy: Differentiated integration beyond the EU’s Eastern and Southern Borders
    Zuzana Reptova

    35. Differentiation at the local level: An overview of sub-national authority networks in the EU
    Pier-Domenico Tortola and Stefan Couperus

    Part 5: Brexit


    Stefan Gänzle, Jarle Trondal and Benjamin Leruth

    36. Brexit as a phenomenon: national solidarity as a tool against the European project?
    Mikko Kuisma and Matthew Donoghue

    37. (Post-)Brexit: Negotiating Differentiated Disintegration
    Frank Schimmelfennig

    38. International perceptions of Brexit
    Johanna Speyer, Natalia Chaban and Arne Niemann

    39. Differentiation and Power Asymmetry: How Brexit is Changing UK Relations with Czechia and Slovakia
    Monika Brusenbauch Meislová and Andrew Glencross

    40. Brexit and Northern Ireland
    David Phinnemore

    41. Border Conflicts and Territorial Differentiation after Brexit: The cases of Northern Ireland, Gibraltar and the UK Sovereign Base Areas in Cyprus
    Nikos Skoutaris

    42. Growing Apart Together? Brexit and the Dynamics of Differentiated Disintegration in Security and Defense
    Benjamin Martill and Monika Sus

    43. Conclusion
    Benjamin Leruth, Stefan Gänzle and Jarle Trondal

    Epilogue: Polycrisis and Resilience in the European Union: Covid-19 and avenues for future studies
    Marianne Riddervold, Akasemi Newsome and Jarle Trondal


    Benjamin Leruth is an Assistant Professor in European Politics and Society at the University of Groningen, The Netherlands.

    Stefan Gänzle is Professor of Political Science and Head of the Department of Political Science and Management and a member of the Jean Monnet Centre of Excellence, University of Agder (UiA), Norway.

    Jarle Trondal is a Professor at University of Agder, Department of Political Science and Management, and a Professor at University of Oslo, ARENA Centre for European Studies, Norway.

    "Finally! Everything you ever wanted to know about differentiated integration, and then more. Wish I had this comprehensive handbook when I was writing my PhD on the subject in the 1990s. A wealth of well-structured, clear and accessible information on a complex subject."

    Alexander Stubb, Professor and Director, EUI, Florence; Former Prime Minister of Finland

    "Differentiation is here to stay, and at the latest Brexit has made it clear that differentiation in Europe encompasses both integration and disintegration processes. This is the core message of this timely handbook, which shows the breadth of this phenomenon in detail thanks to an impressive list of contributors. It is an excellent go-to resource for all scholars of European Studies seeking to understand the challenges of ‘unity in diversity’."

    Sieglinde Gstöhl, Director of Studies, College of Europe, Belgium

    "This handbook is an invaluable resource on differentiation—involving both integration and disintegration—in the Europe Union. Its stellar list of contributors offer a plethora of insights into the many different ways in which the EU has not only differentially integrated with regard to institutions, policy areas and territory, but also dis-integrated, as in the case of Brexit. A must-read for all those concerned with the ins-and-outs of EU integration."

    Vivien Schmidt, Jean Monnet Professor, Boston University, United States