In November 1993 voters in Cincinnati, Ohio passed Issue 3, an amendment to the City Charter eliminating gay, lesbian, and bisexual persons' legal protection against discrimination and prohibiting their recognition as a group or class. This Christian right initiative emerged largely in response to the inclusion of "sexual orientation" in the city's newly enacted Human Rights Ordinance just one year earlier. Using qualitative data, Kimberly Dugan captures the dynamics and interdependence of the gay, lesbian, and bisexual movement and the Christian right as they engaged in conflict over Issue 3 by focusing on cultural factors relevant to movement mobilization, strategies, and success.
1. Facing Off Over Gay Rights 2. Cultural Opportunities and Issue 3 Mobilization 3. Collective Identity and the Issue 3 Movements' Strategies 4. The Framing of Issue 3 5. Frame Resonance and the Challenger's Imperative to Counter 6. Conclusions on an Anti-Gay Rights Test Case