1st Edition

The Workforce Engagement Equation A Practitioner’s Guide to Creating and Sustaining High Performance

By Jamison J. Manion Copyright 2012
    590 Pages 70 B/W Illustrations
    by Productivity Press

    590 Pages
    by Productivity Press

    The Workforce Engagement Equation is for the hands-on leaders engaged in the frontline of affecting change—those who bear the scars of past failed initiatives yet continue to persevere. Describing the science behind the "Art of Managing" process improvement, it will help you bridge the gap between strategy and tactics and allow you to take concrete action to control ongoing operations sustainably.

    This step-by-step guide lays out the principles, tools, and techniques that have proven effective in leading and managing the "people side" of process improvement. The book demystifies the complexity of organizational change with easy-to-understand explanations, intuitive graphics, and real-world examples. Filled with helpful practical knowledge, such as the Seven Cardinal Sins of Change Leadership, it will help you assess exactly where your organization is along the change continuum and what actions will help propel your organization to higher levels of organizational effectiveness.

    • Presents methods that can be applied in any organization and situation
    • Supplies guidance on how to build systems and implement performance metrics
    • Offers solutions to real-world problems
    • Integrates powerful concepts from multiple disciplines

    Aiding your ability to select and apply effective management and leadership techniques that will work best in your situation, The Workforce Engagement Equation provides you with the tools to make a difference in the performance of your organization and the engagement of your workforce. To help you construct your own organizational vessel and navigate the murky waters of organizational change, the text includes downloadable resources with each assessment, form, template, and example project plan contained in the book.

    The Great Seattle Fire: An Analogy for Our Times 
         Fire and Mud in the Twenty-First Century
         Leadership Is a Choice—Rise Up, You Worthy Bastards, and Follow Me!
    Seven Cardinal Sins of Change Leadership: Seven Reasons Why Things Don’t Change 
         1. The Status Quo Exists to Serve the Status Quo 
         2. Saying Isn’t Doing: I’m an "Idea Man" 
         3. Frequent Turnover: Manager of the Month 
         4. Rearranging Deck Chairs on the Titanic: Majoring on the Minors 
         5. Lack of Holistic Solutions: The Operation Was a Success but the Patient Died 
         6. Failure to Stay the Course: Are We There Yet? 
         7. Attention Deficit Management: Dismantling What Works 
         Don’t Abandon Hope—There Is a Solution
    Stages of Organizational Development 
         Intuitive Assessment of Group Developmental Stages
         Parallel Paths—Group Development and Project Management 

    Stage 1—Forming: Preparing for the Voyage and Assembling the Crew
    Overview and Assessment: Forming 
         Assessing Where You Are or Where You Want to Go
    Analysis: Forming 
         Assembling the Crew
    Forming Element 1: Setting a Clear Vision for the Organization 
         Setting a Course: Leading Your Way to Higher Performance—Value Proposition 
         Building a Sustainability Engine—Part 1: Forming
    Forming Element 2: Senior Leadership Involvement 
         Appropriate Delegation of Authority 
         Project Charters 
         Team Charters and Organizational Stages 
              Purpose of the Team Charter during Focusing 
              Purpose of the Team Charter during Committing 
              Purpose of the Team Charter during Sustaining Performance 
              Purpose of the Team Charter during Renewal
    Forming Element 3: Resource Allocation and Strategic Staffing 
         Dual Staffing Plan (Team "P" and Team "F") 
         Essential Framework of Teams
    Forming Element 4: Climate of Trust, Mutual Respect, and Mutual Success 
         Role of Communications in Building Trust 
         Opening the Johari Windows 
              Shifting Boxes 
              Opening Windows
    Forming Element 5: Team Members and the Team Leader Know and Value Each Other’s Styles, Strengths, and Preferences 
         Self-Awareness: DISC—Personality Temperaments and Preferences
         Behavioral-Based Model of Temperaments and Preferences 
         Observable Traits of DISC Styles 
         Quick and Dirty DISC Assessment 
         "D"—Dominant: Entrepreneurs, Adventurers, and Change Agents 
              Communicating with a "D" 
              Potential Blind Spots and Weaknesses of "D"s 
              Motivation for "D"s 
         "I"—Influencer: Politicians, Social Directors, and Entertainers 
              Introversion as Compared to Extroversion 
              Motivation for "I"s
              Potential Blind Spots and Weaknesses of "I"s 
         "S"—Sustainer: Administrators, Mediators, and Counselors
              Potential Blind Spots and Weaknesses of "S"s 
              Communicating with "S"s 
         "C"—Conscientious: Scientists, Engineers, and Accountants 
              Potential Blind Spots and Limitations of "C"s 
         Natural versus Adapted Behaviors 
              DISC Space 
         General Guidelines for Working with DISC Temperaments 
              Working with Dominant Personality Types—"D"s 
              Working with Influencing Personality Types—"I"s 
              Working with Sustaining Personality Types—"S"s 
              Working with Conscientious Personality Types—"C"s 
         DISC at a Glance 
         DISC Temperaments and Team Strengths 
         Focus on Strengths, Not Limitations
    Forming Element 6: Leaders Set the Tone for Effective, Open, and Inclusive Communication 
         Hidden Agendas 
         Situational Approaches to Leadership 
         Understanding the Leadership Styles 
              Leadership Determinants 
         Effective and Ineffective Demonstration of Leadership Styles 
         Quick and Dirty Leadership Self-Assessment 
              How You See Yourself as Compared to How You Are Seen by Others 
         Adapting Leadership Styles to Individual Needs 
         Leadership by Default 
         DISC Temperament Effects on Leadership Tendencies 
              "D": Dominating/Directing 
              "I": Influencing/Problem Solving 
              "S": Sustaining/Developing 
              "C": Conscientious 
              Hijacked Leadership and Best Intentions 
         Leadership Styles and Rewards 
         Avoid Being a Bottom Feeder 
         Individual Emotional Responses to Change
    Forming Element 7: Communications Are Planned, Deliberate, and Broad Reaching
         Principles of Communication 
         Communications Process 
         Developing a Strategic Communications Plan 
         Communications and Feedback: More Is Better 
         Provide Regular Updates on Organizational Progress 
         Sneaking the Camel in under the Tent 
         Keeping It Consistent versus Keeping It Fresh 
    Forming Element 8: Clear Behavioral Norms Are Established and Broadly Observed 
         Team Ground Rules 
         Enforcing the Ground Rules
    Forming Element 9: Meetings Are Well Planned, and Prior Notice Is Provided 
         Planning for a Meeting
    Forming Element 10: Meetings Are Well Run, Structured, and Productive
         Required Roles for Effective Meetings 
         Conducting Meetings Following the Cyclical Communications Process
    Key Takeaways: Forming—Preparing for the Voyage
    Forming Project Plan

    Stage 2—Focusing: Establishing the Ship’s Routine
    Overview and Assessment: Moving from Forming to Focusing
    Focusing Assessment
    Analysis: Focusing versus Stumbling
    Focusing Element 1: The Vision, Mission, and Values of the Organization Are Clearly Defined and Articulated 
         Strategies Compared to Tactics 
         Strategy Maps and Logic Models 
              Outcome-Driven Strategy Maps 
              Process-Driven Strategy Maps (Logic Models) 
         Disaggregating the Mission and Vision into Strategy and Tactics 
         Building a Vessel of Organizational Success
    Focusing Element 2: Well-Defined and Functioning Systems 
         Introductions to Systems Thinking 
              Manual versus Automatic Systems 
         Management Operating Systems
         Principles of Systems Design 
              Flowcharting Systems Made Easy 
         From Strategy Maps to Process Steps: Peeling Back the Layers of Systems 
         Installing the Process Sustainability Engine into the Vessel of Organizational Success
    Focusing Element 3: Significant Involvement of the Crew 
         Two Parables of Engagement 
              The Chicken Is Involved
              River of Commitment
    Focusing Element 4: Well-Defined Organizational Structure 
         Disaggregation of Strategies into Goals and Roles 
         Primary Reasons Organization’s Work below Their Strategic
         DISC Impacts on Delegation and Trust 
         The Time Horizon—Keeping It between the Two Ditches 
              The Lasting Impact of Failed Change Initiatives 
         Example: Defining Roles, Time Horizons, and Responsibilities 
              "To Be" as Compared to "As Is"
    Focusing Element 5: Gaining Commitment and Alignment of Individual Tasks and Goals 
         Example of Defining Individual Roles and Responsibilities 
         Framework of Effective Individual Success (Steps 1–5) 
         Fall Points and Communications 
              Behavioral Responses Essential to Eliminating Fall Points 
              Detailed Analysis of Fall Points
    Focusing Element 6: Develop Goals, Action Plans, and KPIs 
         SMART Goals 
         Cumulative Goal Development 
         Goal Consistency
    Focusing Element 7: Effective Leadership toward Problem Solving
         Adaptive Leadership and Problem Solving
    Focusing Element 8: Organizational Problem Solving 
         Driving and Restraining Organizational Forces 
              Avoiding Being Martyred for the Cause by Ignoring the "Sacred Cows" and 800-lb "Gorillas" 
         Choosing a Vehicle: The All Purpose Tool—Using the Crescent Hammer 
              Problem Recognition and Definition
              Use of Brainstorming 
         Decision Analysis Criteria 
         Leadership and Problem Solving 
              The Second Difference Separating Leaders and Martyrs
    Focusing Element 9: Tactical Interpersonal Communication and Feedback 
         Rules of Engagement in Support of Team Ground Rules 
              Speak for Yourself and Speak of What You Know to Be Fact
    Focusing Element 10: Healthy Attitude about Conflict 
         Building Bridges before the Flood—Laying the Foundation Conducive to Managing Conflict 
         Understanding the Sources of Conflict 
              Conflict Arising from Change 
              Emotional Responses to Change 
              Factors Affecting the Difficulty of Change 
              Conflict Arising from Goal Disparity and Limited Resources 
         Responses to Conflict—Reactionary versus Deliberate 
              The Emotional Response—A Tale of Two Roses 
         Emotional, Cognitive, and Physiological Behavioral Drivers 
              Habituated Responses 
              Five Response Options to Conflict 
         Strategic Conflict Choices 
              Compete—Desire to Please Self Stronger than the Desire to Please the Other 
              Accommodate—Desire to Please Other Stronger than the Desire to Please Self 
              Collaborate—Strong Desire to Please Self and Equal Desire to Please the Other 
              Avoid/Withdraw—Low Desire to Please Other and Unwillingness to Engage for Self 
             Compromise—Willingness to Accept Less for the Sake of the Relationship or to Move Forward 
              Temperament, Desire to Please Self versus Desire to Please Others 
              Conflicts and the Balance of Power
         Thoughtful Reactions to Conflict 
              Compelling Behavior through Persuasion or through Manipulation 
         Ground Rules to Consider that Promote a Healthy Approach to Conflict 
         Leadership Necessary to Create a Healthy Organizational Climate
    When to Revisit Forming
    Key Takeaways: Focusing versus Stumbling
    Focusing Project Plan

    Stage 3—Committing: Building Speed
    Overview and Assessment: Committing versus Fragmenting
    Analysis: Committing versus Fragmenting 
         Hope, Control, and Equity 
         Inclusion, Purpose, and Congruence
    Committing Element 1: High Degree of Congruence between
    Individual and Organizational Values and Working Approach 
         Alignment between Individual and Organizational Values and Goals 
         Freedom to Act—Be Careful What You Wish for: Do You
         Really Want Engagement? 
              The Engagement Model of the United States Military
         Environmental Incongruence: "Planting Seeds in Bleach" 
              Individual Indicators of Incongruence 
              Organizational Indicators 
         Balancing the Workforce Engagement Equation
    Committing Element 2: Structured Approach to Training and Qualifications 
         The Five Spheres of Individual Competence 
         Principles of Training Every Manager Should Know 
              Training Is Not the Goal of "Training" 
         Will versus Skill 
         Setting Clear Expectation through the Use of Training Checklists 
              Training Checklists 
              The DACUM Process 
              Minimizing Generational Competency Decay 
         Principles of Learning: Systems Thinking 
         Principles of Learning: Memory
         Outcomes of Utilizing a Structured Approach to Training and Qualifications 
    Committing Element 3: Team Members Have and Keep Faith with Their Teams 
         To Be Trusted, You Must First Be Trustworthy 
              Timely and Complete Communications 
              Deliver on Commitments 
              Admit Mistakes
    Committing Element 4: Performance Feedback Is Appropriate and Timely
         Avoid the "But" Sandwich 
         The Odometer in the Trunk 
         Leading versus Lagging Indicators
    Committing Element 5: Leaders Are Engaged and Act as Mentors 
         The Role of Mentor
    Committing Element 6: Strong Leadership and Appropriate Delegation of Authority 
         Span of Control 
              Triggers and Limits of Authority 
         Factors Affecting Ability and Motivation 
              The Four Factors Governing Ability 
              The Four Factors Determining Motivation 
         The Seeds of Confusion Inherent within Matrixed Organizations 
         Importance of the Chain of Command 
              United States Army Organizational Structure 
         Strengths of an Organizational Chain of Command 
              Effective Mentor to Mentee Ratio 
              Effective Cascading Communications 
              Effective Accountability 
              "Somebody" Will Do It—A Parable for Our Times 
         Defining an Effective Chain of Command 
              Problems Created by Bypassing Up the Chain of Command 
              Problems Created by Bypassing Down the Chain of Command 
              Strong Leadership Stemming from a Strong Chain of Command: The Buck Stops Here
    Committing Element 7: Individuals and Teams Hold Themselves Accountable 
         Creating an Environment of Logical Consequences 
         Mediocrity for the Sake of Harmony
    Committing Element 8: Individual and Intraorganizational Alignment and Collaboration 
         Progression toward "Teamness" 
         Nonteam Players 
         Free Riders 
         Courageous Leadership: Intervention 
         Incenting the Wrong Behaviors
    Committing Element 9: The Organization Lives Its Values with Integrity 
         Motivation Matters, but It Only Goes So Far 
              The Paper Mill versus the Saw Mill—The Expectation of Pain
              Is Often More Tolerable than the Pain of Expectation 
              Market Norms versus Social Norms 
         False Engagement through Manipulation
    Committing Element 10: Well-Defined Group Identity and Esprit de Corps 
         The Power of Symbols
    Key Takeaways: Committing versus Fragmenting

    Stage 4—Sustained Performance: Smooth Sailing
    Overview and Assessment: Sustained versus Variable Performance
    Analysis: Sustained versus Variable Performance 
         Sustaining Isn’t Leveling
    Sustaining Element 1: Ongoing Validation of Customer and Stakeholder Requirements and Satisfaction 
         Nothing Fails Like Success 
              Ongoing Determination of Customer/Stakeholder Requirements and Satisfaction
    Sustaining Element 2: Ongoing Goal Setting and Revision 
         Shifting Responsibilities from Team "F" to Team "P" 
              Shifting Roles by Playing to Peoples’ Strengths
    Sustaining Element 3: Availability and Use of Documentation for Systems and Procedures 
         Written Documentation to Augment Training Checklists 
              Prioritization of Documentation Requirements
         Documentation Is Readily Accessible and Regularly Used 
         Procedures Need to Be Sufficiently Detailed
    Sustaining Element 4: Proactive Problem Solving, Decision Making Scope and Impact 
         The Overconfidence Trap 
         The Groupthink Trap 
         The Inflexible View of Reality Trap 
         Traditional Change Management versus Improvisational Change 
              Sequences of Improvisational Change
    Sustaining Element 5: Ongoing Communications and Reporting 
         Life in the Clouds—The Executive Fogbank
    Sustaining Element 6: Continuous Balanced View of Process Outcomes 
         Avoiding Organizational Pinball: Reactive Management 
         Avoiding "The Plan": The Need for Accurate Information 
         Organizational Dashboards and Balanced Scorecards 
         Course Corrections while Sailing into the Wind
    Sustaining Element 7: Ongoing Control of Vendors and Suppliers
    Sustaining Element 8: Utilization of Lean Concepts, 5S, and Visual Management 
         Overview of Lean Concepts 
              5S and Visual Management 
         Value Stream Mapping
    Sustaining Element 9: Control of Nonconforming Products and Services 
         Defined Decision Authority 
         Documentation of Final Disposition of Nonconforming 
         Products and Services
    Sustaining Element 10: Balance of Challenge and Support through Rewards, Opportunities, and Consequences 
         Equitable Rewards and Opportunities 
         Drivers of Variable Performance 
              The Hawthorne Effect 
              Learned Helplessness: The Organizational Cost of Program of the Month
              The Dog in the Box: A Thought Experiment
         Logical Consequences: Keeping It between the Ditches
              Establishing Logical Consequences through Challenging and Support 
              Breaking through the Wall of Complacency; Leading Sheep and Driving Goats
    Subtle and Not So Subtle Sabotage
    Situation Analysis: Understanding When to Lead and When to Drive 
         Is It a Matter of Will or Skill and Who Is Responsible, the Individual or the Organization? 
         All Behavior Is Rewarding on Some Level 
         Behavior and the Law of Demand 
         Indifference Curves
    Performance Contracting: Setting Clear Expectations and Logical Consequences
    Avoiding "Democratic Ass Kickings"—Not Firing Blindly into the Flock 
         Action Planning: Preparing to Confront a Goat
    In Defense of Goats—Don’t Cull Them All 
         Benefits of Goats over Sheep: Goats Can Flourish Where Sheep Cannot
    Key Takeaways: Sustained versus Variable Performance 
         Navigating out of Variable Performance

    Stage 5: Renewal—Refitting and Redeploying
    Overview and Assessment: Renewal versus Leveling
    Analysis: Renewal versus Leveling
    Renewal Element 1: Celebration and Recognition of Organizational and Individual Success 
         Cost Does Not Always Equate to Value 
         Avoiding Mandatory Fun Events 
         Celebrations Aren’t the End—They Are Transitions
    Renewal Element 2: Organizational Commitment to Continuous Improvement 
         Defining How High Is Up: Benchmarking and Theoretical Constraints 
         Six Sigma: How the Best Get Better 
              A 60,000-Foot View of Six Sigma 
         Three Limits of Six Sigma 
              Six Sigma Is Not a Substitute for Effective Management
              Could Be Better Can Be the Enemy of Good Enough 
              Six Sigma Won’t Lead to Revolutionary Discoveries—Only Incremental Improvement 
         The Big "C" in DMAIC: Control and ROI 
              Simple ROI 
              Net Present Value
              Economic Value Added 
              Standardize and Be Consistent with ROI Calculations
    Renewal Element 3: Ongoing Audits, Records Review, and Change Notifications 
         The Temptation of Inconvenient Truths 
         The Importance of Customer Feedback 
         Timely Process Change Notifications 
         Information Not Acted upon Is as Useless as No Information at All
    Renewal Element 4: Relevant Not Robotic Meetings with Attendance for Impact and Development 
         Meetings after the Meetings 
         Meeting Attendance for Communications, Impact, and Developmental Opportunities
    Renewal Element 5: Impactful Performance Review and Reward Systems 
         Impactful Performance Reviews 
              Impactful Performance Reviews Are Timely 
              Impactful Performance Reviews Are Specific 
         Equitable Performance Reviews 
              Application of Negative Consequences—Progressive Discipline 
         Shared Fortunes—A Rising Tide Shouldn’t Swamp the Little Boats 
    Renewal Element 6: Developmental and Promotional Opportunities
    Renewal Element 7: Training Remains a Strategic Priority that Builds and Maintains Line of Sight 
         The Absence of Leaders Undermines the Training
    Renewal Element 8: Holistic and Integrated Training Design 
         TCLs Aren’t Just for Nonexempt Positions
    Renewal Element 9: Effective Preemployment Screening and Structured New Hire Orientation
         The Architects of Your Organization’s Future if Left to Chance 
              Shifting from Box to Box 
         Architects of Your Organization’s Future When Not Left to Chance 
              Use of the TCL throughout the Employee Lifecycle 
              Use of the TCL for Hiring—Decision Analysis 
              The Use of the TCL in Orientation: Satisfying the Individual Needs of Forming 
              The Use of the TCL in Orientation: Effective Use of the Probationary Period 
              The Use of the TCL in Competency Development: Satisfying the Individual Needs of Focusing 
              The Use of the TCL in Promotion to Next Level: Satisfying the Individual Needs of Committing 
              The Use of the TCL in Annual Performance Reviews: Satisfying the Individual Needs of Sustaining 
              The Use of the TCL in Management of Change: Satisfying the Individual Needs for Renewal 
         The TCL Is the Vehicle—Effective Trainers Are the Drivers
    Renewal Element 10: Proactive Succession Planning and Mentoring 
         Growth of Successful Leaders: Know Yourself, Know Your Business, and Know Your People 
         To Be Successful You Need Four Things 
              Success Factor 1: Professional Competence 
              Success Factor 2: Emotional Intelligence 
              Success Factor 3: Opportunity 
              Providing Opportunities through Structured Succession Planning 
              Success Factor 4: A Mentor
    Renewal versus Leveling: The Need to Reform
    Key Takeaways: Renewal versus Leveling

    Putting It All Together 
         Interpreting the Composite Scoring Matrix
    Conclusion: Transformational Leadership Requires Courage 
         We Need Heroes: Seven Transformational Leadership Virtues 
         The Investments that Pay Dividends for Generations
    Today’s Opportunity



    Jamison J. Manion