1st Edition

The U.S. Domestic Intelligence Enterprise
History, Development, and Operations




ISBN 9781482247732
Published August 5, 2015 by CRC Press
463 Pages 23 B/W Illustrations

USD $78.95

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Book Description

Much has been written about U.S. intelligence operations. However, intelligence, as it is conducted in the U.S. domestic environment, has usually been treated in a fractured and sensationalistic manner. This book dispassionately assesses the U.S. domestically oriented intelligence enterprise by first examining its individual components and then showing how those components, both federal and non-federal, work in conjunction to form an often unacknowledged structure that is more than the sum of its parts.

The U.S. Domestic Intelligence Enterprise: History, Development, and Operations takes a unique, in-depth approach that assesses not only the current state of affairs but also the evolution of the domestic intelligence enterprise. To accomplish this, it examines the origins and progress of the major agencies to show why they operate in the way that they do. By providing this perspective, the book promotes an understanding of the factors to consider when developing effective intelligence policy.

The book is divided into several thematic sections:

  • The evolution of the domestically oriented intelligence enterprise
  • The collection capabilities of the enterprise
  • The role that domestically-developed intelligence has in the analytical process, which informs decision making
  • The use of intelligence to implement decisions via disruption of threat actors

The U.S. Domestic Intelligence Enterprise intends to prompt a rethinking of intelligence within the domestic environment. It takes into account the political realities, the organizational cultures, and the evolving missions that have shaped those agencies responsible for positive and negative intelligence and disruption of threats on American soil. This will hopefully provide a counterweight to future knee-jerk reactions and, instead, inspire a thoughtful approach to the advancement of U.S. strategic interests while protecting the rights of Americans.

Table of Contents

Introduction
Strategic Context
Political Context
Strengthening Concepts of Intelligence in the Domestic Environment
Positive and Negative Intelligence
Elements of National Power
Intelligence Requirements
Benefit for Civil Liberties
Paradigm for the Collection and Exploitation of Domestically Developed Intelligence
Shape of this Book
Endnotes

Evolution of the Political Context for Intelligence in the Domestic Setting
The Federal Communications Act of 1934
Franklin Delano Roosevelt and the Federal Bureau of Investigation
The National Security Act of 1947
Title III and the Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Act
Executive Order 12333
President’s Surveillance Program and TSP
Post-9/11 Intelligence Legislation with Relevance for the Domestic Environment
Inquiries into Failures
Public Opinion
Conclusion
Endnotes

Components of the Domestically Oriented Intelligence Enterprise
Intelligence Community Agencies: Civilian
Intelligence Community Agencies: Military
Non-IC Agencies with an Intelligence Role in the Domestic Environment: Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms, and Explosives
Military Services Counterintelligence Components: Army Counterintelligence Corps, Air Force OS I, NC IS, Defense Criminal Investigative Service
Conclusion
Endnotes

Integration by Exigency
Administrative Coordination
Bilateral Cooperation between Agencies
Fusion Centers and Other Platforms for Multilateral Cooperation
Incorporation of Nonfederal Entities into the Domestically Oriented Intelligence Mission Federal Assistance to Law Enforcement
Task Forces
Federal Cooperation with Nongovernment Entities
Private Sector Assistance to Government
Collaboration versus Information Sharing
Academia
Other Nonprofit Entities
Conclusion
Endnotes

Human Intelligence in the Domestic Setting
FBI and HUMINT
Domestically Oriented HUMINT Collection by the U.S. Military
Central Intelligence Agency HUMINT
Drug Enforcement Administration
Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms, and Explosives
Internal Revenue Service
State and Local Collection
Nonsource HUMINT Operations
Conclusion
Endnotes

Communications Intelligence
Mail Interception
Signals Intelligence
State and Local Use of SIGINT
SIGINT Collection, on U.S. Soil, against Foreign State and Non-State Actors
Use of SIGINT as a Means to Conduct Targeted Intelligence Collection
Outlook
Endnotes

IMINT, FININT, and MASINT
Imagery Intelligence
Geospatial Intelligence
Financial Intelligence
Measurements and Signatures Intelligence
Outlook
Endnotes

Intelligence Analysis of the Domestic Environment
Introduction
Federal Bureau of Investigation
Central Intelligence Agency
Department of Defense
National Security Agency
Drug Enforcement Administration
Department of the Treasury, Office of Intelligence and Analysis
Department of Homeland Security, Office of Intelligence and Analysis
Interagency Analytical Functions
Department of Homeland Security Fusion Centers
Specialized Analytic Disciplines
Outlook
Endnotes

Disruption of Threat Actors and the Domestic Environment
Authorities for Disruption
Arrests and Prosecutions
Domestic Environment as a Platform for International Influence
Culture as an Avenue of Influence
Role of Geopolitically Significant Demographics
Academia
Counterintelligence and Disruption
SIGINT-Facilitated Disruptions
Covert Disruption Against Domestic Groups
Disruption Operations Post COINTELPRO
Outlook
Conclusion
Endnotes

Conclusion
Legacy as a Factor in Shaping the Domestically Oriented Intelligence Enterprise
Domain Awareness
Domestic Practices as a Model for Activities Abroad
Integration with the Broader U.S. Intelligence Picture
Activities Abroad at the Behest of State Actors
Activities Abroad at the Behest of Non-State Actors
Exportation of Criminality
Realigning the Domestically Oriented Intelligence Enterprise for Effectiveness
Endnotes

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Author(s)

Biography

Darren E. Tromblay has been an intelligence analyst with the Federal Bureau of Investigation for over a decade. He holds an MA from the Elliott School of International Affairs at George Washington University, an MS in strategic intelligence from the National Defense Intelligence College, and a BA in history and political science from the University of California. Mr. Tromblay can be reached at [email protected]