The Toxicology and Biochemistry of Insecticides: 2nd Edition (Hardback) book cover

The Toxicology and Biochemistry of Insecticides

2nd Edition

By Simon J. Yu

CRC Press

380 pages | 3 Color Illus. | 387 B/W Illus.

Purchasing Options:$ = USD
Hardback: 9781482210606
pub: 2014-11-24
$115.00
x
eBook (VitalSource) : 9781482210637
pub: 2014-12-22
from $28.98


FREE Standard Shipping!

Description

Despitetheir potentially adverse effects on nontarget species and the environment, insecticides remain a necessity in crop protection as well as in the reduction of insect-borne diseases. The Toxicology and Biochemistry of Insecticides provides essential insecticide knowledge required for the effective management of insect pests.

Continuing as the sole book in more than two decades to address this multifaceted field, the Second Edition of this highly praised review on insecticide toxicology has been greatly expanded and updated to present the most current information on:

  • Systemic classification of insecticides
  • How insecticides function at the molecular level and newly discovered modes of action
  • Insecticide resistance, molecular mechanisms, fitness costs, reversion, and management of resistance
  • Various bioassay methods including the interpretation of probit analysis
  • Molecular mechanisms of insecticide selectivity
  • Major biochemical mechanisms involved in the transformation of insecticides
  • Fate of insecticides in the environment and the sublethal effects of insecticides on wildlife
  • Newly developed insecticides, including the addition of more microbial insecticides in keeping with current integrated pest management (IPM) approaches

Incorporating extensive reference lists for further reading, The Toxicology and Biochemistry of Insecticides, Second Edition is an ideal textbook for students of entomology, plant medicine, insecticide toxicology, and related agricultural disciplines. It is also a valuable resource for those involved in insecticide research, environmental toxicology, and crop protection.

Reviews

"Overall, this is a carefully crafted treatment of a difficult subject, and Simon Yu has successfully walked the fine line between too much and not enough detail. Importantly, he does an excellent job explaining why certain things are important to toxicologists, and what should be of interest to managers of insect pests. Also, he provides a holistic treatment that has something of interest for everyone, and it is presented in an easily comprehended manner. If you work with insecticides, and especially if you don’t, you need to read this book. There is a great deal of misinformation about pesticides in the world, but this book is a great source of enlightenment."

—John L. Capinera, University of Florida, in Florida Entomologist

Praise for the First Edition

"… applicable to a diversity of students from entomology, pest management and related agricultural disciplines. … provides an updated and comprehensive introductory textbook for students of insecticide toxicology that incorporates traditional toxicological concepts, including uptake, mode of action, and principles of xenobiotic metabolism with an up-to-date cataloging of both historically important insecticide classes and novel chemistries and their mode of action. This information provides a solid foundation for developing more complex issues, such as the role of xenobiotic metabolism as it relates to selective toxicity and resistance evolution. … presents material in an easy-to-read outline that is well organized. … illustrated with many line drawings and tables providing the reader with ample opportunity to interpret data that enhances understanding of a certain topic. … This text is a valuable basic reference for students of insecticide toxicology. … I have recommended the text for my own course and have received positive feedback from a diversity of students."

—Blair D. Siegfried, Department of Entomology, University of Nebraska-Lincoln, USA, Florida Entomologist, March 2009

"This is a great book detailing everything you might wish to know about the entomological toxicology, biochemistry, and indeed the physiology, sensitivities and resistance to, mode of action, purpose and range, regulation, and environmental fate, of pesticides—and more besides. The division into 11 chapters is amply signposted in a set of more-than-adequate contents pages. If that should fail you in locating what you are looking for, then the index at the rear will see you right. … Each chapter flowed nicely into and introduced the next, and the book had a very reasonable style (even the bits on mono-oxygenases). I loved reading about spiracles and their significance (or not) in pesticide absorption. It covered topics in useful depth, but facts were easy to find and were not hidden beneath layers of waffle or arcane language. It would serve as an invaluable reference tool to toxicologists (and agronomists, biochemists, teachers, entomologists, students, and ecologists …) coming into contact with insecticides."

—Tom Holmes, Covance Laboratories Ltd., UK, BTS Newsletter, Summer 2009

"If you are interested in more general aspects of insecticides, the chapters on formulation and the mode of action of insecticides are good, and the section in chapter 5 on probits is one of the best written I have seen."

—TC Marrs, Edentox Associates, UK, BTS Newsletter, Winter 2008

Table of Contents

Preface to the Second Edition

Preface to the First Edition

Author

Need for Pesticides and Their Pattern of Use

Introduction

Need for Pesticides

Food Production

World Health Status

Pattern of Use

Pesticide Economics

References

Formulation of Pesticides

Introduction

Types of Formulation

Dusts

Wettable Powders

Emulsifiable Concentrates

Suspendable Concentrates or Flowables

Water-Soluble Powders

Solutions

Granules

Water-Dispersible Granules

Ultralow-Volume Formulations

Aerosols

Controlled-Release Formulations

Baits

Nonpesticidal Ingredients of Formulations

Solvents

Diluents

Surfactants

Disposal of Pesticide Containers

Pesticide Application Equipment

References

Pesticide Laws and Regulations

Introduction

Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act

Registration of Pesticides

Classification of Pesticides and Certification of Applicators

Other Provisions of FIFRA

Pesticide Categories

Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act

Tolerance

Basis for Tolerance

Food Quality Protection Act

State Laws

Enforcement

References

Classification of Insecticides

Introduction

Classification of Insecticides

Chlorinated Hydrocarbon Insecticides

Organophosphates

Carbamates

Pyrethroids

Botanical Insecticides

Insect Growth Regulators

Neonicotinoids

Formamidines

Microbial Insecticides

Fumigants

Inorganic Insecticides

Miscellaneous Insecticide Classes

Acaricides

Insect Repellents

References

Evaluation of Toxicity

Introduction

Testing Procedures

Tests with Insects

Topical Application

Injection Method

Dipping Method

Contact Method (Residual Exposure Method)

Fumigation Method

Feeding Method

Tests with Higher Animals

Acute Toxicity Tests

Subacute Toxicity and Chronic Toxicity Tests

Probit Analysis

Source of Variability in Dose–Response Tests

Age

Sex

Rearing Temperature

Food Supply

Population Density

Illumination

Use of LDP Lines

Appendix

References

Uptake of Insecticides

Introduction

Penetration of Insecticides through the Insect Cuticle

Structure of Insect Cuticle

Movement of Insecticides through the Cuticle

Site of Entry

Factors Affecting Cuticular Penetration Rates

Metabolism of Insecticides in the Cuticle

Entry via the Mouth

Uptake via the Spiracles

References

Mode of Action of Insecticides

Introduction

Insecticides Affecting Voltage-Gated Sodium Channels

Background

Mode of Action of the DDT Group, Pyrethroids, Indoxacarb, Sabadilla, and Metaflumizone

Insecticides Affecting Ryanodine Receptors

Insecticides Inhibiting Acetylcholinesterase

Background

Mode of Action of Organophosphorus and Carbamate Insecticides

Insecticides Interfering with Chloride Channels

GABA-Gated Chloride Channels

Glutamate-Gated Chloride Channels

Insecticides That Bind to Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptors

Insecticides Affecting Octopamine Receptors

Insecticides Interfering with Respiration

Inhibitors of the Mitochondrial Electron Transport System

Inhibitors of Oxidative Phosphorylation

Insecticides Disrupting Insect Midgut Membranes

Bacillus thuringiensis

Bacillus sphaericus

Mode of Action of Baculovirus Insecticides

Insecticides Affecting Chitin Biosynthesis or Cuticle Sclerotization

Insecticides Acting as Juvenile Hormone Mimics

Insecticides Acting as Ecdysone Agonists or Blocking Molting Hormone Activity

Insecticides Causing Protein Degradation and Necrotic Cell Death

Insecticides Abrading or Disrupting Insect Cuticle

Insecticides Acting as Selective Feeding Blockers

Insecticides Causing Suffocation

Mode of Action of Acaricides

Acaricides Interfering with Respiration

Acaricides Interfering with Growth and Development

Acaricides Acting as Neurotoxins

Mode of Action of Insect Repellents

References

Principles of Pesticide Metabolism

Introduction

Phase I Reactions

Oxidation

Hydrolysis

Reduction

Phase II Reactions

Glucose Conjugation

Glucuronic Acid Conjugation

Sulfate Conjugation

Phosphate Conjugation

Amino Acid Conjugation

Glutathione Conjugation

Metabolic Systems in Plants

Metabolic Pathways of Selected Insecticides

Carbamates

Organophosphates

Pyrethroids

Chlorinated Hydrocarbons

Benzoylphenylureas

Juvenoids

Neonicotinoids

Formamidines

Amidinohydrazones

Phenylpyrazoles

Thiadiazines

Triazines

Quinazolines

Organotins

Microbial Insecticides

Diacylhydrazines

Nereistoxin Analogs

Thiocarbamates

Organosulfurs

Pyrazoles

Phthalic Acid Diamides

Anthranilic Diamides

Tetronic Acids

Dichloropropenyl Ethers

References

Species Differences and Other Phenomena Associated with the Metabolism of Xenobiotics

Introduction

Species Differences in Detoxification Enzyme Activity

Examples of Differences

Evolution of Species Differences in Detoxification

Effect of Age and Sex on Enzyme Activity

Specificity of Detoxification Enzymes

Selective Toxicity

Synergism and Antagonism

Enzyme Induction

Induction of Detoxification Enzymes

Enzyme Induction as Detoxification Mechanism

Insecticide Resistance

References

Insecticide Resistance

Introduction

Genetics of Resistance

Preadaptation

Gene Frequency

Dominance and Number of Genes

Reversion of Resistance

Mechanisms of Resistance

Behavioral Resistance

Physiological Resistance

Interaction Phenomena

Cross-Resistance and Multiple Resistance

Interaction of Resistance Factors

Fitness Costs of Insecticide Resistance

Rate of Development of Resistance

Frequency of R Alleles

Dominance of R Alleles

Generation Turnover

Population Mobility

Persistence of Pesticide Residues

Selection Pressure

Pattern of Resistance Development

Management of Resistance

Reducing Resistance Gene Frequency

Use of Insecticide Mixtures and Rotations

Use of Insecticide Synergists

Use of New Pesticides

Use of Resistant Predators and Parasites

Field Monitoring

Use of Transgenic Crops

References

Pesticides in the Environment

Introduction

Persistence of Pesticides in Soil

Adsorptive Forces

Factors Influencing Persistence of Pesticides in Soil

Photodegradation of Pesticides

Hydrolysis

Dechlorination

Oxidation

Isomerization (Intramolecular Rearrangement Process)

Pesticides and the Food Chain

Lipid Solubility of Pesticides

Metabolic Activity

Feeding Habits

Behavior and Ecological Niche

Sublethal Effects of Pesticides on Wildlife

Eggshell Thinning in Birds

Endocrine Disruption in Wildlife

Biomarkers as Indicators of Pesticide Pollution

References

Index

About the Author

Simon J. Yu is professor emeritus at the University of Florida, Gainesville, USA. He holds a BS from National Taiwan University, Taipei, and an MS and Ph.D from McGill University, Montreal, Quebec, Canada. After completing postdoctoral studies at Cornell University, Ithaca, New York, USA, and Oregon State University, Corvallis, USA, he served as assistant professor at Oregon State from 1974 to 1979. He moved to the University of Florida in 1980, and was promoted to associate professor in 1982 and professor in 1986. He retired from the university in 2006, but remains an emeritus faculty. His research has been supported by USDA, NSF, NIH, EPA, and various pesticide companies.

Subject Categories

BISAC Subject Codes/Headings:
SCI013000
SCIENCE / Chemistry / General
SCI025000
SCIENCE / Life Sciences / Zoology / Entomology
SCI026000
SCIENCE / Environmental Science