1176 Pages 318 B/W Illustrations
    by Routledge

    This second edition covers recent developments around the world with contributors from 33 different countries. It widens the handbook’s scope by including ecological design; consideration of cultural dimensions of the use and conservation of urban nature; the roles of government and civil society; and the continuing issues of equity and fairness in access to urban greenspaces.

    New features include an emphasis on the biophilic design of homes and workplaces, demonstrating the value of nature, in order to counter the still prevalent attitude among many developers that nature is a constraint rather than a value. The volume explores great practical achievements that have occurred since the first edition, with many governments increasingly recognizing and legislating on urban nature and green infrastructure matters, since cities play a major role in adapting to change, particularly to climate crisis. New topics such as the ecological role of light at night and human microbiota in the urban ecosystem are introduced. Additional attention is given to food production in cities, particularly the multiple roles of urban agriculture and household gardens in different contexts from wealthy communities to the poorest informal settlements in deprived communities. The emphasis is on demonstrating what can be achieved, and what is already being done.

    The book aims to help scholars and graduate students by providing an invaluable and up-to-date guide to current urban ecological thinking across the range of disciplines, such as geography, ecology, environmental science/studies, planning, and urban studies, that converge in the study of towns and cities and urban design and living. It will also assist practitioners and civil society members in discovering the ways diff erent specialists and thinkers approach urban nature.

    Part 1: Urban Ecology: the Field of Study, Its Growth and Present Concerns


    David Goode

    1. Urban Areas and Urban Ecology

    N. E. McIntyre

    2. Urban Ecology in the Ancient Tropics: Foodways and Urban Forms

    Christian Isendahl, Monica L. Smith, Miriam T. Stark, Federica Sulas and Stephan Barthel

    3. 20th century growth of urban ecology

    David Goode, Ian Douglas, Mark McDonnell, Amy Hahs and Ian MacGregor-Fors

    4. Urban Ecology: Its Boom in the First Fwo Fecades of the 21st Century

    David Goode

    Part 2: Humans as an Integral Component of Urban Ecosystems


    Tan Puay Yok

    5. A Transdisciplinary Urban Ecology Approach to Complex Urban Systems

    Elizabeth Cook and Timon McPhearson

    6. Science is Not Enough: Grassroots and Bottom-Up Action in Urban Ecology

    Cecilia Herzog, Diana Wiesner, David Maddox

    7. Biophilic Cities: Elements of the Vision and Emerging Practice

    Timothy Beatley

    8. Urban ecology: Art and the cultivation of ecological mindsets

    Patrick M. Lydon

    9. Urban Greenspaces – understanding patterns of use and greenspace distribution in England to inform spatial planning

    Jane Houghton and Hazel Thomas

    Part 3: Nature in the city: a biophysical environment


    Ian Douglas

    10. Climate of Cities

    C.S.B. Grimmond

    11. Understanding urban heat islands

    Mathias Roth

    12. The impacts of artificial light at night on urban ecosystems

    M.J. Grose and T.M. Jones

    13. Urban hydrology

    Ian Douglas

    14. Urban Geomorphology

    Ian Douglas

    15. Urban estuaries and coasts

    L.A. Naylor, H. Kippen, M. MacArthur, A. Zaldívar-Jiménez, A. Vovides, J.D. Hansom and A. Rennie

    16. Vulnerability of urban nature to climate change: an overview of impacts and assessment approaches, with examples from urban forests

    Camilo Ordóñez, James W.N. Steenberg, and Peter N. Duinker

    17. Urban Soils

    J. Alan Yeakley

    Part 4: Cities as biophysical landscapes: diversity of habitats and species


    Ian Douglas and Pippin Anderson

    18. Biodiversity and cities

    P M L Anderson

    19. The invasion of walls, pavements and building surfaces by organisms

    C. Philip Wheater

    20. Urban cliffs

    Robert A. Francis

    21. Habitat heterogeneity in suburbia; the importance of the urban mosaic

    Paul Lintott and Ian Douglas

    22. Urban food production sites: diversity of habitats and species with special reference to Africa

    Diana Lee-Smith and Olufunke Cofie

    23. Urban green corridors: connectivity, multifunctionality and implications for wildlife movement

    Ian Douglas

    24. Landscaped parks and open spaces

    C. Pickering and M. Hermy

    25. A man-made watercourse absorbed into the natural landscape – England’s Manchester Ship Canal: a case study in adaptive re-use and brownfield restoration

    Paul Stanton Kibel

    26. Grassland on reclaimed soil, with streets, car parks and buildings but few or no mature trees

    Tony Kendle

    27. Urban rivers and their ecology

    Cate Brown

    28. Wetlands in Urban Environments

    Monica M. Palta and Emilie K. Stander

    29. Mammals in urban environments

    Marion Chatelain and Marta Szulkin

    30. Urban birds: Urban avoiders, urban adapters and urban exploiters

    Piotr Tryjanowski, Federico Morelli and Anders Pape Møller

    31. Urban Insects

    Gail A. Langellotto and Damon Hall

    32. Urban soil fauna

    Katalin Szlavecz, Csaba Csuzdi, Elisabeth Hornung and Zoltan Korsós

    33. Recent examples of colonisation and adaptation by birds in UK towns and cities.

    David Goode

    34. Introduced and invasive animals: species interactions in towns and cities

    Valentina la Morgia

    35. Feral animals in the built environment

    Peter J. Jarvis

    36. Alien plants in cities: human-driven patterns, risks and benefits

    Ingo Kowarik and Leonie K. Fischer

    Part 5: The urban ecosystem: urban metabolism


    Ian Douglas

    37. The analysis of cities as ecosystems

    Meghan L. Avolio and Tara L. E. Trammell

    38. Urban Metabolism Analysis

    Shu-Li Huang, Chun-Lin Lee, Su Xu, Shenghui Cui and Xuemei Bai

    39. Urban ecological footprints: the city region and the wider world

    Joy Clancy

    40. Human microbiota and human health in the changing urban ecosystem

    Graham A. W. Rook  

    41. Urban agroecology: principles and applications

    M.A. Altieri and C. I. Nicholls

    42. The City as a Life Support System: Ecopoiesis Revisited

    David Haley and Vincent Walsh

    Part 6: Biophilia and the value of urban nature


    Harini Nagendra

    43. Assessing ecosystem services in urban areas

    Patrick O'Farrell

    44. Ecosystem disservices from urban nature

    Diane E. Pataki

    45. Diversity in Perceived Values of Urban Nature

    Wardatul Akmam, Shaikh Mohammad Kais, Md. Shafikuzzaman Joarder, Md. Fakrul Islam

    46. Recreational values of urban nature

    Wendy Y. Chen

    47. Urban nature and its potential to contribute towards human well-being

    Åsa Ode Sang and Marcus Hedblom

    48. Urban Nature and Human Physical Health

    Jenna H. Tilt and Lee K. Cerveny

    49. Cooling the urban environment: Effect of tree transpiration on outdoor air temperature

    N.H. Wong, C.L. Tan, P.Y. Tan, S.K. Jusuf, S. Tong and D.J.C. Hii

    50. Mitigating air pollution and the urban heat island effect: the roles of urban trees

    Danielle Sinnett

    51. Public attitudes towards urban nature

    Marthe Derkzen and Jason Byrne

    52. Cultural and sacred worship of urban nature

    Seema Mundoli and Harini Nagendra

    53. The role of urban nature in fostering social capital and sense of place

    Amrita Sen, Harini Nagendra, Rodrigo Antonio Braga Moraes Victor,  Sueli Angelo Furlan, Elaine Aparecida Rodrigues, Joanne Tippett, Janice Astbury and Ian Douglas

    54. Values, Justice and Urban Ecosystems

    Seema Mundoli and Harini Nagendra

    55. Creative conservation

    Grant Luscombe and Richard Scott

    56. Giving multicultural community groups a voice in creating, using and managing urban green space

    Judy Ling Wong

    57. Innovative stormwater management through natural and built green infrastructure

    Thomas W. Liptan and Michael Charles Houck

    58. Urban waterways

    Derek B. Booth

    59. Rewilding urban landscapes: attributes, types and application as a greening policy

    Yun Hye Hwang

    60. Urban ecological design - towards an holistic interdisciplinary vision

    Michael J. Wells and Lincoln Garland

    61. Incorporating the multiple benefits of urban nature into ecological design

    Christina Breed

    62. Designing neighborhood greenspaces with urban ecosystem services

    Tan Puay Yok

    Part 7: Protecting urban wildlife


    Mike Houck

    63. Ensuring equitable green space to deprived social groups

    Alexis Vásquez and Cynnamon Dobbs

    64. An inclusive approach towards the co-creation and management of urban greenspace as a response to the demand for sustainable cities

    Dagmar Haase

    65. Capacity building through international collaborations for nature in cities and urban green infrastructure

    Oliver Hillel, M’Lisa Colbert and Ian Douglas

    66. Using cultural and everyday societal meanings of connection to flora and fauna to build commitment to nature

    Judy Ling Wong CBE

    67. Using economic and health assessment to make a case for urban greenspace

    Ian Douglas

    68. Urban greening: the role of international organisations and civil society

    Jonathan Hughes

    Part 8: Governance, targets and valuation of urban greenspace, from global to local


    David Goode

    69. Intergovernmental bodies and the greening of cities: roles of UN bodies and international conventions

    Peter Frost

    70. Local governments and urban ecology: planning and practice examples from Africa, Asia and Europe

    A.A. Nor Akmar, Anna Hersperger, Nadja Kabisch, Collins Adjei Mensah, Xiangrong Wang and Ian Douglas

    71. Urban Green Infrastructure – Strategic Planning of Urban Green and Blue for Multiple Benefits

    Stephan Pauleit, Rieke Hansen, Emily L. Rall and Werner Rolf

    72. The role of targets and standards in delivering urban greenspace for people and wildlife.

    John Box, Richard Boon, Timoticin Kwanda, Aleksandra Stupar, Jenna H. Tilt and Alexis Vásquez

    73. Valuation of Urban Ecological Capital

    Haripriya Gundimeda

    Part 9: Environmental Justice, fairness and equity in urban ecology


    Ian Douglas

    74. Urban nature and justice: unequal access to resources and ecosocial resistance in the contemporary city

    Marcelo Lopes de Souza

    75. Urban agriculture planning for environmental justice and food security

    Graciela Arosemena Díaz

    76. Ways of creating usable, multipurpose greenspace in impoverished settlements in cities of the Global South

    Alex Barimah Owusu, Jacob Songsore, Wan-yu Shih and Leslie Mabon

    Conclusions: continuing debates

    77. How to conserve natural resources in housing developments: design, construction, and post-construction

    Mark Hostetler

    78. Native planting versus non-native planting: the state of the debate

    Lincoln Garland and Michael J. Wells

    79. Global eco-urban futures – green and sustainable, or brown and vulnerable?

    Joe Ravetz

    80. Urban ecology for the future

    Ian Douglas


    Ian Douglas is Emeritus Professor of Physical Geography at the University of Manchester, UK.

    P M L Anderson is a lecturer and director of graduate studies in the Department of Environmental and Geographical Science and urban ecology researcher at the African Centre for Cities, University of Cape Town, South Africa.

    David Goode is an ecologist and naturalist, formerly Head of Environment at the Greater London Authority, and now Honorary Professor at University College, London, UK.

    Michael C. Houck is The Urban Naturalist of the Urban Greenspaces Institute, Portland, OR, USA.

    David Maddox is the Founder and Editor of The Nature of Cities, New York, USA (www.thenatureofcities.com).

    Harini Nagendra is Professor of Sustainability at Azim Premji University, India.

    Tan Puay Yok is an Associate Professor at the National University of Singapore, Singapore.