The Science of Imaging  book cover
2nd Edition

The Science of Imaging

ISBN 9781439812860
Published November 19, 2010 by CRC Press
352 Pages - 30 Color & 305 B/W Illustrations

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Book Description

Edited and expanded to keep pace with the digital revolution, the new edition of this highly popular and critically acclaimed work provides a comprehensive exploration of imaging science. Brilliantly written and extensively illustrated, The Science of Imaging: An Introduction, Second Edition covers the fundamental laws of physics as well as the cutting-edge techniques defining current and future directions in the field.

Improvements to this Edition Include:

  • A new chapter on astronomical imaging
  • A larger format with a wealth of illustrations
  • Major revisions in the areas of digital imaging and modern technology
  • Updated references with links to a wealth of online resources—including teaching material and expanded information

This accessible introduction to the subject takes students on a grand tour of imaging. Starting with the fundamentals of light and basic cameras, the author journeys through television and holography to advanced scientific and medical imaging. He highlights essential formulas, while keeping the complex mathematics to a minimum. Copiously illustrated with a wealth of examples and a 16-page color insert, the text covers optics, imaging systems, materials, and image interpretation and creation in a manner that makes it easy to understand.

Praise for the critically acclaimed First Edition:

It's the best book I have read on the subject at this level.
—Ron Graham, RPS Journal

... every student should read it, every photographer should own it, and every lecturer and journalist should know its contents inside out.
—Jon Tarrant, British Journal of Photography

Table of Contents

The Nature of Light
Models for the Behavior of Light
Box: Maxwell and Electromagnetism
Electromagnetic Radiation
The Electromagnetic Spectrum
Box: The Grating Condition
The Airy Diffraction Pattern
Reflection and Refraction
Box: Snell’s Law
Total Internal Reflection (TIR)
The Pinhole Camera
Development of a Lens
Box: Anomalous Refraction
Digging Deeper

Photometry, Lighting, and Light Filters
Photometric Units
Luminous Intensity
Luminous Flux
Box: Planck’s Equation and Retinal Sensitivity
Inverse Square Law
Luminous Energy
Luminous Efficacy
Spectral Energy Distribution
Color Temperature
The Mirek Scale
Types of Light Sources
Photographic Light Filters
Polarizing Filters
Box: Applications of Polarizing Filters
Digging Deeper

Visual Perception
The Eye and Evolution
Optics of the Eye
Short and Long Sight
The Retina
Rods and Cones
Sensitivity Range
Box: The Weber-Fechner Law
Visual Pathways
Box: Neural Processing of the Visual Signal
Visual Fields and Binocular Vision
Color Perception
Seeing a Range of Colors
Visual Illusions
Perception and Imaging
Digging Deeper

Lens Principles
A Model for the Geometry of Camera Lenses
The Simple Lens
The Lens Laws
Real and Virtual Images
Depth of Field
Box: Hyperfocal Distance
Depth of Focus
Gaussian Optics
Telephoto Lenses
Retrofocus Lenses
Varifocal and Zoom Lenses
Angle of Field
Lens Aberrations
Aspheric Surfaces
Box: Lens Coating
Box: The Scheimpflug Rule
Digging Deeper

Types of Lenses
Process Lenses
Macro Lenses
Catadioptric (Mirror Lens) Systems
Telecentric Lens Systems
Ultrawide-Angle Lenses
Fisheye Lenses
Box: Why "Fisheye"?
Panoramic Lenses
360° Lenses
Lenses for Aerial and Satellite Photography
Afocal Lens Systems
Lens Systems for Underwater Photography
GRIN Lenses
Diffractive Optical Elements (DOEs)
Pinhole Photography
Box: Making a Pinhole
Digging Deeper

Resolution in Optical Systems
Testing for Resolving Power
Diffraction Limitation
The Rayleigh Criterion
The Inadequacy of Resolving Power
The Modern Approach to Image Quality
Box: Analysis of a Square Wave
The Optical Transfer Function
The MTF of an "Ideal" Lens
Box: OTF and PSF Related
Cascading of Transfer Functions
Granularity and Pixel Size
Digging Deeper

Images in Color
Early Attempts
Lippmann Photography
Box: Lippmann’s Desaturated Colors
The Young-Helmholtz Theory of Visual
Additive Color Synthesis
Quantifying Color: The CIE Chromaticity Diagram
Box: Measurement Systems for Color
Other Scales of Color Measurement
Subtractive Color Synthesis
Color Separation Negatives
Color Prints from Separation Negatives
Tripack Color Transparencies
Prints from Transparencies
Polaroid Color
Color Negative-Positive Systems
Box: Color Masking
Digging Deeper

Still Cameras
Early Cameras
Types of Camera
Specialized Cameras
Rangefinders and Focus Finders
Automatic Focus Control
Automatic Exposure Control
Flash Synchronization
Box: Guide Numbers
Camera Shake and Stabilization Mechanisms
Image Motion Compensation
Digging Deeper

Motion and High-Speed Photography
Persistence of Vision
Early Experiments
The Modern Cine Camera
Slow Motion and Time Lapse
High-Speed Cine
Mirror and Drum Photography
Smear and Streak Photography
Lighting for High-Speed Photography
Digging Deeper

The Silver Halide Process
The Uniqueness of Silver
Color Sensitivity of Emulsions
Box: Oxidation and Reduction
Fixing, Washing, and Drying
Color Emulsions
Processing of Color Emulsions
Practical Units of Measurement
The Characteristic Curve
Inherent Contrast
What the Characteristic Curve Tells Us
Effect of Varying the Development Time
Reciprocity Failure
Print Materials
The Density Range of a Paper
Color Print Papers
Image Modification
Digging Deeper

Digital Recording of Images
The Digital Principle
Box: The Nyquist Criterion
Digital Recording of Luminance
Box: Bits, Bytes, and Binary Arithmetic
Extending the Sensitivity
Principles of Electronic Information Storage
Getting the Image Out of the Camera
Color in a Digital Camera
The Future for Digital Cameras
Scanners and Scanning methods
Digging Deeper

Halftone, Electrostatic, and Digital Printing
Continuous Tones with Printer’s Ink
The Halftone Principle
Printing in Color
Color Masking
Electrostatic Copying (Xerography)
Digging Deeper

The Television Camera
Data Storage Methods
Transmission and Reception of a TV Signal
The Signal
Transmitting Antennas
Receiving Antennas
Box: Impedance
Microwave Relay Transmission
Satellite Transmission
Cable Transmissions
The TV Receiver
Projection Systems
Digital Television: The Advantages
Aspect Ratio
High-Definition Television
Digging Deeper

Video Recording and Replay Systems
Magnetic Tape Recording
Analogue Sound Recording
Box: Ferromagnetism, Hysteresis, and a.c. Bias
Tape Recording Mechanisms
Box: Noise Reduction Systems
Videotape Recording Techniques
Digital Recording
Digital Videotape
Hard Disc Recorders
Magneto-optical Discs
CDs and DVDs
Box: Before the CD
The Blu-ray System
Burning a CD
Digging Deeper

Three-Dimensional Imaging
How We See Depth
The Limits of Stereo Pairs of Images
Early Stereoscopic Images
Stereoscopic Camera Formats
Stereophotography in Aerial Survey
Effect of Incorrect Lens Separation
Hypostereoscopy in Microscopy
Viewing Methods for Stereo Pairs
Viewing Without Optical Aids
Coincident Image Stereograms
Autostereoscopic Systems
Stereoscopic Cinema and Television
Further Developments in Stereo Projection
Simulated Stereopsis
Integral Photography
Digging Deeper

Denisyuk’s Hologram
Box: Gabor’s Hologram
Off-Axis Holograms
Leith’s Hologram
Processing a Hologram
Other Types of Sensitive Material
Dichromated Gelatin (DCG)
The Real Image
Transfer Holograms
Contact Copies

Astronomical Imaging
Early History
The Schmidt Configuration
Atmospheric Effects
Box: Telescopes in Space
Types of Detector
Solar Telescopes
Infrared and Terahertz Astronomy
Radio Telescopes
How to Measure the Diameter of a Star
Digging Deeper

Macrography, Micrography, and Microimaging
Box: Resolution Criterion
Microscope Optics
Illumination Systems
Confocal Microscopy
Electron Microscopy
Digging Deeper
Focused-Image Holograms
Rainbow Holograms
Pulse Laser Holograms
Embossed Holograms
Holographic Stereograms
Holograms in Natural Colors
Holographic Interferometry
Holographic Optical Elements
Computer-Generated Holograms
Box: Zone Plates
Dot Matrix Images
Digital Holography
Digging Deeper

Imaging the Invisible
Radio Images
Terahertz Imaging
Infrared Imaging
Thermal Imaging
Image Conversion and Intensification
Ultraviolet and Fluorescence Imaging
Tomography and Scanning Systems
Analysis of Scanning Outputs
Ultrasonic Imaging
Schlieren Photography
Digging Deeper

Appendix 1: Logarithms: What They Are, What They Do
Logarithmic Scales
Logs Base 2
Logs to Other Bases
Appendix 2: How a Hologram Works
Standing Waves
Appendix 3: The Fourier Model for Image Formation
Appendix 4: The Meaning of pH

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Graham Saxby served in the Royal Air Force (RAF) for 27 years, the first 19 in the trade of photographer, where he undertook almost every possible form of assignment. After being commissioned into the Education Branch, he was Officer Commanding Photographic Science Flight at the RAF School of Photography at Cosford for seven years. On leaving the RAF he joined the staff of what is now the University of Wolverhampton as Senior Lecturer in Educational Technology, later moving to the Department of Applied Sciences to teach modern optics. His research into display holographic techniques has earned him an international reputation, and his books have won several prestigious awards. Currently, he works as a freelance editor and reviewer of technical books and as a consultant in optical and photographic matters. He is a Fellow of the Institute of Physics and an Honorary Fellow of the Royal Photographic Society.


In summary, the book has many useful formulas for a variety of designs. It is well organized, so users can easily find the section relevant to their needs. And the plethora of worked examples is very helpful. … I see it as a useful introduction to the clinical researcher and as a reference for the statistician interested in sample size formulae for specific designs.
—The International Biometric Society, 2012

Graham Saxby proves to us in his brilliantly written and well-structured book that many essential topics of such a broad and comprehensive field can be squeezed into 352 pages. In my opinion, anyone having an interest on current imaging technologies should read it to extend their knowledge or to develop a broad vision on the field. … it is definitely suitable as a complementary textbook for undergraduate courses on imaging and optical technologies. It can as well be used as a reference book for any interested reader to learn the specific terminology in the field. … The explanations are extremely informative and easy to follow. In addition, the text is backed up with many excellent illustrations and intriguing real life examples that I think many lecturers would want to make use of them in their lectures.
—Doğa Gürsoy, Contemporary Physics, 2011

I recommend this book for its clear and readable style of a wide-ranging subject. … buy this book for an easy-to read holistic account of scientific imaging …
—Jeremy Sanderson, Blo-Imaging Facility, MRC, Harwell, UK, INFOCUS, 2011

Praise for the First Edition:
... a truly valuable book, magnificently bringing together such diverse technologies, yet keeping a practical eye on who is likely to be reading it. It's the best book I have read on the subject at this level.
—Ron Graham, RPS Journal

... well written ... lots of helpful marginal notes …if your research depends on obtaining and analysing top-quality images, this book should prove to be an invaluable practical guide and reference source.
—Matin Durrani, Physics World

... every student should read it, every photographer should own it, and every lecturer and journalist should know its contents inside out.
—Jon Tarrant, British Journal of Photography, December 2002

... rather impressed ... surveys a broad, complex, and rapidly changing subject succinctly, yet at a useful and appropriate level.
—Gordon Ridley, Glasgow College of Building and Printing

Given the wide range of potential audience, the author has on the whole made a very fair attempt to judge an appropriate level both of assumed prior knowledge and of scientific competence and understanding, and the further reading suggestions will accommodate the inevitable variances in these … Overall, this reviewer is delighted that the author had the courage to attempt the very daunting task of presenting his illuminating account of what must be in effect a lifetime's interest in such a wide range of exciting phenomena and technical achievements.
—Philip Bradfield, Physical Sciences Educational Reviews, Vol. 3, Issue 2

A useful book ... fills a gap in the range of publications on this topic. ... full of useful, accurate information and diagrams at a very affordable price in a well-produced volume.
—Sidney Ray, author of Applied Photographic Optics

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