1st Edition

The Routledge Handbook on the International Dimension of Brexit

Edited By Juan Santos Vara, Ramses A. Wessel Copyright 2021
    372 Pages 2 B/W Illustrations
    by Routledge

    372 Pages 2 B/W Illustrations
    by Routledge

    This handbook provides comprehensive and expert analysis of the impact of the Brexit process and the withdrawal of the United Kingdom from the European Union on existing and future EU–UK relations within the context of both EU and international law.

    Examining the wider international law implications, it additionally assesses the complex legal consequences of Brexit for both the EU and the UK in their dealings with third states and other international organizations. With contributions from renowned specialists in the field of EU external action, each chapter will analyse specific policy areas to address key challenges arising from the Brexit process for the EU and the UK and propose solutions to overcome these problems. The handbook aims to fill a gap in research by assessing the consequences of Brexit under EU external relations law and international law. As such, it is hoped it will set the research agenda for coming years on the international dimension of Brexit.

    The Routledge Handbook on the International Dimension of Brexit is an authoritative and essential reference text for scholars and students of international and European/EU law and policy, EU politics, and British Politics and Brexit, as well as of key relevance to legal practitioners involved in Brexit, governments, policy-makers, civil society organizations, think tanks, practitioners, national parliaments and the Court of Justice.

    1. The Implications of Brexit for EU and UK External Relations: An Introduction

    Juan Santos Vara, Ramses A. Wessel and Polly R. Polak

    Part I: The Framework for the Future Relationship between the EU and the UK

    2. Towards the Formulation of the ‘Brussels Criteria’: The Values and Principles Underlying EU Withdrawal and Their Application in Future Contexts

    Allan F. Tatham

    3. In the Twilight Zone: The Transition Period in the Withdrawal Agreement

    Tobias Lock

    4. Parliamentary Involvement in the Negotiations on the EU–UK Trade Agreement

    Adam Cygan and Ewa Żelazna

    5. EU Withdrawal Law After Brexit: The Emergence of a Unique Legal Procedure

    Polly R. Polak

    Part II: Brexit and Existing EU International Agreements

    6. Managing Brexit: Trade Agreements Binding on the UK Pursuant to its EU Membership

    Panos Koutrakos

    7. Come Fly With Me? Brexit and Air Transport

    Wybe Th. Douma

    8. Outside the Opt-out: Legal Consequences of the UK’s Withdrawal from the EU for the External Action in the AFSJ

    Paula García Andrade

    9. Copy–Pasting or Negotiating? Post-Brexit Trade Agreements between the UK and Non-EU Countries

    Adam Łazowski

    Part III: International Organizations and EU Diplomacy after Brexit

    10 EU–UK Relations at the WTO: Towards Constructive Creative Competition

    Gregory Messenger

    11. Brexit and its Implications for the EU in the UN Security Council

    Jan Wouters

    12. EU Diplomacy after Brexit

    Mauro Gatti

    13. Brexit and Fisheries: International Law Issues, Participation in RFMOs, Reciprocal Access and the Future

    Fernando Castillo de la Torre and Agnieszka Stobiecka-Kuik

    Part IV: Common Foreign, Security and Defence Policy after Brexit

    14. Post-Brexit Participation of the UK in EU Foreign, Security and Defence Policy

    Ramses A. Wessel

    15. UK Sanctions Policy after Brexit: From Dependence to Autonomy?

    Sara Poli

    16. EU Sanctions Policy and the Alignment of Third Countries: Relevant Experiences for the UK?

    Viktor Szép and Peter Van Elsuwege

    17. EU Crisis Management Operations and International Responsibility Post–Brexit

    Scarlett McArdle

    Part V: Brexit and Specific International Arrangements

    18. Brexit and EU Agencies: Opting-in from the Outside?

    Andrea Ott

    19. Disentangling the UK from EU Environmental Agreements after Brexit: The Challenges Posed by Mixed Agreements and Soft Law

    Teresa Fajardo

    20. The Future of Judicial Cooperation in Criminal Matters between the EU and the UK

    Chloé Brière

    Part VI: Contested and External Effects of Brexit

    21. The Implications of the Withdrawal Agreement for Gibraltar: Is Spain Taking Back Control?

    Juan Santos Vara

    22. Brexit and International Legal Sovereignty

    Jed Odermatt

    23. The Cross-Channel Reach of EU Law in the UK Post-Brexit

    Elaine Fahey


    Juan Santos Vara is Professor of Public International Law and European Law, Jean Monnet Chair in EU External Action, and Coordinator of the European Joint Master’s in Strategic Border Management (Frontex) at the University of Salamanca, Spain.

    Ramses A. Wessel is Professor of European Law at the University of Groningen, the Netherlands. He is also Vice-President of the European Society of International Law (ESIL) and co-founder of the Centre for the Law of EU External Relations (CLEER) in The Hague.

    Polly R. Polak is PhD candidate in EU law funded by the Regional Government of Castille and Leon, University of Salamanca, Spain, where she also lectures in EU Law and International Relations and coordinates the Master’s degree in EU Studies.

    "Brexit is not only a matter involving the United Kingdom and the European Union. It also has far reaching external implications which this timely collection explores. The Handbook is a welcome contribution to the study of the multifaceted consequences of a state's withdrawal from the EU."

    Christophe Hillion, University of Oslo, Norway, and Leiden University, The Netherlands.

    "This research handbook offers the most comprehensive overview to date of the legal implications of Brexit from the perspective of EU external relations law and international law. While much has been written on the internal consequences of Brexit, for the UK and the EU – and as the parties engage in complex negotiations on the framework of their future relations – this edited collection sheds light on the effects that Brexit poses for international treaties and international organizations, identifying the challenges and the options ahead."

    Federico Fabbrini, Founding Director of the Brexit Institute, Dublin City University, Ireland.

    "Now that the United Kingdom has exited the European Union, its relations with many of its trading partners will be regulated by an unfamiliar mix of Union and international law. This timely volume seeks to bring some order into what might otherwise look like chaos, learning the lessons of the withdrawal procedure itself and identifying a variety of topics that will require the urgent attention of politicians and lawyers in the coming years. It is a must for any Brexit library."

    Kieran Bradley, Former Special Brexit Adviser to the EU Court of Justice.

    "This volume provides an invaluable guide, based on the best available understanding of the potential obstacles that may be encountered and the manifold ways in which they might be met. It is a volume that may be consumed by the specialist, who may identify even further unanswered questions, or the perplexed generalist, who may dip in and out to marvel at Brexit’s complexities or seek clarification on an isolated issue."

    John Cotter, Keele University, UK