1st Edition

The Routledge Handbook of Language and the Global South/s

    514 Pages 36 B/W Illustrations
    by Routledge

    This Handbook centers on language(s) in the Global South/s and the many ways in which both "language" and the "Global South" are conceptualized, theorized, practiced, and reshaped.

    Drawing on 31 chapters situated in diverse geographical contexts, and four additional interviews with leading scholars, this text showcases:

    • Issues of decolonization
    • Promotion of Southern epistemologies and theories of the Global South/s
    • A focus on social/applied linguistics
    • An added focus on the academy
    • A nuanced understanding of global language scholarship.

    It is written for emerging and established scholars across the globe as it positions Southern epistemologies, language scholarship, and decolonial theories into scholarship surrounding multiple themes and global perspectives.

    Table of Contents

    Handbook of Language and the Global South/s

    • Preface- Lynn Mario T. Menezes de Souza
    • Introduction- Sinfree Makoni, Anna Kaiper-Marquez, Lorato Mokwena
    • Theme #1: History, Politics, and Social Engagement in the Global South

    Chapter 1

      • Hope: The Transgressive Temporality of Marielle Franco in Brazil by Samiha Khalil, Daniel Silva, Jerry Won Lee

    Chapter 2

      • Epistemology of Knowledge in Medieval Islamic Scientific Discourse: Biruni’s Treatment of Subjectivity, Relativity, and Uncertainty by Esmat Babaii

    Chapter 3

      • Provincializing language by Cecile Canut

    Chapter 4

      • Civic Participation as a Travelling Ideoscape: Which Direction? By Giovanni Allegretti, Marco Meloni, Begona Dorronsoro

    • Interlude #1: Conversation with Jean Comaroff and Jane Gordon
    • Theme #2: Indigenous Languages

    Chapter 5

      • Co-Conspiring with Land: What Decolonizing with Indigenous Land and Language Have to Teach Us by Mary Hermes, Mel Engman, Anna Schick

    Chapter 6

      • "We Tell the River, ‘Give Me Back My Piece of Soul and I Give You Back Your Pebble’": The Onto-epistemology and Language of the Ayuk Ethnic Group in Oaxaca, Mexico by Mario E. López-Gopar, William M. Sughrua, Cosme Gregorio Cirilo & Lorena Córdova Hernández

    Chapter 7

      • Discourses of Endangerment and Appropriations of the "Indigenous":  What Indigeneity Means in Non-Indigenous Spaces by Quentin Boitel

    • Theme #3: South-South Dialogue

    Chapter 8

      • ‘The language I speak is the language I speak’: Re-centering multilingual language practices in situations of risk through a sociolinguistics of the South by Necia Stanford-Billinghurst

    Chapter 9

      • English and the Dissemination of Local Knowledges: A problematic for South-South Dialogue by Hamza R'boul

    Chapter 10

      • Rethinking Multilingualism – A Gaze from the Ryukyus by Madoka Hammine

    Chapter 11

      • Tensions within development ontologies in Botswana: A case of the San by Keneilwe Molosi-France

    • Interlude #2: Conversation with Diana Jeater
    • Theme #4: Race and Language: Critical Race Theories and Southern Theories.

    Chapter 12

      • Slave Trade Ads in the 19th Century: Textual Trajectory, Entextualization and Indexical Orders Mobilized on Contemporary Ads in a Brazilian Context by Glenda Cristina Valim de Melo

    Chapter 13

      • Language Practices in Afro-Brazilian Religions: On Legitrinmacy, Oral Tradition, and Racial Issues by Cristine G. Severo, Ana Cláudia F. Eltermann, and Sinfree Makoni

    Chapter 14

      • For a Critical Applied Linguistics Articulated to the Praxiology of Hope by Kleber Aparecido da Silva, Helenice Joviano Roque-Faria, Rosana Helena Nunes, Lauro Sérgio Machado Pereira, Renata Mourão Guimarães, and Dllubia Santclair

    • Theme #5: Language, Gender, Sex and Sexuality

    Chapter 15

      • Affective practice in language and sexuality research methodologies at North/South intersections: Narrative, dissonance and reflexivity by Benedict J.L. Rowlett

    Chapter 16

      • Perfect Muslim bhadramahila/ Lady: Decolonisation of Gender Performativity in Bangladesh by Shaila Sultana

    Chapter 17

      • Bodies, Languages, and Material Conditions Governing the Interaction by Joana Plaza Pinto

    Chapter 18

      • Colonial intertexts and black femininities: Locating black African women in a racialized iconography of knowledge by Busi Makoni

    • Interlude #3: Conversation with Busi Makoni
    • Theme #6: Language, the Global South, and the "Family"

    Chapter 19

      • Southern Approaches to Family Multilingualism by Rafael Lomeu Gomes & Elizabeth Lanza

    Chapter 20

      • Language Maintenance and the Transmission of Ideologies among Chinese-Malaysian Families by Teresa Ong and Selim Ben Said

    Chapter 21

      • Expanding "good" mother discourse: Examining motherhood within the context of Opioid Use Disorder by Tabitha Stickel, Brandn Green, Kristal Jones

    • Theme #7: Language in the Classroom Context

    Chapter 22

      • Defying the abyssal line: Towards el Buenvivir in English language teaching in Colombia by Yecid Ortega

    Chapter 23

      • Representation of Afro-descendants in a Primary School Lesson Plan in Buenos Aires by Antonela Soledad Vaccaro

    Chapter 24

      • Southern Visions of Language policy: Re-visioning Mother Tongue based Bilingual Ed in Ghana by Mama Adobea Adjetey-Nii Owoo

    • Interlude #4: Conversation with Ophelia Garcia
    • Theme #8: Towards Multiple Language Ontologies and Southern Multilingualisms
      • Philosophical/theoretical developments:

    Chapter 25

        • On Naming Traditions: Losing sight of communicative and democratic agendas when language is loose inside and outside institutional-scapes by Sangeeta Bagga Gupta

    Chapter 26

        • Palimpset of Tangled Dramas: Language and Education Beyond Institutional Formations by Desmond Ikenna Odugu

    Chapter 27

        • Anangu literacy practices unsettle northern models of literacy by Janet Armitage

      • Land and Nature

    Chapter 28

        • Beyond the ‘linguistic’ and ‘signboard’ – Expanding the repertoire of linguistic landscape signage to include sparsely populated areas in South Africa by Lorato Mokwena

    Chapter 29

        • Critical Thinking, Language and Vegetable Gardens: Improving the Cacaio garden of education by Atila Calvente

      • Technology

    Chapter 30

        • Southern Multingualisms in Computer-Mediated Communication: Connectivity, Sociality and Access to Higher Education by Sibusiso Cliff Ndlangamandla

      • Migration and Power

    Chapter 31

        • Dismantling power relations in refugee service: Funds of knowledge as resistive power by Cassie Leymarie, Mary Bohn

    • Afterword- Ana Deumert

    • Index


    List of Contributors


    Lynn Mario T.M. de Souza is full professor of English at the University of São Paulo. Recent publications of his include Glocal Languages and Critical Intercultural Awareness (2019, co-edited with M. Guilherme), ‘Decolonial Pedagogies’ (2019 Multilingual Margins), ‘De-universalizing the Decolonial’ (2021 with A. Duboc, Gragoatá).

    He is member of the editorial committees of Diaspora, Indigenous and Minority Education and Visual Communication and of the Scientific Advisory Board of Centre of Multilingualism, Oslo University.

    Chapter 1:

    Samiha Khalil is a PhD student in the Culture & Theory Program at the University of California, Irvine. Her research examines Palestinian subject-formation and its convergences with constructions of race. Her forthcoming publication "Philistine Imaginings and the Naissance of World Other" deploys theoretical resources from continental philosophy, religious studies and psychoanalysis to excavate and analyze the figure of the philistine in the psychic life of a critical humanism.  


    Daniel N. Silva teaches applied linguistics and pragmatics at the Federal University of Santa Catarina, Brazil. He studies language, violence, and hope in the favelas of Rio de Janeiro and other peripheries of Brazil. His work problematizes the mediatization of violence in Brazil, especially under Bolsonaro’s far-right populism, by looking at alternative communicable models in empirical loci of resistance. With Jerry Lee, he is writing a book manuscript on the Sociolinguistics of Hope. 


    Jerry Won Lee is an Associate Professor of English at the University of California, Irvine, where he also serves as an affiliate faculty in Anthropology and Comparative Literature. His latest books are The Sociolinguistics of Global Asias (forthcoming with Routledge) and Locating Translingualism (forthcoming with Cambridge University Press). 

    Chapter 2:

    Esmat Babaii is Professor of Applied Linguistics at Kharazmi University, Iran,where she teaches research methods, language assessment and discourse analysis to graduate students. She has published articles and book chapters dealing with issues in Languages assessment, Systemic Functional Linguistics, test-taking processes, and critical approaches to the study of culture and language.  

    Chapter 3:


    Cécile Canut is a full professor at the University of Paris. She led the large ANR project MIPRIMO and recently published Provincialiser la langue, langage et colonialisme, Amsterdam, 2021. Advocating a political anthropo-linguistics, she defends a committed vision of research and she published in the journal Signs and Society.  

    Chapter 4:

    Giovanni Allegretti is an architect with PhD in Urban, Territorial and Environmental Planning, and a senior researcher at the Centre for Social Studies of Coimbra University, Portugal. Qualified as a full professor in Italy, he is co-coordinator of the PhD "Democracy in the 21st century". His main areas of research include citizen participation in the management of budgeting and territorial management, topics on which he has numerous publications in several languages and has been coordinating several research projects. For the mandate 2014-2019, he has been co-president of the Independent Authority for the Guarantee and the Promotion of Participation in the Tuscany Region (Italy). 


    Marco Meloni is a Ph.D. student of Democracy in the XXI Century and junior researcher at Centre for Social Studies of Coimbra, Portugal. His research interest focuses on public participation, democratic innovations and Intra-Party democracy. His most recent publication is García Lupato, F., Meloni, M. (2021). Digital Intra-Party Democracy: An Exploratory Analysis of Podemos and the Labour Party, Parliamentary Affairs. 


    Begoña Dorronsoro (she/her/hers) is a Ph.D. student of Post-Colonialisms and Global Citizenship and junior researcher at Centre for Social Studies of Coimbra, Portugal. Her research interests are on processes of autonomy and self-determination, de(s)colonial feminisms, legal pluralisms and decolonization. Her more recent publication is Dorronsoro, Begoña (2019), Cap.15. Existindo, resistindo e reexistindo: Mulheres indígenas perante os seus direitos, in Santos, Boaventura de Sousa; Martins, Bruno Sena (org.), O Pluriverso dos Direitos Humanos: A diversidade das lutas pela dignidade. Coimbra: Edições 70, 407-432. 

    Interlude #1:

    Jean Comaroff is the Alfred North Whitehead Professor of African and African American Studies and Anthropology at Harvard University, and Honorary Professor at the University of Cape Town. Her publications include Body of Power, Spirit of Resistance and, with John L. Comaroff, Law and Disorder in the Postcolony and Theory from the South.

    Jane Anna Gordon is professor of political science at the University of Connecticut and author of Statelessness and Contemporary Enslavement (Routledge, 2020) and Creolizing Political Theory: Reading Rousseau through Fanon (Fordham University Press, 2014). Former president of the Caribbean Philosophical Association (2014-2016), she now directs its summer school and co-edits its book series Creolizing the Canon and Global Critical Caribbean Thought. With Lewis R. Gordon, she is executive editor of the new, open access journal, Philosophy and Global Affairs.   


    Chapter 5:

    Mel M. Engman (Queen’s University Belfast), is a white settler language researcher from the United States who works as a Lecturer in Northern Ireland. Her research addresses questions of power, identity, and learning in multilingual educational contexts, and has been published in journals such as Classroom Discourse, the Modern Language Journal, and Linguistics and Education.

    Mary Rose Hermes, (University of Minnesota Twin Cities), is a Professor of Curriculum and Instruction at the University of Minnesota Twin Cities and Director of a non-profit organization, Grassroots Indigenous Multimedia (GIM). GIM has created and published over 25 children's books in Ojibwe, 100’s of hours of archived documentation of Ojibwe conversation and a learning software, Ojibwe 7000.

    Anna Schick, (University of Minnesota Twin Cities), is a doctoral candidate in Literacy, Language, and Culture. Her research explores critical writing pedagogy as relational experiences with human and non-human subjects. She has co-edited a book titled (Re)Narrating Teacher Identity and published chapters in book volumes on participatory literacies and critical whiteness in English Language Arts.

    Chapter 6:

    Mario López-Gopar (PhD, OISE/University of Toronto) is professor in the Faculty of Languages of Universidad Autónoma Benito Juárez de Oaxaca (UABJO), Mexico. Mario’s main research interest is intercultural and multilingual education of Indigenous peoples in Mexico. His latest book is International Perspectives on Critical Pedagogies in ELT (Palgrave MacMillan, 2019).  

    William M. Sughrua (PhD, Canterbury Christ Church University at the University of Kent) is professor in the Faculty of Languages of Universidad Autónoma Benito Juárez de Oaxaca (UABJO), Mexico. His research involves epistemology and autoethnography. His latest book is Heightened Performative Autoethnography: Resisting Oppressive Spaces within Paradigms (Peter Lang, 2016).  


    Cosme Gregorio Cirilo (MA, Critical Language Education) is an Ayuk language teacher at the Faculty of Languages of Universidad Autónoma Benito Juárez de Oaxaca (UABJO) and a doctoral candidate in the Critical Language Studies Doctoral Program at UABJO. He is interested in Ayuk ontology, epistemology, language pedagogy and curriculum development.  


    Lorena Córdova-Hernández (PhD, Centro de Investigaciones y Estudios Superiores en Antropología Social) is professor in the Faculty of Fine Arts of Universidad Autónoma Benito Juárez de Oaxaca (UABJO), Mexico. Her research interest is language policies and revitalization. Her latest book is Metáforas ecológicas, políticas e ideologías en la revitalización de lenguas indígenas (UABJO, 2019). 


    Chapter 7:

    Quentin Boitel is Doctor in Sociolinguistics from Université de Paris and currently Lecturer at Université Sorbonne Nouvelle (Paris, France). He conducted an ethnographic fieldwork on Náhuat language revitalization in El Salvador between 2014 and 2019. His research interests include the discourses on "endangered languages'', subjectivity and subjectivation, and language policies. 

    Chapter 8:

    Necia Stanford Billinghurst is a sociolinguist and international development professional with over two decades of global experience. Based on her recent PhD research on southern multilingualisms, she has contributed a chapter to A Sociolinguistics of the South (Routledge 2021). Currently she is Team Leader for Australia’s Support to Fiji’s Education Sector.  

    Chapter 9:

    Hamza R’boul is a PhD candidate in the Department of Humanities and Education Sciences at the Public University of Navarre. He is also an affiliated researcher with I-COMMUNITAS - Institute for Advanced Social Research. His works examine the western hegemony on knowledge production and dissemination in intercultural communication and English language teaching. 

    Chapter 10:

    Madoka Hammine works as an associate professor of language education at the Faculty of International Studies at Meio University, in Japan. She defended her PhD thesis which focused on minoritized language education of two contexts, indigenous languages in Finland and in Japan.

    Chapter 11:

    Keneilwe Molosi-France is a lecturer in the Department of Lifelong Learning and Community Development, University of Botswana. Her research interests are gender and community development, Development for the indigenous minorities and rural development and Local Economic Development. 

    Interlude #2:

    Diana Jeater is Emeritus Professor of African History at University of the West of England, Bristol and Associate Dean (Education) in the School of Histories, Languages and Cultures at the University of Liverpool, UK. Her monograph Law, Language & Science: the invention of the ‘native mind’ in Southern Rhodesia, 1890-1935 (2007) was an early intervention in the movement to decolonise the academy.

    Chapter 12:

    Glenda Cristina Valim de Melo is PhD in Applied Linguistics and Language Studies and a professor in the Post-Graduation Programme in Social Memory at the Federal University of the State of Rio de Janeiro. She has been a FAPERJ Young Scientist researcher since 2019 and a CNPq productivity researcher since 2020.

    Chapter 13:

    Cristine Severo is an associate professor at Federal University of Santa Catarina (Brazil). She is interested in Southern perspectives of language and decolonial approaches. Recent publications include: Language planning and policy: Ideologies, Ethnicities and semiotic spaces of power (Cambridge Scholars Publishing, 2020), co-edited with Ashraf Abdelhay and Sinfree Makoni.

    Ana Eltermann is a PhD student at the Federal University of Santa Catarina, in Brazil. Her current research focuses on language policy, identity and representation in Afro-Brazilian diaspora, especially in the context of religions and social and cultural movements. In 2019, she was a Visiting Scholar at Penn State University.

    Dr. Sinfree Makoni is Professor in Applied Linguistics and African Studies at Pennsylvania State University. He has published extensively in Language Policy and Planning, Health Communication and Decoloniality and Southern Epistemologies. His recent book co-authored with Alistair Pennycook, Innovations and Challenges in Applied Linguistics from the Global South, was shortlisted by the British Association of Applied Linguistics.

    Chapter 14:

    Kleber Aparecido da Silva has a PhD in Language Studies from the State University of São Paulo (2010). He is currently working as Associate Professor and Researcher in the Department of Linguistics and Linguistics Program of the Institute of Language Studies at the University of Brasília, Brazil.

    Lauro Sérgio Machado Pereira has a Master’s degree in Applied Linguistics from the University of Brasilia (UnB), and nowadays he is a PhD student in Linguistics from the same university. He is also a professor of English at the Northern Minas Gerais Federal Institute - Janaúba Branch Campus, Brazil.

    Helenice Joviano Roque de Faria is a Postdoctoral student from University of Brasília – UnB. Nowadays focuses on Teacher Education Policies in Initial and Continuing Portuguese Language, Critical Racial Literature, Racial Studies. She is professor of Portuguese at the SEDUC/MT, Brazil.

    Rosana Helena Nunes has a Master's Degree in Applied Linguistics and Language Studies from the PUC/SP. PhD in Portuguese Language - PUC/SP. Post-doctorate in Education at UNICAMP/SP. Postdoctoral student at the University of Brasília (UnB). She is a professor of Portuguese at the College of Technology of the State of São Paulo, Brazil.

    Lauro Sérgio Machado Pereira has a Master’s degree in Applied Linguistics from the University of Brasilia (UnB), and nowadays he is a PhD student in Linguistics from the same university. He is also a professor of English at the Northern Minas Gerais Federal Institute - Janaúba Branch Campus, Brazil.

    Renata Mourão Guimarães has a Master’s degree in Applied Linguistics from the University of Brasilia (UnB) and nowadays he is a PhD student in Linguistics from the same university. She is a spanish teacher at the Federal Institute of Brasília.

    Dllubia Santclair has a Master’s degree in education, language and technology from the State University of Goiás, and nowadays she is a PhD student in Linguistics from the University of Brasília. She is also a professor of English at the Education Department of Goiás State, Brazil.

    Chapter 15:

    Benedict J.L. Rowlett is an Assistant Professor in the Department of English Language and Literature at Hong Kong Baptist University. His research interests are in language (education), gender, and sexuality, discourse analysis and narrative analysis. His recent publications can be found in the Journal of Language and Sexuality, Multilingua, and Narrative Inquiry.  

    Chapter 16:

    Shaila Sultana, a Professor and former Chairperson, Department of English Language, Institute of Modern Languages, University of Dhaka, has published in prestigious international applied linguistics and sociolinguistics journals. She is the Chief Editor of Routledge Handbook of English Language Education in Bangladesh. She is on the editorial board of Language in Society, Journal of English-medium Instruction, Journal of AsiaTEFL, Crossing, BELTA, and numerous other local journals. 

    Chapter 17:

    Joana Plaza Pinto is Professor of Linguistics at Federal University of Goiás and Researcher at the National Council for Scientific and Technological Development, in Brazil. She is the author of articles and chapters on languages and bodies in the modern-colonial world system, focusing on migrations. She was member of Advisory Board of International Language and Gender Association (2013-2015).

    Chapter 18/ Interlude #3:

    Busi Makoni holds a PhD in Applied Linguistics from the University of Edinburgh in Scotland.  She currently is an Associate Teaching Professor in the African Studies Program at The Pennsylvania State University. Her research interests are in language and social justice particularly in areas such as language and gender, language and law and language and migration.

    Chapter 19:

    Rafael Lomeu Gomes is Postdoctoral Research Fellow at the Center for Multilingualism in Society across the Lifespan (MultiLing). He has conducted research on family multilingualism and his publications have appeared in journals such as Multilingual Margins, Multilingua, and Journal of Multilingual and Multicultural Development. ORCID iD: 0000-0003-2634-287X

    Elizabeth Lanza is Professor of Linguistics and Director of the Center for Multilingualism in Society across the Lifespan (MultiLing), University of Oslo. She has published widely on multilingualism, addressing issues of language socialization, family language policies and practices, migrant narratives, language ideology, language policy, linguistic landscape, and research methodology. ORCID iD: 0000-0002-2095-9687


    Chapter 20:

    Teresa Wai See Ong holds a doctorate in sociolinguistics from Griffith University in Australia. Her research interests include heritage language maintenance, language planning and policy, and linguistic landscape. She recently published in Issues in Language Studies on the role of ethnic Chinese single mothers in heritage language maintenance in Malaysia.  


    Selim Ben Said is Assistant Professor at the National Sun Yat-Sen University of Kaohsiung, Taiwan. His research interests include sociolinguistics, linguistic landscape, narratives, language and identity, and the sociology of language and religion. His most recent projects explore creativity on business signs as well as how cyberspace can be subsumed under linguistic landscape research, specifically as part of the virtual linguistic landscape (VLL).

    Chapter 21:

    Tabitha Stickel is a fellow at Georgia State University’s Adult Literacy Research Center. Her Ph.D. is in adult education from Pennsylvania State University, with a particular focus on Native American student experiences and the sociocultural elements of adult education classrooms. Her recent publications examine a family literacy program in a state correctional facility. 

    Dr. Brandn Green is the co-owner of JG Research and Evaluation, a research consulting firm based in Bozeman, MT. He has published widely in the fields of sociology and behavioral health. He co-owns JG with his wife and professional collaborator Dr. Kristal Jones. Drs. Green and Jones have two children, Sylvia and Marian.  

    Dr. Kristal Jones is the co-owner of JG Research and Evaluation, a research consulting firm based in Bozeman, MT. She has published widely in the fields of international agriculture, sociology and data management. She co-owns JG with her husband and professional collaborator Dr. Brandn Green.

    Chapter 22:

    Dr. Yecid Ortega finished his doctoral program in Language and Literacies Education (LLE) with a collaborative specialization in Comparative, International, and Development Education (CIDE) at the University of Toronto. His general research interests are within decolonial frameworks to explore how globalization, capitalism and neoliberalism influence language policy and classroom practice. 

    Chapter 23:

    Antonela Soledad Vaccaro is a postgraduate student from Argentina. She is finishing her Master’s degree in Language Management in Universidad Nacional de Tres de Febrero. She is currently investigating the changes in language policies of South African universities after student protests and she participates in investigations related to Afro-descendants in South America.

    Chapter 24:


    Mama Adobea Adjetey-Nii Owoo is a Ph.D. Candidate at OISE, University of Toronto. Her dissertation research, awarded TIRF’s 2020 Russell N. Campbell prize, uses Southern Theory to investigate Ghana’s interpretation of medium of instruction policies. She leads the ‘Afroliteracies Foundation’, a Ghana based think-tank and accelerator for languages in education. 

    Interlude #4:

    Ofelia García is Professor Emerita in the Ph.D. programs in Urban Education and Latin American, Iberian and Latino Cultures at The Graduate Center of the City University of New York. García has published widely in the areas of bilingualism/multilingualism and bilingual education, language education, language policy, and sociology of language.   

    Chapter 25:

    Sangeeta Bagga-Gupta holds a Professor-chair in Education at the School of Education and Communication, Jönköping University, Sweden, and is currently affiliated scholar at Örebro Theater, Sweden. She publishes extensively in different disciplinary domains and leads Swedish Research Council national projects in the areas of disability studies and culturally-empowering teacher-education.  

    Chapter 26:

    Desmond Ikenna Odugu is associate professor and chair of Education at Lake Forest College, and coordinator of the International Network for Action Research on Education, Language, and Society (INARELS). His work engages with the intersection of language, education, and social change. 

    Chapter 27:

    Dr. Janet Armitage is a sociolinguist, currently working for the South Australian Department for Education on the Anangu Pitjantjatjara Yankunytjatjara Lands as principal of Pipalyatjara Anangu School. Her work is informed by southern theory and ethical ethnographic praxis.

    Chapter 28:

    Dr. Lorato Mokwena is based in the Linguistics Department at the University of the Western Cape, South Africa. Her research passion involves Linguistic Landscape with a niche focus on orality. Her latest publication explored how the use of oral route directions problematises the conceptual distinction between ‘urban’ and ‘rural’ spaces.  

    Chapter 29:

    Atila Torres Calvente is in the post-doctoral program at the Federal University of Rio de Janeiro(UFRJ), at the Institute of Economics/PPED/INCT/FAPERJ. He currently works as coordinator of the Cacaio Project in Petrópolis, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. He has five decades of experience in public education and agriculture in 



    Chapter 30:

    Dr. Sibusiso Clifford Ndlangamandla is a senior lecturer in the Department of English Studies at the University of South Africa. His research interests are multilingualism and technology in online higher education and its implication for language policy, teaching and learning.  His latest chapter is appearing in a 2021 Routledge publication and is entitled "Languaging in Computer-Mediated Communication: Heteroglossia and stylization in online education." 

    Chapter 31:

    Cassie Leymarie, Ph.D is the Director of Education & Impact for the Global Village Project, a special purpose middle school for refugee girls with interrupted education in Decatur, Georgia. She works to align teaching and learning with the values and mission of GVP. She is passionate about educational equity and inclusion.

    Mary Bohn is a graduate student studying international affairs and global migration at Georgetown University. Mary has served for multiple years as an educator, mentor, and program director at the Global Village Project and other Atlanta-based organizations dedicated to providing refugee and immigrant students with educational resources.


    Sinfree Makoni is Professor in Applied Linguistics and African Studies at Pennsylvania State University, USA. He has published extensively on language policy and planning, health communication, and decoloniality and southern epistemologies. His recent book co-authored with Alistair Pennycook, Innovations and Challenges in Applied Linguistics from the Global South, was shortlisted by the British Association of Applied Linguistics.

    Anna Kaiper-Marquez is an Associate Director and Assistant Teaching Professor at the Institute for the Study of Adult Literacy and the Goodling Institute for Research in Family Literacy at Pennsylvania State University, USA. Her research interests include adult literacy, English language learning, and domestic work worldwide.

    Lorato Mokwena is based in the Linguistics Department at the University of the Western Cape, South Africa. Her research passion involves linguistic landscape with a niche focus on orality. Her latest publication explored how the use of oral route directions problematizes the conceptual distinction between "urban" and "rural" spaces.