1st Edition

The United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea A System of Regulation

    328 Pages 3 B/W Illustrations
    by Routledge

    The 1982 United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea (UNCLOS) has for four decades been considered by many to be one of the most important legislative achievements of international law. It is revered as a "constitution of the oceans", providing the legal framework for the governance of the oceans.

    This volume explores how the UNCLOS is functioning in various complex settings, how it adapts to new, emerging developments, as well as how it interacts with other regulation, both within the law of the sea regime and outside. Engaging in themes such as law and order at sea, UNCLOS’ interaction with human rights and the role of private actors, the book raises complex questions in the application, understanding, and enforcement of the convention and how it can be envisaged, interpreted, and used in a dynamic world. The volume also raises methodological questions, the answers to which may enhance the predictability and coherence of the law under UNCLOS and thus secure its role as the predominant and relevant system for legal governance at sea for many decades to come.

    As a contribution to ensuring the future relevance of UNCLOS, the book will be a valuable resource for scholars, diplomats, judges and other practitioners who are working with and interpreting the law of the sea and related issues of maritime law, migration law, human rights law and humanitarian law.

    Chapter 4 of this book is freely available as a downloadable Open Access PDF at http://www.taylorfrancis.com under a Creative Commons Attribution-Non Commercial (CC-BY-NC) 4.0 license.

    List of Contributors


    1. Introduction to UNCLOS 1982 as a System of Regulation
    2. Kristina Siig, Birgit Feldtmann and Fenella M.W. Billing


      Part I Law and Order at Sea

    3. The System of Law and Order at Sea under UNCLOS 1982
    4. Birgit Feldtmann

    5. ‘Outlaw Oceans’ and ‘Lawless Seas’? Revisiting the high seas as a regulatory space under (and after) UNCLOS 1982
    6. Richard Collins

    7. Unmanned Vessels and the Multi-dimensional Concept of ‘Ship’ under UNCLOS 1982
    8. Anna Petrig

    9. The Law of the Sea and the Law of Naval Warfare: Comfortable intersection or
    10. irreconcilable conflict?

      David Letts

    11. Use of Force Against Pirates, Human Rights and the Law of the Sea
    12. Kenneth Øhlenschlæger Buhl


      Part II UNCLOS 1982 and Human Rights

    13. Human Rights from Within the UNCLOS System: An overview
    14. Fenella M. W. Billing

    15. Flag States and Human Rights Protection: Obligations and justiciability under international
    16. human rights law

      Ulrike Fleth-Barten

    17. Looking at the Case Law of the European Court of Human Rights through the Lens of the
    18. International Law of the Sea

      Fernando Loureiro Bastos

    19. Remote Migration Control at Sea: Jurisdiction relating to joint or proxy interception in
      foreign waters or foreign search and rescue regions
    20. Jesper Lindholm

    21. Interpretation of UNCLOS 1982 based on General Principles of Law: ‘Considerations of
      humanity’ in disembarkation of rescued refugees and migrants
    22. Fenella M. W. Billing


      Part III UNCLOS 1982 and Private Actors

    23. Private Actors as Co-regulators, Direct Addressees and/or Enforcers of the System of
    24. Regulation Governed by the Law of the Sea

      Kristina Siig

    25. The Role of Industry Self-Regulation in International Maritime Law
    26. Christian Frier & Kim Østergaard

    27. The Polar Code vs The International Safety Management Code: Do we need both?
    28. Hanna Barbara Rasmussen and Signe Jensen

    29. Marine Insurance at Lloyd’s of London: Shaping and enforcing best management practices
    30. Anja Shortland


      Part IV UNCLOS 1982 and Methodology

    31. UNCLOS 1982 and its Instructions on Method
    32. Kristina Siig

    33. As Time Goes By: A preliminary inquiry into the ‘object and purpose’ of the Law of the Sea
    34. Convention

      Liesbeth Lijnzaad

    35. Modelling UNCLOS 1982: How to approach a complex convention?

    Kristina Siig




    Kristina Siig is Professor (WSR) of Private Law and Maritime Law, University of Southern Denmark, leader of the cross-faculty research cluster Blue SDU and specialises in maritime law and law of the sea from an interdisciplinary perspective. She is the Chairperson of the Task Force Scandinavian Star and teaches maritime contracts at the Scandinavian Institute of Maritime Law, Oslo.

    Birgit Feldtmann is Professor (WSR) in criminal law, criminal procedure and international law enforcement at the Department of Law, Aalborg University, Denmark. She led the DFF2-research project Policing at Sea (PolSEA) under the Independent Research Fund Denmark. She is legal expert with the Contact Group on Piracy off the Coast of Somalia and Danish Institute against Torture.

    Fenella M.W. Billing is Assistant Professor with the Department of Law, University of Southern Denmark. With a background in criminal prosecutions, her core research interests are state responsibility, transnational law enforcement and human rights, such as human rights in EU and comparative criminal justice, maritime law enforcement and border security.