2nd Edition

The Turkic Languages

Edited By Lars Johanson, Éva Á. Csató Copyright 2022
    512 Pages 2 B/W Illustrations
    by Routledge

    The Turkic languages are spoken today in a vast geographical area stretching from southern Iran to the Arctic Ocean and from the Balkans to the great wall of China. There are currently 20 literary languages in the group, the most important among them being Turkish with over 70 million speakers; other major languages covered include Azeri, Bashkir, Chuvash, Gagauz, Karakalpak, Kazakh, Kirghiz, Noghay, Tatar, Turkmen, Uyghur, Uzbek, Yakut, Yellow Uyghur and languages of Iran and South Siberia.

    The Turkic Languages is a reference book which brings together detailed discussions of the historical development and specialized linguistic structures and features of the languages in the Turkic family. Seen from a linguistic typology point of view, Turkic languages are particularly interesting because of their astonishing morphosyntactic regularity, their vast geographical distribution, and their great stability over time.

    This volume builds upon a work which has already become a defining classic of Turkic language study. The present, thoroughly revised edition updates and augments those authoritative accounts and reflects recent and ongoing developments in the languages themselves, as well as our further enhanced understanding of the relations and patterns of influence between them. The result is the fruit of decades-long experience in the teaching of the Turkic languages, their philology and literature, and also of a wealth of new insights into the linguistic phenomena and cultural interactions defining their development and use, both historically and in the present day.

    Each chapter combines modern linguistic analysis with traditional historical linguistics; a uniform structure allows for easy typological comparison between the individual languages. Written by an international team of experts, The Turkic Languages will be invaluable to students and researchers within linguistics, Turcology, and Near Eastern and Oriental Studies.



    List of Tables and Figures

    List of Contributors


    A General Introduction to the Turkic Family

    The Structure of the Volume



    Diversity and Harmonization


    Transcription and Notations


    Name Forms



    Basic Vowels

    Non-prime Vowels


    Suffix Notations


    Other Signs

    Abbreviations in Glosses

    1 The Speakers of Turkic Languages Hendrik Boeschoten

    2 The Turkic Peoples: A Historical Sketch Peter B. Golden

    3 The Structure of Turkic Lars Johanson

    4 The Reconstruction of Proto-Turkic and the Genealogical Question András Róna-Tas

    5 Transeurasian Martine Robbeets

    6 The History of Turkic Lars Johanson

    7 Turkic Writing Systems András Róna-Tas

    8 East Old Turkic Lars Johanson

    9 West Old Turkic László Károly

    10 Middle Kipchak Árpád Berta and Éva Á. Csató

    11 Chaghatay Hendrik Boeschoten

    12 Ottoman Turkish Celia Kerslake

    13 Turkish Éva Á. Csató and Lars Johanson

    14 Turkish Dialects Bernt Brendemoen

    15 The Turkish Language Reform Bernt Brendemoen

    16 Gagauz Astrid Menz

    17 Azeri Elisabetta Ragagnin

    18 Turkmen Birsel Karakoç

    19 Turkic Languages of Iran Christiane Bulut

    20 Tatar and Bashkir Árpád Berta

    21 West Kipchak Languages Árpád Berta & Éva Á. Csató

    22 Kazakh and Karakalpak Aynur Abish

    23 Noghay Birsel Karakoç

    24 Kirghiz Birsel Karakoç and Kenjegül Kalieva

    25 Uzbek Hendrik Boeschoten

    26 Uyghur Abdurishid Yakup

    27 Yellow Uyghur and Salar Abdurishid Yakup

    28 South Siberian Turkic Claus Schönig and Irina Nevskaya

    29 Yakut Astrid Menz and Vladimir Monastyrev

    30 Chuvash Klára Agyagási



    Lars Johanson, one of the world’s leading Turcologists, was born and educated at Uppsala University in Sweden. He is professor of Turcology at the University of Mainz, Germany. He has published widely on descriptive and historical linguistics, mostly focusing on the Turkic language family. His book Turkic (2021) presents his pioneering contributions to Turkic linguistics and language typology. He edits the journal Turkic Languages and the monograph series Turcologica.

    Éva Á. Csató, born in Hungary, is professor emeritus in Turkic languages at Uppsala University, Sweden. She studied linguistics and Turcology at the University of Oslo. Her research interests include Turkic linguistics, syntactic typology, contact linguistics, documentation, and revitalization of endangered Turkic languages. She has published over 100 articles and edited more than 10 volumes on different Turkic linguistic topics. She is on the editorial board of the journal Turkic Languages.