The Virtopsy Approach : 3D Optical and Radiological Scanning and Reconstruction in Forensic Medicine book cover
1st Edition

The Virtopsy Approach
3D Optical and Radiological Scanning and Reconstruction in Forensic Medicine

ISBN 9780849381782
Published May 14, 2009 by CRC Press
536 Pages 649 Color & 300 B/W Illustrations

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Book Description

Charred, badly decomposed, or mummified corpses, as well as those restrictions forced upon coroners by certain religious sects, often make autopsies impossible to perform. In addition, lack of manpower among the personnel charged with performing autopsies frequently creates a backlog of cases in the coroner’s office. This delay increases the likelihood that causes of death will go undetermined and criminal perpetrators will go unpunished. The solution can be found in what has come to be known as the virtopsy®, a minimally invasive and efficient way to perform an autopsy through state-of-the-art imaging-guided means.

A term coined by noted forensic pathologist Richard Dirnhofer, virtopsy refers to "virtual autopsy," a modality that employs a spectrum of technologies including computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging and spectroscopy, and 3D photogrammetry and surface scanning. In The Virtopsy Approach: 3D Optical and Radiological Scanning and Reconstruction in Forensic Medicine, the authors reveal a comprehensive summary of the virtopsy procedure. Well-organized, detailed enough to serve as a how-to guide for newcomers to the field, and copiously illustrated with many color figures accompanied by appropriate explanatory captions, this volume breaks new ground in the world of autopsy science.

Table of Contents

(R)evolution in Forensic Medicine - Preface
From Autopsy to Virtopsy: Oral Description Versus Image – Value of Evidence
History of Virtopsy – How it all began…
"Virtopsy ® after more than some 100 cases: Statement and Perspectives of Forensic Imaging by using 3D Optical and combined CT / MRI Whole Body Scanning"
Legal Side
Virtopsy and the Law
The Extraordinary Death
Virtopsy and the Swiss Legal system - New Evidence Law in Forensic Medicine?
Imaging and Visualization Methods / Explanation of Technique
External Body Documentation
Historical Development of Geometric Documentation of Wounds in Forensic Medicine
Photogrammetrical 3D Documentation
Optical 3D Surface Scanning
Photogrammetry and 3D Surface Scanning of the Deceased
Digitizing of Injuries of Living Persons
Internal Body Documentation
Conventional Radiography
X-ray Computed Tomography
Basics of MR Imaging and Spectroscopy
Virtual Histology by Magnetic Resonance Microscopy
3D Visualization of Radiological Data
Visualization of Radiological Data - Basics
Visualization of Radiological Data - Future
Storage of Radiological Data  (PACS)
The Virtopsy Database
Head to toe: Forensic Atlas and Application of Imaging  techniques
Intravital Versus Post-Mortem Imaging
The Virtopsy Project – a Historical Overview of the Literature
External Body Documentation
3D Photogrammetric Analysis of Injuries
Generation of 3D Models from the Surface Scanning Data
Visualization of the 3D Models in True Color
Internal Body Documentation
Conventional Radiology
Computed Tomography – CT
Magnetic Resonance Imaging – MRI
Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy  in Forensic Medicine
Documentation of Extracorporeal Findings
Injury-Inflicting Instruments
Incident Scenes
Forensic Topics
Radiologic Identification
Investigation of Decomposing Sheep Brain by Means of 1H-MR-Spectroscopy: An Attempt Towards an Objective PMI Estimation in the Later Postmortem Period
Vital Reactions / Vital Signs
Incident Specific
Natural Death
Cerebral Pathology in Natural Death
Cardiac Pathology
Other Organsystem Pathology
Post-Mortem Imaging of Blunt Trauma
Forensic Neuroimaging
Sharp Trauma
Fatal Hemorrhage in Post-mortem Cross Sectional Radiology
Drowning - Post-Mortem Imaging Findings
Thermal Damage
Thermal Damage – Heat and Burns
Clinical Forensic Imaging
Medical Malpractice
Virtopsy as a Multi Tool Approach
Analysis, Visualization and Reconstruction Methods
Morphologic- Geometric Comparison of Patterned Injuries with the Assumed Injury Causing Tool
Forensic Reconstruction
Blood Spatter Analysis
Footprint Documentation
Post-Mortem Angiography: Historical Review and Overview of Former and Current Techniques
Postmortem Minimal Invasive Angiography
Experiences with Virtual Autopsy Approached Worldwide
Forensic Veterinary Radiology

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This excellent text is not an endpoint in these exciting develop-ments but a stepping-stone which may motivate forensic scientists to tackle the many unsolved problems and questions in forensic science using modem methods that have proven their enormous value in chemistry and medicine.

—Dr. Michael J. Shkrum, Department of Pathology London Health Sciences Centre, Canadian Society of Forensic Scienc, Vol. 43, No. 1, March 2010

… an excellent compendium of information about one of the latest techniques of autopsy - the virtual autopsy or virtopsy as it is more commonly known.

—Anil Aggrawal's Internet Journal of Forensic Medicine and Toxicology