1st Edition

The Routledge Handbook of Far-Right Extremism in Europe

Edited By Katherine Kondor, Mark Littler Copyright 2023
    338 Pages 22 B/W Illustrations
    by Routledge

    The Routledge Handbook of Far-Right Extremism in Europe is a timely and important study of the far and extreme right-wing phenomenon across a broad spectrum of European countries, and in relation to a selected list of core areas and topics such as anti-gender, identitarian politics, hooliganism, and protest mobilisation.

    The handbook deals with the rise and the developments of far-right movements, parties, and organisations across diverse countries in Europe. Crucially, it discusses the main topics and issues pertaining to far-right ideology and positioning, and considers how central and less central actors of far-right milieus have fared within the given context. Comprising a wide range of subject expertise, the contributors focus on far-right organisations on the margins of the electoral sphere, as well as street-level movements, and the relationship between them and electoral politics. The handbook spans nearly twenty European country cases, grouped according to geographical/regional area. It includes case studies where the far right has gained increased momentum, as well as countries where it has been much less successful in mobilising public opinion and the electorate (e.g. Ireland and Portugal). Another important feature is the inclusion of street-level mobilisations, such as football firms, thereby expanding and updating existing research, which is primarily focused on political parties and organisations.

    Multidisciplinary and comprehensive, this handbook will be of great interest to scholars and students of Criminology, Political Science, Extremism Studies, European Studies, Media and Communication, and Sociology.

    This project has received funding from the European Union’s Horizon 2020 research and innovation programme under the Marie Skłodowska-Curie grant agreement No 101029801.


    Katherine Kondor

    PART I – Eastern Europe

    1. The Serbian Far Right, Football Hooligans, and Their Instrumentalisation by an Authoritarian Regime: Serbia as Case Study

    Jovo Bakić

    2. The Far Right in Ukraine

    Tamta Gelashvili

    3. The Russian Far Right: A Changing Landscape of Spaces of Hate

    Mihai Varga

    PART II – Central Europe

    4. Subnational Politics and Far-right Strength in Germany: The Importance of the East-West Divide

    Sabine Volk and Manes Weisskircher

    5. The Austrian Far Right: Historical Continuities and the Case of the Ulrichsberg Commemorations

    Michael C. Zeller

    6. Four Cycles of the Czech Far-right’s Contention

    Jan Charvát, Ondřej Slačálek, and Eva Svatoňová

    7. Hungary’s Goulash-nationalism: The Reheated Stew of Hungary's Far Right

    Katherine Kondor and Rudolf Paksa

    PART III – Southern Europe

    8. The New Populist Radical Right in Portugal: The Chega Party

    Riccardo Marchi

    9. The Radicalisation of the Italian Mainstream: Populist Radical Right Parties and Extreme Right-wing Movements in Italy (2012-2022)

    Valerio Alfonso Bruno and James F. Downes

    10. The Far Right in Greece: A Foretold Story

    Vasiliki Tsagkroni

    11. The Greek-Cypriot Far-right Space, Its History and ELAM’s trajectory

    Giorgos Charalambous

    PART IV – Northern Europe

    12. The Evolution of the Extreme Right in Norway Since the 1990s

    Anders Ravik Jupskås and Tore Bjørgo

    13. The Far Right in Sweden

    Anders Widfeldt

    14. The Shift to the Right in Denmark

    Mette Wiggen

    PART V – Western Europe

    15. The New Horizons of French Extreme Right: Fragmented but Dynamic and Better Socially Embedded

    Nicolas LeBourg and Marlène Laruelle

    16. The Dutch Identitair Verzet and the European Identitarian Movement: Alone at the Table

    Sting Daniels and Yannick Veilleux-Lepage

    17. Radical Right-wing Politics on the Island of Ireland

    Shaun McDaid and Jim McAuley 

    18. The Contemporary UK Far Right and Its Organisational Trajectory Since 2009: Towards a Truly Post-organisational Movement?

    William Allchorn

    EPILOGUE – Selected Current Issues in the European Far Right

    19. ‘America Coughs, and We Catch a Cold’: Mapping the Relationship between the American Far Right and British and European Activism

    Paul Jackson

    20. Gendering the Far-right Continuum in Europe

    Cristian Ov Norocel

    21. Misogyny as a Gateway to Far-right Hate: A Quantitative Exploration in Great Britain

    Antoinette Huber, Gavin Hart, and Mark Littler



    Katherine Kondor is a Marie Skłodowska-Curie Actions Postdoctoral Fellow at the Center for Research on Extremism (C-REX) at the University of Oslo and a Visiting Fellow in Media and Illiberalism at Loughborough University. She studies recruitment practices, pathways into far-right organisations, and far-right cultural production, particularly in the Hungarian far right. Katherine has published on the Hungarian far right, online extremism, the use of the digital space in the study of the far right, and audience engagement with media.

    Mark Littler is an Associate Professor of Criminology and deputy head of the School of Law and Criminology at Liverpool Hope University. He was previously senior lecturer in Criminology and Security Studies at the University of Huddersfield, and a lecturer in Criminology at the University of Hull. He is a series editor for Routledge Studies in Digital Extremism, an associate editor of Behavioural Science of Terrorism and Political Aggression, and Co-chair of the European Society of Criminology’s Working Group on Terrorism, Extremism, and Radicalization.