The Routledge Handbook on Livelihoods in the Global South presents a unique, timely, comprehensive overview of livelihoods in low- and middle-income countries. Since their widespread adoption in the 1990s, livelihoods perspectives, frameworks and methods have influenced diverse areas of research, policy and practice.
The concept of livelihoods reflects the complexity of strategies and practices used by individuals, households and communities to meet their needs and live their lives. The Handbook brings together insights and critical analysis from diverse approaches and experiences, learning from research and practice over the last 30 years. The Handbook comprises an introductory section on key concepts and frameworks, followed by five parts, on researching livelihoods, negotiating livelihoods, generating livelihoods, enabling livelihoods and contextualising livelihoods. The introduction provides readers with an appreciation of concepts researched and applied in the five parts, including chapters on vulnerability and resilience, social capital and networks, and institutions. Each part reflects the diversity of approaches taken to understanding livelihoods, whilst recognising commonalities, including the centrality of power in shaping, enabling and constraining livelihoods. The book also reflects diversity of context, including conflict, climate change and religion, as well as in generating livelihoods, through agriculture, small-scale mining and pastoralism. The aim of each chapter is to provide a critically informed introduction and overview of key concepts, issues and debates of relevance to the topic, with each chapter concluding with suggestions for further reading.
It will be an essential resource to students, researchers and practitioners of international development and related fields. Researchers and practitioners will also benefit from the book's diverse disciplinary contributions and by the wide and contemporary coverage.
Table of Contents
- Livelihoods in the Global South
- Livelihoods: concepts and frameworks
- The Capability Approach as an analytic lens for studying livelihoods
- Livelihoods and institutions
- Vulnerability and resilience
- Social capital and social networks
- A rights-based approach for sustainable livelihoods
- Critically understanding livelihoods in the Global South: researchers, research practices and power
- Quantitative approaches to analyse rural livelihood strategies
- Longitudinal research to understand the complexity of livelihoods
- The use of ethnography for livelihoods research
- Using participatory rural appraisal to research livelihoods
- Using participatory video in researching livelihoods in the Global South: the why and wherefore
- Using participatory GPS methods to develop rich understandings of people’s diverse and complex livelihoods in the global South
- Power and livelihoods
- Feminist political ecology
- Democratic politics and livelihoods in Africa
- Social accountability in Asia’s livelihoods: the role of sanctions and rewards
- Advocating for livelihoods through Social Movements
- Education and livelihoods in the Global South
- Youth livelihoods: negotiating intergenerationality and responsibility
- The governance and regulation of the informal economy: implications for livelihoods and decent work
- Disability and sustainable livelihoods: towards inclusive community-based development
- Environmental income and rural livelihoods
- Forests and livelihoods
- Agricultural livelihoods, rural development policy and political ecologies of land and water: exploring new agrarian questions
- Pastoralism and livelihoods in the Global South
- Fisheries livelihoods
- Complexity and heterogeneity in the informal economy of waste: problems and prospects for organising and formalising
- Planning for sustainable urban livelihoods in Africa
- Artisanal mining and livelihoods in the Global South
- Conceptualising migration and livelihoods: perspectives from the Global South
- International migration and experiences of Indian women migrants: a critical analysis of the Kafala system
- Remittances and economic development in the Global South
- Mobile money, financial inclusion and livelihoods in the Global South
- The role of microfinance in mediating livelihoods
- Global markets and southern livelihoods: exploring trans-scalar connections
- Contextualising urban transport systems and livelihoods in developing countries: the case of Bus Rapid Transit project
- Livelihoods and social protection
- Collective organisations: an introduction to their contributions to livelihoods in the Global South
- Rebuilding livelihoods to reduce disaster vulnerabilities
- Religion and livelihoods studies
- Climate change adaptation and agricultural livelihoods of smallholder farmers
- Livelihoods and disarmament, demobilisation and reintegration: from security to inclusive development
- Livelihoods in conflict-affected settings
- Land tenure transformations in the Global South: privatisation, marketisation and dispossession in contemporary rural Asia
Fiona Nunan, Clare Barnes, Sukanya Krishnamurthy
Itzel San Roman Pineda
Part i: Researching livelihoods: approaches and methods
Solomon Zena Walelign, Xi Jiao and Carsten Smith-Hall
Thaís de Carvalho
Part ii: Negotiating livelihoods
Miriam Gay Antaki and Ana De Luca
Aries A. Arugay
Stefan Rzedzian, Margherita Scazza and Elodie Santos Vera
Vikas Maniar and Meera Chandran
Julian Walker, Andrea Rigon and Braima Koroma
Part iii: Generating livelihoods
Carsten Smith-Hall, Xi Jiao and Solomon Zena Walelign
Cristián Alarcón, Johanna Bergman Lodin and Flora Hajdu
Lenyeletse Vincent Basupi
Deo Namwira and Fiona Nunan
Lauren Andres, Stuart Paul Denoon-Stevens, John R. Bryson, Hakeem Bakare and Lorena Melgaço
Part iv: Enabling livelihoods
Haruna Issahaku, Anthony Chiaraah and George Kwame Honya
Stanley Kojo Dary, Abdulai Adams, Shamsia Abdul-Wahab
Michael Poku-Boansi, Michael Osei Asibey and Richard Apatewen Azerigyik
Part v: Contextualising livelihoods
Leo de Haan
Gargi Sen, Vineetha Nalla and Nihal Ranjit
Issaka Kanton Osumanu
Lam Minh Chau
Fiona Nunan is Professor of Environment and Development, International Development Department, University of Birmingham.
Clare Barnes is an Interdisciplinary Lecturer in Sustainable Livelihoods at the School of GeoSciences, University of Edinburgh.
Sukanya Krishnamurthy is a Chancellors Fellow/Senior Lecturer at the School of GeoSciences, University of Edinburgh.
This book addresses livelihoods and the creation and evolution of knowledge on livelihoods through the personhood of millions caught in complex interactions, confronting dynamic inequalities and norms of intellectual delegitimization. It helps researchers, students, practitioners and policy makers see how the latter is an outcome (though unintended) of the dominant development framing of livelihoods. The chapters in this volume equip them to pare given concepts and theories, and to construct their own analytical frameworks that make sense in the light of the multiple dimensions and complexity of livelihoods. For practitioners and researchers in the Global South geographically and heuristically, this book is a rich and timely input to enhance their cognition of power and diversity, democratic accountability and justice when problematizing livelihoods.
Dr. Rajeswari S. Raina, Professor, School of Humanities and Social Sciences, Shiv Nadar University, India.
Across nearly 50 contributions, this Handbook offers a comprehensive survey of the many dimensions of livelihoods research and practice. Rather than separating by sectors, livelihoods perspectives start with what people do and how they live, offering an integrative, holistic approach to development. From concepts to methods to practices and policies, this Handbook offers an excellent overview of ideas as well as practical applications across a huge array of themes. It is an essential guide for anyone interested in livelihoods and development in the Global South, whether students, field practitioners or policymakers.
Ian Scoones, Professor, Institute of Development Studies, University of Sussex, UK.
Development studies can be a fickle business: ‘buzzwords’ that promise to reframe theory and practice surge to prominence before going out of fashion, leaving proponents and projects stranded and the field in search of renewal from the next coming agenda. By insisting on the enduring relevance of livelihoods analysis to understanding and challenging problems of poverty and exclusion in the global South, this volume offers a welcome antidote to this endless cycle. The power of this move is in the simple assertion that development must be viewed – to a significant extent at least – as being primarily about people’s lived realities. The Handbook renders livelihoods analysis fit for purpose once more, over three decades after its arrival: scholarship from the global south is very well-represented and the strong focus on politics, via issues of democracy and accountability but also critical feminist perspectives and a strong engagement with power, is also very welcome. This is a deeply engaged Handbook, offering critical reflection but also clear practical guidance to those seeking to operationalise livelihoods research and analysis from a methodological perspective and to policy actors and practitioners aiming to support more relevant interventions on the ground.
Samuel Hickey, Professor of Politics and Development, Global Development Institute, University of Manchester, and President of the UK Development Studies Association.