The sixteenth century was a critical period both for Spain’s formation and for the imperial dominance of her Crown. Spanish monarchs ruled far and wide, spreading agents and culture across Europe and the wider world. Yet in Italy they encountered another culture whose achievements were even prouder and whose aspirations often even grander than their own. Italians, the nominally subaltern group, did not readily accept Spanish dominance and exercised considerable agency over how imperial Spanish identity developed within their borders. In the end Italians’ views sometimes even shaped how their Spanish colonizers eventually came to see themselves. The essays collected here evaluate the broad range of contexts in which Spaniards were present in early modern Italy. They consider diplomacy, sanctity, art, politics and even popular verse. Each essay excavates how Italians who came into contact with the Spanish crown’s power perceived and interacted with the wider range of identities brought amongst them by its servants and subjects. Together they demonstrate what influenced and what determined Italians’ responses to Spain; they show Spanish Italy in its full transcultural glory and how its inhabitants projected its culture - throughout the sixteenth century and beyond.
Table of Contents
PART I THE SPANISH PRESENCE IN ITALIAN POLITICS, SOCIETY AND CULTURE
1 Mere Emulators of Italy: The Spanish in Italian Diplomatic Discourse, 1492–1550
2 Hispanophobia in the Venetian Republic
3 Encountering Spain in Early Modern Naples: Language, Customs and Sociability
PART II SPANISH RELIGIOSITY AND ROMAN RELIGION
4 Rome as a ‘Spanish Avignon’? The Spanish Faction and the Monarchy of Philip II
5 Rome and the ‘Spanish Theology’: Spanish Monarchy, Doctrinal Controversies and the Defence of Papal Prerogatives from Clement VIII to Urban VIII
6 Spanish Saints in Counter-Reformation Italy
PART III SPANISH VISION AND THE VISUAL ARTS IN ITALY
7 ‘Graecia Capta Ferum Victorem Coepit’: Spanish Patrons and Italian Artists
8 The Stranded Tomb: Cultural Allusions in the Funeral Monument of Don Pedro de Toledo, San Giacomo degli Spagnoli, Naples
Robert W. Gaston and Andrea M. Gáldy
9 Inventive Translation, Portraiture and Spanish Habsburg Taste in the Sixteenth Century
10 The Politics of Art or the Art of Politics? The Marquis del Carpio in Rome and Naples (1677–1687)
Jorge Fernández-Santos Ortiz-Iribas
Piers Baker-Bates is a Research Associate in Art History at the Open University, UK.
Miles Pattenden is Lecturer in Early Modern History at Jesus College, Oxford, UK.