1st Edition

The Routledge Handbook on Radicalisation and Countering Radicalisation

Edited By Joel Busher, Leena Malkki, Sarah Marsden Copyright 2024
    588 Pages 9 B/W Illustrations
    by Routledge

    This handbook provides a theoretical and methodological exploration of the research on radicalisation and counter-radicalisation, one of the most influential concepts in Security Studies, International Relations, and Peace and Conflict Studies.

    Sitting at the heart of high-profile research and policy agendas on preventing and countering violent extremism (P/CVE), radicalisation as a concept has transformed the way researchers, policymakers, and societies think about how to counter terrorism and political violence. Deliberations about radicalisation and countering radicalisation have become further embedded as efforts to prevent and counter violent extremism have been ‘mainstreamed’ into other areas of public policy and practice, such as education, gender relations, health, peacebuilding, aid, and development. Theoretically and methodologically pluralistic, this handbook addresses radicalisation and countering radicalisation as they relate to a wide range of groups and milieus, articulating diverse ideological positions, drawing together insight and experience from multiple geographic and institutional settings, integrating global perspectives, and including scholarship focused on a range of policy fields.

    This book will be an essential reference point for anybody working on radicalisation, countering radicalisation, or terrorism and political violence more broadly. The insight that it provides will be relevant for both academics and members of relevant policy and practitioner communities.

    1 Introduction
    Sarah Marsden, Leena Malkki, and Joel Busher

    PART I
    The history of research on radicalisation
    21 Before ‘radicalisation’: explaining individual involvement in terrorism before the popularisation of the radicalisation concept
    Leena Malkki

    3 ‘Radicalisation’ and ‘countering radicalisation’: the emergence and expansion of a contentious concept
    Rik Coolsaet

    4 Analysing ‘radicalisation’ in historical cases
    Tim Wilson

    Analytical approaches to radicalisation
    5 The role of ideology in radicalisation
    Kumar Ramakrishna

    6 Identity and extremism: sorting out the causal pathways to radicalization and violent self-sacrifice
    Julia Ebner and Harvey Whitehouse

    7 Social movement theory and research on radicalisation99
    Stefan Malthaner

    8 Criminological perspectives on extremist radicalisation and terrorist acts
    Gary LaFree and Yesenia Yanez

    9 Insights from the study of new religious movements into the process of radicalisation
    Lorne L. Dawson

    10 The pen and the sword: cognition, emotion, communication, and violent radicalisation
    Kurt Braddock

    11 Gender perspectives on radicalisation
    Elizabeth Pearson

    12 Radicalisation and psychopathology
    Emily Corner

    13 Belonging is just a click away: extremism, radicalisation, and the role of online communities
    Amarnath Amarasingam

    14 Radicalisation of ‘lone actors’
    Francis O’Connor, Lasse Lindekilde, and Stefan Malthaner

    15 Radicalisation of ‘foreign fighters’
    Jeanine de Roy van Zuijdewijn

    Countering radicalisation: key debates
    16 Countering violence or ideas? The politics of counter-radicalisation
    Kodili Chukwuma and Lee Jarvis

    17 Responding to radicalisation with different ideological roots: how similar is the ‘problem’? How similar are the ‘solutions’?
    Daniel Koehler

    18 Who should be involved with counter-radicalisation policy and practice?
    Francesco Ragazzi and Josh Walmsley
    19 Working with communities to counter radicalisation
    Paul Thomas and Michele Grossman

    20 The role of research and researchers in counter-radicalisation policy and practice
    Alice Martini and Laura Fernández de Mosteyrín

    21 How can we meaningfully evaluate the effects and effectiveness of programmes to prevent or counter radicalisation?
    Tom Fisher and Joel Busher

    22 Re-colonising the field of evaluation of prevention of violent radicalisation: a critical, cross-regional perspective
    Pablo Madriaza, David Morin, and Vivek Venkatesh

    Countering radicalisation: strategies and challenges
    23 Rethinking CVE and public health prevention: towards health promotion
    Keiran Hardy

    24 Multi-agency approaches to countering radicalisation
    Robin Andersson Malmros and Jennie Sivenbring

    25 Naturalisation through mainstreaming: counter-terrorism and counter-radicalisation in UN and EU discourse
    Rita Augestad Knudsen

    26 Countering radicalisation while expanding the criminal law
    Tufyal Choudhury

    27 Responding to radicalisation through education415
    Stijn Sieckelinck and William Stephens

    28 Counter narratives and strategic communications, offline and online
    Benjamin Lee

    29 Deradicalisation and disengagement: lessons from the Indonesian experience
    Julie Chernov Hwang

    30 Interventions with ‘at risk’ individuals
    Raquel da Silva

    31 How can general violence risk assessment and management inform that of violent extremist risk?
    Paul Gill, Zoe Marchment, Amber Seaward, Philip Doherty, and Kirsty Goodman

    32 Content moderation: social media and countering online radicalisation
    Bharath Ganesh

    33 Radicalisation, counter-radicalisation, and governance in fragile states
    Oscar Gakuo Mwangi

    34a Local contours and global discourses in countering violent radicalization and extremism: a perspective from the global south
    Fathima Azmiya Badurdeen


    Joel Busher is Professor of Political Sociology at the Institute for Peace and Security, Coventry University. He is co-editor of Researching the Far Right: Theory, Method and Practice (Routledge, 2021) and author of The Making of Anti-Muslim Protest (Routledge, 2016), which was awarded the British Sociological Association’s Philip Abrams Memorial Prize.

    Leena Malkki is Director of the Centre for European Studies at the University of Helsinki. She is the chair of the ECPR Standing Group on Political Violence and a member of the editorial board of Terrorism and Political Violence.

    Sarah Marsden is Senior Lecturer in the School of International Relations at the University of St. Andrews. She is the author of Reintegrating Extremists: Deradicalisation and Disengagement.

    "This is a super book, worthy of its important subject matter. The line-up of contributors is stellar, the range of perspectives is deeply impressive. It is destined to become the standard reference text on radicalisation."
    Andrew Silke, Professor of Criminology, Royal Holloway, University of London, UK

    "Brilliant! This handbook should be on every student, researcher, practitioner and policy maker’s shelf. A much needed comprehensive, diverse, multidisciplinary and, most importantly, critical approach to understanding and preventing violent radicalization."
    Ghayda Hassan, Professor of Clinical Psychology, Université du Québec à Montréal, Canada; Director of the Canadian Practitioners Network for the Prevention of Radicalization and Extremist Violence

    "With definitive contributions from so many of the top scholars in radicalisation studies, this comprehensive handbook is an invaluable resource for academics, practitioners, and students alike and guaranteed to remain so for the foreseeable future."
    Noémie Bouhana, Professor of Crime Science and Counter Extremism, University College London, UK

    "A key strength of the The Routledge Handbook on Radicalisation and Countering Radicalisation is its multidisciplinary approach to analysing the concept of radicalisation and its various cognitive and behavioural expressions. Contributions raise critical issues relevant to the policy and practice of counter radicalisation and it will be of interest to both practitioners and scholars."
    Adrian Cherney, Professor, School of Social Science, University of Queensland, Australia

    "This book is a significant contribution to our understanding of radicalisation. It offers a series of coherent conceptual analyses addressing some of the most challenging areas, and also develops practical insights and strategies to address radicalisation in communities and with individuals at both practical and policy levels."
    Max Taylor, Visiting Professor, Department of Security and Crime Sciences, University College London, UK