1st Edition

The Routledge Handbook of the Philosophy and Psychology of Forgiveness

Edited By Glen Pettigrove, Robert Enright Copyright 2023

    The Routledge Handbook of the Philosophy and Psychology of Forgiveness brings into conversation research from multiple disciplines, offering readers a comprehensive guide to current forgiveness research. Its 42 chapters, newly commissioned from an internationally acclaimed group of scholars, are divided into five parts:

    • Religious Traditions
    • Historic Treatments
    • The Nature of Forgiveness
    • Normative Issues
    • Empirical Findings

    While the principal aim of the handbook is to provide a guide to the philosophical literature on forgiveness that, ideally, will inform the psychological sciences in developing more philosophically accurate measures and psychological treatments of forgiveness, the volume will be of interest to students and researchers with a wide range of disciplinary backgrounds, including philosophy, psychology, theology, religious studies, classics, history, politics, law, and education.

    Glen Pettigrove and Robert Enright

    Section A: Background

    Part I: Religious Traditions

    1. The Jewish Journey from Atonement to Forgiveness
    Charles Klein

    2. Forgiveness from a Christian Perspective
    Luis Tagle

    3. Dilemmas of Divine Forgiveness and the Reflective Muslim
    Zain Ali

    4. Forgiveness in Hinduism
    Roy Perrett

    5. Forgiveness, Patience, and Confession in Buddhism
    D.E. Osto

    Part II: Historic Treatments

    6. Forgiveness in Classical Greece: Socrates, Plato, Aristotle, and Their Background Culture
    Sophie-Grace Chappell

    7. Stoic Forgiveness
    Jeremy Reid

    8. Forgiveness in Augustine and Aquinas
    Adam Wood

    9. Joseph Butler on Forgiveness
    David McNaughton

    10. Developing a Neo-Humean Account of Forgiveness: A Comparative Philosophical Approach
    Rico Vitz

    11. Hegel on Forgiveness
    Chris Yeomans

    12. Kierkegaard on Forgiveness
    John Lippitt

    13. Jung and Forgiveness
    Robin Brown

    14. Simone Weil: The Impossibility of Forgiveness and the Limits of the Human
    Christopher Hamilton

    15. The Gift of Forgiveness: Perspectives from the French Philosophical Tradition
    Christina Gschwandtner

    Section B: Current Research

    Part III: The Nature of Forgiveness

    16. Feeling Blame and Feeling Forgiveness
    Lucy Allais

    17. Forgiveness as a Volitional Commitment
    Kate Norlock

    18. Punishment-Forbearance Accounts of Forgiveness
    Luke Russell

    19. Performative Accounts of Forgiveness
    Brandon Warmke

    20. Normative Power Accounts of Forgiveness
    Chris Bennett

    21. Forgiveness and Agency
    Jada Strabbing

    22. Process Accounts of Forgiveness
    Per-Erik Milam

    23. Memory and the Scope of Personal Forgiveness
    Crystal L’Hote

    Part IV: Normative Issues

    24. The Standing to Forgive
    Linda Radzik

    25. Forgiveness and Oppression
    Macalester Bell

    26. Forgiveness and Hope
    Claudia Blöser

    27. The Virtue of Forgiveness?
    Glen Pettigrove

    28. Forgiving God
    Dan Speak

    29. Collective Forgiveness
    Katie Stockdale

    30. Forgiveness in Politics
    Trudy Govier

    31. Forgiveness in Treatment: The Importance of Careful Definitions and Realistic Objectives
    Everett Worthington and Sharon Lamb

    32. Begging for Mercy: The Dangers and the Hopes of Forgiveness in Criminal Law
    Nick Smith

    Part V: Empirical Findings

    33. The Measurement of Forgiveness
    Suzanne Freedman

    34. Forgiveness: Psychophysiological Side-Effects and Pathways to Health
    Charlotte V.O. Witvliet, Alyssa C.D. Cheadle, and Lindsey M. Root Luna

    35. The Development of Forgiveness
    Etienne Mullet

    36. Forgiveness with Couples and Families
    Frederick DiBlasio

    37. Examining Forgiveness and Trauma through Case Study Analyses
    Jacqueline Song and Shih-Tseng Tina Huang

    38. Self-Condemnation and Pathways to Self-Forgiveness
    Lydia Woodyatt

    39. Forgiveness and Religion/Spirituality: What Science Has Discovered about the Relationship between the Two
    Jichan Kim

    40. What Works in Forgiveness Therapy? Discussing Recent Meta-Analyses
    Thomas Baskin

    41. Intergroup Forgiveness
    John Klatt and Robert Enright

    42. Forgiveness Education: International Perspectives for Children and Youth
    Jong-Hyo Park and Kalliopi Galiti


    Glen Pettigrove is Professor of Philosophy at the University of Glasgow. He is the editor – with Christine Swanton – of Neglected Virtues (2022) and the author of Forgiveness and Love (2012).

    Robert Enright holds the Aristotelian Professorship in Forgiveness Science within the Department of Educational Psychology at the University of Wisconsin-Madison, is a licensed psychologist, and is co-founder of the International Forgiveness Institute. He is the author or editor of seven books including The Forgiving Life (2012), 8 Keys to Forgiveness (2015), Forgiveness Therapy (2015), and Forgiveness Is a Choice (2019).