The UNCTAD Liner Code: United States Maritime Policy at the Crossroads Lawrence Juda World shipping—vital to international trade—is now going through a period of radical change. The UNCTAD Code of Conduct for Liner Conferences is an important manifestation of that change, reflecting the pressures exerted by developing countries for a New International Economic Order and for modifications in the system of international trade. The code, best known for its provisions on liner cargo allocations, includes a number of other very significant stipulations important for U.S. policy. For several years the United States has opposed the convention and acted on the assumption that the EEC countries, Japan, and other developed states would not ratify it. Now that ratification appears imminent, the United States may find itself isolated and exposed to a number of problems whose impacts may be felt not only in maritime affairs but also in trade, diplomacy, and security. This study examines the nature, provisions, and possible effects of the UNCTAD Liner Code. Dr. Juda evaluates how the regime of the code compares with the present U.S. framework for liner regulations and promotion, then outlines and assesses the major policy options available to the United States given the positions taken by the developing states and the EEC. The book is based on interviews with key officials and on U.N. and U.S. government documents.
Westview Replica Editions -- Introduction -- The UNCTAD Code of Conduct for Liner Conferences -- United States Maritime Policy and the United States Liner Fleet -- United States Abstention from the UNCTAD Liner Code -- Bilateralism -- United States Accession to the Liner Code -- Conclusions and Recommendations -- Appendix 1 -- Appendix 2