1st Edition

The Routledge Handbook of Heritage Language Education From Innovation to Program Building

    508 Pages 3 B/W Illustrations
    by Routledge

    508 Pages 3 B/W Illustrations
    by Routledge

    The Routledge Handbook of Heritage Language Education provides the rapidly growing and globalizing field of heritage language (HL) education with a cohesive overview of HL programs and practices relating to language maintenance and development, setting the stage for future work in the field. Driving this effort is the belief that if research and pedagogical advances in the HL field are to have the greatest impact, HL programs need to become firmly rooted in educational systems. Against a background of cultural and linguistic diversity that characterizes the twenty-first century, the volume outlines key issues in the design and implementation of HL programs across a range of educational sectors, institutional settings, sociolinguistic conditions, and geographical locations, specifically: North and Latin America, Europe, Israel, Australia, New Zealand, Japan, and Cambodia. All levels of schooling are included as the teaching of the following languages are discussed: Albanian, Arabic, Armenian (Eastern and Western), Bengali, Brazilian Portuguese, Chinese, Czech, French, Hindi-Urdu, Japanese, Khmer, Korean, Pasifika languages, Persian, Russian, Spanish, Turkish, Vietnamese, and Yiddish. These discussions contribute to the development and establishment of HL instructional paradigms through the experiences of “actors on the ground” as they respond to local conditions, instantiate current research and pedagogical findings, and seek solutions that are workable from an organizational standpoint. The Routledge Handbook of Heritage Language Education is an ideal resource for researchers and graduate students interested in heritage language education at home or abroad.


    Maria M. Carreira, Claire Hitchins Chik and Olga E. Kagan

    Part I. A Landscape of Heritage/Community Languages: Demographic Surveys

    The Constellation of Languages in Europe: Comparative Perspectives on Regional Minority and Immigrant Minority Languages

    Guus Extra

    Migration, Heritage Languages, and Changing Demographics in Australia

    Finex Ndhlovu and Louisa Willoughby

    The Demographics of Heritage and Community Languages in the United States

    Terrence G. Wiley and Shereen Bhalla

    Demographics and Heritage Languages in Latin America – An Overview

    André Zampaulo

    Demographics and Heritage Languages in Canada: Policies, Patterns, and Prospects

    Patricia A. Duff and Ava Becker-Zayas

    Part II. Community Initiatives: After-School Programs

    Crisis, Change, and Institutionalization: Adopting a New Curriculum at a Japanese Weekend School

    Robert M. Uriu and Masako O. Douglas

    Sustainable Approaches to Complementary Education in England

    Raymonde Sneddon

    Innovations in the Teaching of Portuguese as a Heritage Language: The Case of Brazilian Complementary Schools in London and Barcelona

    Ana Souza and Juliana Gomes

    Czech Heritage Language Education in Communities in the United States and Europe

    Marta McCabe

    The Role of Informal Heritage Language Learning in Program Building: Persian Community School Language Learners in Australia

    Mojgan Mokhatebi Ardakani and Robyn Moloney

    Part III. Community Initiatives: All-day Pre-, Primary, and Secondary Schools

    Opportunities and Challenges of Institutionalizing a Pluricentric Diasporic Language: The Case of Armenian in Los Angeles

    Shushan Karapetian

    Education in the Cambodian Chinese Diaspora

    Dana Bourgerie

    Innovation vs. Tradition in Language Education: A Case of Japanese Heritage Language Instruction in Chile

    Saeid Atoofi and Francisco Naranjo Escobar

    Rationalization of the First Language First Model of Bilingual Development and Education: The case of Russian as a Heritage Language in Israel

    Mila Schwartz

    Part IV. Language Minority Communities and the Public School System: Opportunities and Challenges

    Multilingual Los Angeles: Do Immigrant Language Communities Make an Impact on Language Education in Public High Schools?

    Olga E. Kagan

    Overcoming the Obstacles: Vietnamese and Khmer Heritage Programs in California

    Claire Hitchins Chik and Wayne Wright

    Institutionalization of French Heritage Language Education in U.S. School Systems: The French Heritage Language Program

    Fabrice Jaumont, Benoît Le Dévédec, and Jane F. Ross

    Engagement, Multiliteracies, and Identify: Developing Pedagogies for Heritage/Community Language Learners within the UK School System

    Jim Anderson

    Part V. Maintenance of Heritage/Community Languages in Public Schools: The Impact of Government Policy and Sociopolitical Change

    Reforming Australian Policy for Chinese, Indonesian, Japanese, and Korean Heritage Languages: Examples from the Japanese Community

    Kaya Oriyama

    Russian as a Heritage Language in Lithuania

    Meilute Ramoniene, Ala Lichaciova, and Jelena Brazauskiene

    Pasifika Heritage Language Education in New Zealand

    Corinne Seals

    Heritage Language Education in Norway and Sweden

    Sunil Loona and Mats Wennerholm

    "The Right to Mother-Tongue Education for Migrants in the City": Factors Influencing the Institutionalization of a Two-Way Bilingual Immersion Program in Berlin

    Gabriela Meier and Birgit Schumacher

    Part VI. Heritage/Community Languages in Higher Education

    The State of Institutionalization of Heritage Languages in Post-secondary Language Departments in the United States

    Maria M. Carreira

    "Arabic-as-resource" or "Arabic-as-problem"? Arab Heritage Language Learners in Danish Post-Secondary Education

    Helle Lykke Nielsen

    Implementation and Institutionalization of Spanish Heritage Language Programs at Two Regional Comprehensive Universities in the United States

    Alegría Ribadeneira and Alejandro Lee

    The Hindi-Urdu Heritage Language Stream: Institutional and Pedagogical Challenges

    Shobna Nijhawan

    Part VII. Heritage/Community Language Maintenance from a Lifespan Perspective: Formal and Informal Contexts

    Chinese Heritage Language Learning: Negotiating Identities, Ideologies, and Institutionalization

    Patricia A. Duff, Yongcan Liu, and Duanduan Li

    Classroom and Community Support for Turkish in Germany

    Carol W. Pfaff, Meral Dollnick, and Annette Herkenrath

    Korean Language Education in Japan: From Marginalized Heritage Language to Popular Foreign Language

    Robert J. Fouser

    Innovation and Tradition in Yiddish Educational Programs

      Netta Avineri and Anna Verschik


    Olga E. Kagan is Professor in the Department of Slavic, East European and Eurasian Languages and Cultures at the University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA), Director of the National Heritage Language Resource Center, and Co-Editor of the Heritage Language Journal.

    Maria M. Carreira is Professor of Spanish at California State University, Long Beach. She is also Co-Director of the National Heritage Language Resource Center, Chair of the SAT Spanish Committee, and Associate Editor of Hispania.

    Claire Hitchins Chik is Associate Director of the Title VI National Heritage Language Resource Center (NHLRC). She has also edited articles for the NHLRC’s journal, the Heritage Language Journal, and guest-edited a volume, Special Issue on Advancing HL Speakers’ Skills. 

    "This handbook sheds long overdue light on the status quo of major heritage languages mostly outside the U.S. It succeeds in presenting an important case to language educators, namely that they belong to a community and the more opportunities for dialogue that are created, such as this book, the better heritage education will be. This book also fulfills an important task - to indirectly argue that program development and teaching of heritage languages is an international field of research and policy making. This book is insightful not only for language educators but also for administrators, government officials and community leaders in both the U.S. and beyond."
    Gabriela Nik. Ilieva, New York University, USA