1st Edition

The Routledge Handbook of the Ethics of Human Enhancement

Edited By Fabrice Jotterand, Marcello Ienca Copyright 2023

    The Routledge Handbook of the Ethics of Human Enhancement provides readers with a philosophically rich and scientifically grounded analysis of human enhancement and its ethical implications. A landmark in the academic literature, the volume covers human enhancement in genetic engineering, neuroscience, synthetic biology, regenerative medicine, bioengineering, and many other fields. The Handbook includes a diverse and multifaceted collection of 30 chapters—all appearing here in print for the first time— that reveal the fundamental ethical challenges related to human enhancement. The chapters have been written by internationally recognized leaders in the field and are organized into seven parts:

    1. Historical Background and Key Concepts
    2. Human Enhancement and Human Nature
    3. Physical Enhancement
    4. Cognitive Enhancement
    5. Mood Enhancement and Moral Enhancement
    6. Human Enhancement and Medicine
    7. Legal, Social, and Political Implications

    The depth and topical range of the Handbook makes it an essential resource for upper-level undergraduates, graduate students, and postdoctoral fellows in a broad variety of disciplinary areas. Furthermore, it is an authoritative reference for basic scientists, philosophers, engineers, physicians, lawyers, and other professionals who work on the topic of human enhancement.

    Fabrice Jotterand

    Part I: Historical Background and Key Concepts

    1. Philosophical Advice for the Age of Human Enhancement
    Nicholas Agar

    2. Spotlights on the History of Human Enhancement Discourse
    Christopher Coenen

    3. To Be or Not to Be Enhanced? Just ask the Moon – in Posthuman Terms
    Francesca Ferrando

    Part II: Human Enhancement and Human Nature

    4. Clones, Chimeras, and Organoids: Developmental Biology and the Human Future
    William Hurlbut and Dillon Stull

    5. A Thematic Overview of Debate on the Ethics of Radical Human Enhancement
    Nicholas M. Sparks

    6. Resurrecting the Body: Phenomenological Perspectives on Embodiment
    Vera Borrmann, Christopher Coenen, Luisa Gerstgrasser, Eva Albers, Oliver Müller and Philipp Kellmeyer

    7. Human Enhancement through the Lens of Sex Selection
    Robert Sparrow

    8. Does Enhancement Violate Human "Nature"?
    Jason T. Eberl

    9. Authenticity in the Ethics of Human Enhancement
    Muriel Leuenberger

    Part III: Physical Enhancement

    10. The Ethics of Genetic Enhancement: Key Concepts and Future Prospects
    Jonny Anomaly and Tess Johnson

    11. Germline Gene Editing with CRISPR: A Risk-Analysis Response to Liberal Eugenics
    Siddhartha B. Chiong and Nicanor Austriaco

    12. Framing Longevity Science and an "Aging Enhancement"
    Colin Farrelly

    13. Christian Theology and the Ethical Ambiguities of Aging Attenuation
    Todd T. W. Daly

    Part IV: Cognitive Enhancement

    14. AI as IA: The Use and Abuse of Artificial Intelligence (AI) for Human Enhancement through Intellectual Augmentation (IA)
    Alexandre Erler & Vincent C. Mueller

    15. Clearing the Bottleneck of empirical data in the ethics of cognitive enhancement
    Cynthia Forlini

    16. Not Extended, but Enhanced: Internal Improvements to Cognition and the Maintenance of Cognitive Agency
    Nada Gligorov

    17. Is Enhancement with Brain-Computer Interfaces Ethical? Evidence in Favour of Symbiotic Augmentation
    Tomislav Furlanis and Frederic Gilbert

    18. Anticipating the Future of Neurotechnological Enhancement
    Nathan Higgins, Cynthia Forlini, Isobel Butorac, John Gardner and Adrian Carter

    Part V: Mood Enhancement and Moral Bioenhancement

    19. Moral Enhancement through Neurosurgery? ─ Feasibility and Ethical Justifiability
    Sabine Muller

    20. Transhumanism and Moral Enhancement
    Johann S. Ach and Birgit Beck

    21. Protecting Future Generations by Enhancing Current Generations
    Parker Crutchfield

    22. What Kinds of Moral Bioenhancement are Desirable? What Kinds are Possible?
    Harris Wiseman

    Part VI: Human Enhancement and Medicine

    23. The Meaning of Enhancement in the Post COVID-19 World
    Ruth Chadwick

    24. Clinical Practice and Human Enhancement: Blurred Borders and Ethical Issues
    Mirko D. Garasic and Andrea Lavazza

    25. Cyborgs and Designer Babies: The Human Body as a Technological Design Space
    Michael Bess

    26. Pharmaceutical Cognitive Enhancement: Entanglement with Emotion, morality, and the Context
    Kevin Chien-Chang Wu

    Part VII: Legal, Social and Political Implications

    27. Cognitive Enhancement from a Legal Perspective
    Jennifer A Chandler and Kai Vogeley

    28. Enhancement and Hyperresponsibility
    Anna Hartford, Julian Savulescu and Dan J. Stein

    29. Human Flourishing or Injustice? Social, Political and Regulatory Implications of Cognitive Enhancement
    Iris Coates McCall and Veljko Dubljević

    30. Contemporary Bioethical and Legal Perspectives on Cognitive Enhancement
    Luca Valera and Vincente Bellver

    Marcello Ienca


    Fabrice Jotterand is Professor of Bioethics and Medical Humanities, and Director of the Graduate Program in Bioethics at the Medical College of Wisconsin in Milwaukee, where he is also the Director of the Kern Philosophies of Medical Education Transformation Laboratory. In addition, he holds an appointment as Senior Researcher at the Institute for Biomedical Ethics, University of Basel. He is also the author of the recent book The Unfit Brain and the Limits of Moral Bioenhancement (Palgrave, 2022).

    Marcello Ienca is Assistant Professor of Ethics of Artificial Intelligence and Neuroscience at the School of Medicine, Technical University of Munich (TUM) in Munich, Germany, and a research fellow at College of Humanities, Swiss Federal institute of Technology in Lausanne (EPFL) in Lausanne, Switzerland. He is the co-editor of The Cambridge Handbook of Life Sciences, Information Technology and Human Rights (Cambridge UP, 2022).