The 1990s heralded waves of spectacular forms of local resistance and globalized protest against oil exploitation and environmental pollution in oil-producing regions of the developing world. One of the most spectacular local uprisings against global oil multinationals was led by the Ogoni people who were protesting against the exploitation and marginalization of oil-producing ethnic minority communities in the Niger Delta region of Nigeria. However, the hanging on November 10, 1995 of nine Ogoni ethnic minority and environmental justice activists, including Ken Saro-Wiwa, only served to exacerbate protests in later years. Within a decade, dozens of locally rooted insurgent groups emerged in the Niger Delta and construed themselves as part of the social movement for ethnic minority rights and environmental justice which dates back to colonial times. However, the trajectory of the revolutionary momentum has changed over time, reflecting a mix of progressive, opportunistic and retrogressive trends.
This book provides a critical study of the trajectory of struggles in the Niger Delta since 1995, paying attention to continuities and changes, including recent developments linked to the shift from local resistance, to the rupturing of the Presidential Amnesty peace deal (largely to the Movement for the Emancipation of the Niger Delta) and the resurgence low-intensity sporadic armed militancy—led by the Niger Delta Avengers militia among others. The contributors critically interrogate the nature of the region’s political economy, socio-economic trends and trajectories over the past two decades. This collection also accentuates the lessons learnt, prospects for self-determination, socio-economic and environmental justice and peace in the aftermath of the hanging.
Chapter 1. Introduction: the unfinished revolution—the Niger Delta struggle since 1995.
Cyril Obi and Temitope B. Oriola
Chapter 2. MOSOP since 1995: somewhere between hope and despair?
Chapter 3. The Urhobo militant movements and the contentious Ijaw domination of the Niger Delta struggle.
Chapter 4. A critique of the Joint-Military Task Force (JTF) deployment in the Niger Delta.
Damilohun D. Ayoyo and Temitope B. Oriola
Chapter 5. Presidential Amnesty and resource control militancy in a petro-state.
Mitterand M. Okorie
Chapter 6. Comparing socioeconomic and human development in Nigeria and other oil-producing countries.
Chapter 7. From peaceful to non-peaceful protests: the trajectory of women's movements in the Niger Delta.
Abosede Omowumi Babatunde
Chapter 8. The resurgence of militant groups in the Niger Delta: a study of security threats and the prospects for peace in Nigeria.
Chibuzor Chile Nwobueze and James Okolie-Osemene
Chapter 9. The framing strategies of the Niger Delta Avengers.
Temitope B. Oriola and Ibikunle Adeakin
The book series reflects the diversities and emerging trends in Africa’s conflict, peace and security terrain. It promotes innovative and deep insights into the complexities, shifts as well as continuities in the conflict, peace and security landscapes across the continent after the Cold war, and particularly since the turn of the century. The series responds to the demand for new analyses that systematically unpack and provide fresh perspectives to existing and emerging trends, and actors: individual, non-state, state, cross-border, regional and transnational, including the connections between the local, the regional and global levels and institutions. Issues to be covered span diverse approaches to conflict, violence, security, peacebuilding, politics, resource governance, regional and global interventions, and transitional justice among others. The series include full-length single-authored monographs, multi-authored books, edited collections and high quality thesis conversions based on cutting-edge innovative and original research on Africa.