The Workforce Engagement Equation : A Practitioner’s Guide to Creating and Sustaining High Performance book cover
1st Edition

The Workforce Engagement Equation
A Practitioner’s Guide to Creating and Sustaining High Performance

ISBN 9781439868096
Published July 20, 2012 by Productivity Press
590 Pages 70 B/W Illustrations

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USD $68.95

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Book Description

The Workforce Engagement Equation is for the hands-on leaders engaged in the frontline of affecting change—those who bear the scars of past failed initiatives yet continue to persevere. Describing the science behind the "Art of Managing" process improvement, it will help you bridge the gap between strategy and tactics and allow you to take concrete action to control ongoing operations sustainably.

This step-by-step guide lays out the principles, tools, and techniques that have proven effective in leading and managing the "people side" of process improvement. The book demystifies the complexity of organizational change with easy-to-understand explanations, intuitive graphics, and real-world examples. Filled with helpful practical knowledge, such as the Seven Cardinal Sins of Change Leadership, it will help you assess exactly where your organization is along the change continuum and what actions will help propel your organization to higher levels of organizational effectiveness.

  • Presents methods that can be applied in any organization and situation
  • Supplies guidance on how to build systems and implement performance metrics
  • Offers solutions to real-world problems
  • Integrates powerful concepts from multiple disciplines

Aiding your ability to select and apply effective management and leadership techniques that will work best in your situation, The Workforce Engagement Equation provides you with the tools to make a difference in the performance of your organization and the engagement of your workforce. To help you construct your own organizational vessel and navigate the murky waters of organizational change, the text includes downloadable resources with each assessment, form, template, and example project plan contained in the book.

Table of Contents

The Great Seattle Fire: An Analogy for Our Times 
     Fire and Mud in the Twenty-First Century
     Leadership Is a Choice—Rise Up, You Worthy Bastards, and Follow Me!
Seven Cardinal Sins of Change Leadership: Seven Reasons Why Things Don’t Change 
     1. The Status Quo Exists to Serve the Status Quo 
     2. Saying Isn’t Doing: I’m an "Idea Man" 
     3. Frequent Turnover: Manager of the Month 
     4. Rearranging Deck Chairs on the Titanic: Majoring on the Minors 
     5. Lack of Holistic Solutions: The Operation Was a Success but the Patient Died 
     6. Failure to Stay the Course: Are We There Yet? 
     7. Attention Deficit Management: Dismantling What Works 
     Don’t Abandon Hope—There Is a Solution
Stages of Organizational Development 
     Intuitive Assessment of Group Developmental Stages
     Parallel Paths—Group Development and Project Management 

Stage 1—Forming: Preparing for the Voyage and Assembling the Crew
Overview and Assessment: Forming 
     Assessing Where You Are or Where You Want to Go
Analysis: Forming 
     Assembling the Crew
Forming Element 1: Setting a Clear Vision for the Organization 
     Setting a Course: Leading Your Way to Higher Performance—Value Proposition 
     Building a Sustainability Engine—Part 1: Forming
Forming Element 2: Senior Leadership Involvement 
     Appropriate Delegation of Authority 
     Project Charters 
     Team Charters and Organizational Stages 
          Purpose of the Team Charter during Focusing 
          Purpose of the Team Charter during Committing 
          Purpose of the Team Charter during Sustaining Performance 
          Purpose of the Team Charter during Renewal
Forming Element 3: Resource Allocation and Strategic Staffing 
     Dual Staffing Plan (Team "P" and Team "F") 
     Essential Framework of Teams
Forming Element 4: Climate of Trust, Mutual Respect, and Mutual Success 
     Role of Communications in Building Trust 
     Opening the Johari Windows 
          Shifting Boxes 
          Opening Windows
Forming Element 5: Team Members and the Team Leader Know and Value Each Other’s Styles, Strengths, and Preferences 
     Self-Awareness: DISC—Personality Temperaments and Preferences
     Behavioral-Based Model of Temperaments and Preferences 
     Observable Traits of DISC Styles 
     Quick and Dirty DISC Assessment 
     "D"—Dominant: Entrepreneurs, Adventurers, and Change Agents 
          Communicating with a "D" 
          Potential Blind Spots and Weaknesses of "D"s 
          Motivation for "D"s 
     "I"—Influencer: Politicians, Social Directors, and Entertainers 
          Introversion as Compared to Extroversion 
          Motivation for "I"s
          Potential Blind Spots and Weaknesses of "I"s 
     "S"—Sustainer: Administrators, Mediators, and Counselors
          Potential Blind Spots and Weaknesses of "S"s 
          Communicating with "S"s 
     "C"—Conscientious: Scientists, Engineers, and Accountants 
          Potential Blind Spots and Limitations of "C"s 
     Natural versus Adapted Behaviors 
          DISC Space 
     General Guidelines for Working with DISC Temperaments 
          Working with Dominant Personality Types—"D"s 
          Working with Influencing Personality Types—"I"s 
          Working with Sustaining Personality Types—"S"s 
          Working with Conscientious Personality Types—"C"s 
     DISC at a Glance 
     DISC Temperaments and Team Strengths 
     Focus on Strengths, Not Limitations
Forming Element 6: Leaders Set the Tone for Effective, Open, and Inclusive Communication 
     Hidden Agendas 
     Situational Approaches to Leadership 
     Understanding the Leadership Styles 
          Leadership Determinants 
     Effective and Ineffective Demonstration of Leadership Styles 
     Quick and Dirty Leadership Self-Assessment 
          How You See Yourself as Compared to How You Are Seen by Others 
     Adapting Leadership Styles to Individual Needs 
     Leadership by Default 
     DISC Temperament Effects on Leadership Tendencies 
          "D": Dominating/Directing 
          "I": Influencing/Problem Solving 
          "S": Sustaining/Developing 
          "C": Conscientious 
          Hijacked Leadership and Best Intentions 
     Leadership Styles and Rewards 
     Avoid Being a Bottom Feeder 
     Individual Emotional Responses to Change
Forming Element 7: Communications Are Planned, Deliberate, and Broad Reaching
     Principles of Communication 
     Communications Process 
     Developing a Strategic Communications Plan 
     Communications and Feedback: More Is Better 
     Provide Regular Updates on Organizational Progress 
     Sneaking the Camel in under the Tent 
     Keeping It Consistent versus Keeping It Fresh 
Forming Element 8: Clear Behavioral Norms Are Established and Broadly Observed 
     Team Ground Rules 
     Enforcing the Ground Rules
Forming Element 9: Meetings Are Well Planned, and Prior Notice Is Provided 
     Planning for a Meeting
Forming Element 10: Meetings Are Well Run, Structured, and Productive
     Required Roles for Effective Meetings 
     Conducting Meetings Following the Cyclical Communications Process
Key Takeaways: Forming—Preparing for the Voyage
Forming Project Plan

Stage 2—Focusing: Establishing the Ship’s Routine
Overview and Assessment: Moving from Forming to Focusing
Focusing Assessment
Analysis: Focusing versus Stumbling
Focusing Element 1: The Vision, Mission, and Values of the Organization Are Clearly Defined and Articulated 
     Strategies Compared to Tactics 
     Strategy Maps and Logic Models 
          Outcome-Driven Strategy Maps 
          Process-Driven Strategy Maps (Logic Models) 
     Disaggregating the Mission and Vision into Strategy and Tactics 
     Building a Vessel of Organizational Success
Focusing Element 2: Well-Defined and Functioning Systems 
     Introductions to Systems Thinking 
          Manual versus Automatic Systems 
     Management Operating Systems
     Principles of Systems Design 
          Flowcharting Systems Made Easy 
     From Strategy Maps to Process Steps: Peeling Back the Layers of Systems 
     Installing the Process Sustainability Engine into the Vessel of Organizational Success
Focusing Element 3: Significant Involvement of the Crew 
     Two Parables of Engagement 
          The Chicken Is Involved
          River of Commitment
Focusing Element 4: Well-Defined Organizational Structure 
     Disaggregation of Strategies into Goals and Roles 
     Primary Reasons Organization’s Work below Their Strategic
     DISC Impacts on Delegation and Trust 
     The Time Horizon—Keeping It between the Two Ditches 
          The Lasting Impact of Failed Change Initiatives 
     Example: Defining Roles, Time Horizons, and Responsibilities 
          "To Be" as Compared to "As Is"
Focusing Element 5: Gaining Commitment and Alignment of Individual Tasks and Goals 
     Example of Defining Individual Roles and Responsibilities 
     Framework of Effective Individual Success (Steps 1–5) 
     Fall Points and Communications 
          Behavioral Responses Essential to Eliminating Fall Points 
          Detailed Analysis of Fall Points
Focusing Element 6: Develop Goals, Action Plans, and KPIs 
     SMART Goals 
     Cumulative Goal Development 
     Goal Consistency
Focusing Element 7: Effective Leadership toward Problem Solving
     Adaptive Leadership and Problem Solving
Focusing Element 8: Organizational Problem Solving 
     Driving and Restraining Organizational Forces 
          Avoiding Being Martyred for the Cause by Ignoring the "Sacred Cows" and 800-lb "Gorillas" 
     Choosing a Vehicle: The All Purpose Tool—Using the Crescent Hammer 
          Problem Recognition and Definition
          Use of Brainstorming 
     Decision Analysis Criteria 
     Leadership and Problem Solving 
          The Second Difference Separating Leaders and Martyrs
Focusing Element 9: Tactical Interpersonal Communication and Feedback 
     Rules of Engagement in Support of Team Ground Rules 
          Speak for Yourself and Speak of What You Know to Be Fact
Focusing Element 10: Healthy Attitude about Conflict 
     Building Bridges before the Flood—Laying the Foundation Conducive to Managing Conflict 
     Understanding the Sources of Conflict 
          Conflict Arising from Change 
          Emotional Responses to Change 
          Factors Affecting the Difficulty of Change 
          Conflict Arising from Goal Disparity and Limited Resources 
     Responses to Conflict—Reactionary versus Deliberate 
          The Emotional Response—A Tale of Two Roses 
     Emotional, Cognitive, and Physiological Behavioral Drivers 
          Habituated Responses 
          Five Response Options to Conflict 
     Strategic Conflict Choices 
          Compete—Desire to Please Self Stronger than the Desire to Please the Other 
          Accommodate—Desire to Please Other Stronger than the Desire to Please Self 
          Collaborate—Strong Desire to Please Self and Equal Desire to Please the Other 
          Avoid/Withdraw—Low Desire to Please Other and Unwillingness to Engage for Self 
         Compromise—Willingness to Accept Less for the Sake of the Relationship or to Move Forward 
          Temperament, Desire to Please Self versus Desire to Please Others 
          Conflicts and the Balance of Power
     Thoughtful Reactions to Conflict 
          Compelling Behavior through Persuasion or through Manipulation 
     Ground Rules to Consider that Promote a Healthy Approach to Conflict 
     Leadership Necessary to Create a Healthy Organizational Climate
When to Revisit Forming
Key Takeaways: Focusing versus Stumbling
Focusing Project Plan

Stage 3—Committing: Building Speed
Overview and Assessment: Committing versus Fragmenting
Analysis: Committing versus Fragmenting 
     Hope, Control, and Equity 
     Inclusion, Purpose, and Congruence
Committing Element 1: High Degree of Congruence between
Individual and Organizational Values and Working Approach 
     Alignment between Individual and Organizational Values and Goals 
     Freedom to Act—Be Careful What You Wish for: Do You
     Really Want Engagement? 
          The Engagement Model of the United States Military
     Environmental Incongruence: "Planting Seeds in Bleach" 
          Individual Indicators of Incongruence 
          Organizational Indicators 
     Balancing the Workforce Engagement Equation
Committing Element 2: Structured Approach to Training and Qualifications 
     The Five Spheres of Individual Competence 
     Principles of Training Every Manager Should Know 
          Training Is Not the Goal of "Training" 
     Will versus Skill 
     Setting Clear Expectation through the Use of Training Checklists 
          Training Checklists 
          The DACUM Process 
          Minimizing Generational Competency Decay 
     Principles of Learning: Systems Thinking 
     Principles of Learning: Memory
     Outcomes of Utilizing a Structured Approach to Training and Qualifications 
Committing Element 3: Team Members Have and Keep Faith with Their Teams 
     To Be Trusted, You Must First Be Trustworthy 
          Timely and Complete Communications 
          Deliver on Commitments 
          Admit Mistakes
Committing Element 4: Performance Feedback Is Appropriate and Timely
     Avoid the "But" Sandwich 
     The Odometer in the Trunk 
     Leading versus Lagging Indicators
Committing Element 5: Leaders Are Engaged and Act as Mentors 
     The Role of Mentor
Committing Element 6: Strong Leadership and Appropriate Delegation of Authority 
     Span of Control 
          Triggers and Limits of Authority 
     Factors Affecting Ability and Motivation 
          The Four Factors Governing Ability 
          The Four Factors Determining Motivation 
     The Seeds of Confusion Inherent within Matrixed Organizations 
     Importance of the Chain of Command 
          United States Army Organizational Structure 
     Strengths of an Organizational Chain of Command 
          Effective Mentor to Mentee Ratio 
          Effective Cascading Communications 
          Effective Accountability 
          "Somebody" Will Do It—A Parable for Our Times 
     Defining an Effective Chain of Command 
          Problems Created by Bypassing Up the Chain of Command 
          Problems Created by Bypassing Down the Chain of Command 
          Strong Leadership Stemming from a Strong Chain of Command: The Buck Stops Here
Committing Element 7: Individuals and Teams Hold Themselves Accountable 
     Creating an Environment of Logical Consequences 
     Mediocrity for the Sake of Harmony
Committing Element 8: Individual and Intraorganizational Alignment and Collaboration 
     Progression toward "Teamness" 
     Nonteam Players 
     Free Riders 
     Courageous Leadership: Intervention 
     Incenting the Wrong Behaviors
Committing Element 9: The Organization Lives Its Values with Integrity 
     Motivation Matters, but It Only Goes So Far 
          The Paper Mill versus the Saw Mill—The Expectation of Pain
          Is Often More Tolerable than the Pain of Expectation 
          Market Norms versus Social Norms 
     False Engagement through Manipulation
Committing Element 10: Well-Defined Group Identity and Esprit de Corps 
     The Power of Symbols
Key Takeaways: Committing versus Fragmenting

Stage 4—Sustained Performance: Smooth Sailing
Overview and Assessment: Sustained versus Variable Performance
Analysis: Sustained versus Variable Performance 
     Sustaining Isn’t Leveling
Sustaining Element 1: Ongoing Validation of Customer and Stakeholder Requirements and Satisfaction 
     Nothing Fails Like Success 
          Ongoing Determination of Customer/Stakeholder Requirements and Satisfaction
Sustaining Element 2: Ongoing Goal Setting and Revision 
     Shifting Responsibilities from Team "F" to Team "P" 
          Shifting Roles by Playing to Peoples’ Strengths
Sustaining Element 3: Availability and Use of Documentation for Systems and Procedures 
     Written Documentation to Augment Training Checklists 
          Prioritization of Documentation Requirements
     Documentation Is Readily Accessible and Regularly Used 
     Procedures Need to Be Sufficiently Detailed
Sustaining Element 4: Proactive Problem Solving, Decision Making Scope and Impact 
     The Overconfidence Trap 
     The Groupthink Trap 
     The Inflexible View of Reality Trap 
     Traditional Change Management versus Improvisational Change 
          Sequences of Improvisational Change
Sustaining Element 5: Ongoing Communications and Reporting 
     Life in the Clouds—The Executive Fogbank
Sustaining Element 6: Continuous Balanced View of Process Outcomes 
     Avoiding Organizational Pinball: Reactive Management 
     Avoiding "The Plan": The Need for Accurate Information 
     Organizational Dashboards and Balanced Scorecards 
     Course Corrections while Sailing into the Wind
Sustaining Element 7: Ongoing Control of Vendors and Suppliers
Sustaining Element 8: Utilization of Lean Concepts, 5S, and Visual Management 
     Overview of Lean Concepts 
          5S and Visual Management 
     Value Stream Mapping
Sustaining Element 9: Control of Nonconforming Products and Services 
     Defined Decision Authority 
     Documentation of Final Disposition of Nonconforming 
     Products and Services
Sustaining Element 10: Balance of Challenge and Support through Rewards, Opportunities, and Consequences 
     Equitable Rewards and Opportunities 
     Drivers of Variable Performance 
          The Hawthorne Effect 
          Learned Helplessness: The Organizational Cost of Program of the Month
          The Dog in the Box: A Thought Experiment
     Logical Consequences: Keeping It between the Ditches
          Establishing Logical Consequences through Challenging and Support 
          Breaking through the Wall of Complacency; Leading Sheep and Driving Goats
Subtle and Not So Subtle Sabotage
Situation Analysis: Understanding When to Lead and When to Drive 
     Is It a Matter of Will or Skill and Who Is Responsible, the Individual or the Organization? 
     All Behavior Is Rewarding on Some Level 
     Behavior and the Law of Demand 
     Indifference Curves
Performance Contracting: Setting Clear Expectations and Logical Consequences
Avoiding "Democratic Ass Kickings"—Not Firing Blindly into the Flock 
     Action Planning: Preparing to Confront a Goat
In Defense of Goats—Don’t Cull Them All 
     Benefits of Goats over Sheep: Goats Can Flourish Where Sheep Cannot
Key Takeaways: Sustained versus Variable Performance 
     Navigating out of Variable Performance

Stage 5: Renewal—Refitting and Redeploying
Overview and Assessment: Renewal versus Leveling
Analysis: Renewal versus Leveling
Renewal Element 1: Celebration and Recognition of Organizational and Individual Success 
     Cost Does Not Always Equate to Value 
     Avoiding Mandatory Fun Events 
     Celebrations Aren’t the End—They Are Transitions
Renewal Element 2: Organizational Commitment to Continuous Improvement 
     Defining How High Is Up: Benchmarking and Theoretical Constraints 
     Six Sigma: How the Best Get Better 
          A 60,000-Foot View of Six Sigma 
     Three Limits of Six Sigma 
          Six Sigma Is Not a Substitute for Effective Management
          Could Be Better Can Be the Enemy of Good Enough 
          Six Sigma Won’t Lead to Revolutionary Discoveries—Only Incremental Improvement 
     The Big "C" in DMAIC: Control and ROI 
          Simple ROI 
          Net Present Value
          Economic Value Added 
          Standardize and Be Consistent with ROI Calculations
Renewal Element 3: Ongoing Audits, Records Review, and Change Notifications 
     The Temptation of Inconvenient Truths 
     The Importance of Customer Feedback 
     Timely Process Change Notifications 
     Information Not Acted upon Is as Useless as No Information at All
Renewal Element 4: Relevant Not Robotic Meetings with Attendance for Impact and Development 
     Meetings after the Meetings 
     Meeting Attendance for Communications, Impact, and Developmental Opportunities
Renewal Element 5: Impactful Performance Review and Reward Systems 
     Impactful Performance Reviews 
          Impactful Performance Reviews Are Timely 
          Impactful Performance Reviews Are Specific 
     Equitable Performance Reviews 
          Application of Negative Consequences—Progressive Discipline 
     Shared Fortunes—A Rising Tide Shouldn’t Swamp the Little Boats 
Renewal Element 6: Developmental and Promotional Opportunities
Renewal Element 7: Training Remains a Strategic Priority that Builds and Maintains Line of Sight 
     The Absence of Leaders Undermines the Training
Renewal Element 8: Holistic and Integrated Training Design 
     TCLs Aren’t Just for Nonexempt Positions
Renewal Element 9: Effective Preemployment Screening and Structured New Hire Orientation
     The Architects of Your Organization’s Future if Left to Chance 
          Shifting from Box to Box 
     Architects of Your Organization’s Future When Not Left to Chance 
          Use of the TCL throughout the Employee Lifecycle 
          Use of the TCL for Hiring—Decision Analysis 
          The Use of the TCL in Orientation: Satisfying the Individual Needs of Forming 
          The Use of the TCL in Orientation: Effective Use of the Probationary Period 
          The Use of the TCL in Competency Development: Satisfying the Individual Needs of Focusing 
          The Use of the TCL in Promotion to Next Level: Satisfying the Individual Needs of Committing 
          The Use of the TCL in Annual Performance Reviews: Satisfying the Individual Needs of Sustaining 
          The Use of the TCL in Management of Change: Satisfying the Individual Needs for Renewal 
     The TCL Is the Vehicle—Effective Trainers Are the Drivers
Renewal Element 10: Proactive Succession Planning and Mentoring 
     Growth of Successful Leaders: Know Yourself, Know Your Business, and Know Your People 
     To Be Successful You Need Four Things 
          Success Factor 1: Professional Competence 
          Success Factor 2: Emotional Intelligence 
          Success Factor 3: Opportunity 
          Providing Opportunities through Structured Succession Planning 
          Success Factor 4: A Mentor
Renewal versus Leveling: The Need to Reform
Key Takeaways: Renewal versus Leveling

Putting It All Together 
     Interpreting the Composite Scoring Matrix
Conclusion: Transformational Leadership Requires Courage 
     We Need Heroes: Seven Transformational Leadership Virtues 
     The Investments that Pay Dividends for Generations
Today’s Opportunity


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Combining relentless drive for improvement with a real-world perspective, Jamison J. Manion brings a hands-on approach to leadership, management, and organizational design. Working on the front line of organizations in dozens of locations domestically and abroad Manion gained a unique background in operations, maintenance, and human resources that he fuses together into a holistic approach to organizational development. He has a proven track record leading organizational change and process improvement that he communicates with a rare blend of expertise and humor.

Manion’s methods have proven effective in diverse industries of all sizes and missions including both light and heavy manufacturing, energy and utilities, chemical, pharmaceutical, plastics, military and government agencies, consumer products, and nonprofit agencies. He explains complex technical concepts, human factors and motivation, and business solutions with contextual examples that transcend theory making them applicable in today’s complex and rapidly changing organizations. His passion for helping organizations bolster job security through aligned systems and improved organizational performance shines throughout The Workforce Engagement Equation.