This book examines the theoretical foundations of the processes of planning and design.
When people – alone or in groups – want to solve problems or improve their situation, they make plans. Horst Rittel studied this process of making plans and he developed theories – including his notion of "wicked problems" – that are used in many fields today. From product design, architecture and planning – where Rittel’s work was originally developed – to governmental agencies, business schools and software design, Rittel’s ideas are being used. This book collects previously unavailable work of Rittel’s within the framework of a discussion of Rittel’s theories and philosophical influences.
Prologue Part 1: Foundations 1.1. Reflections On The Scientific And Political Significance Of Decision Theory 1.2. Science and Design Seminars: Introduction 1.3. Seminar 1: Modes of Innovation 1.4. Seminar 2: Images and Message 1.5. Seminar 3: Communications 1.6. Seminar 4: Establishing Order 1.7. Seminar 5: Measuring Values and Images 1.8. Seminar 6: Environments 1.9. Seminar 7: Design 1.10. Seminar 8: Models of and for Design 1.11. Seminar 9: Models of and for Design 2 1.12. Seminar 10: Conclusion Part 2: Wicked Problems 2.1. On the Planning Crisis Part 3: Design Reasoning 3.1. Structure and Usefulness of Planning Information Systems 3.2. Issues As Elements Of Information Systems 3.3. The Reasoning of Designers Part 4: Consequences of Design 4.1. Technological Change and Urban Structure 4.2. Pathologies of Planning. Epilogue