Thermoplastic Materials : Properties, Manufacturing Methods, and Applications book cover
1st Edition

Thermoplastic Materials
Properties, Manufacturing Methods, and Applications

ISBN 9781420093834
Published April 25, 2011 by CRC Press
640 Pages 301 B/W Illustrations

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Book Description

Practical and affordable, thermoplastics account for more than 90 percent of all plastic materials manufactured. That so many varieties are now available, speaks to the idea that while there is no one perfect material, it is possible to find a material that fits for every application. However, selecting that right material is no small challenge.

Answering the needs of manufacturers and product developers, Thermoplastic Materials: Properties, Manufacturing Methods, and Applications provides all the information required to confidently select the right thermoplastic for any application. Based on a course taught to engineering students, the book starts with an overview of the plastics industry, looking at the major companies involved and how their products influence society. It then discusses various topics essential to the understanding and manufacturing of thermoplastics before getting to the core of the book, more than 400 pages of consistently formatted entries, organized according to 19 thermoplastics families and groupings. Each chapter covers raw materials, manufacturing methods, properties, costs, and applications.

Among many topics related to thermoplastic resins, this seminal work:

  • Provides micro and quasi-macro perspectives on their behavior
  • Evaluates major manufacturing methods
  • Discusses crystallinity and permeability
  • Elaborates on the properties that make them useful barrier and packaging materials

Written by Christopher Ibeh, professor of plastics engineering technology and director of the Center for Nanocomposites and Multifunctional Materials at Pittsburg State University, this book goes beyond current practices to look at emerging materials, including nanocomposites, and discusses sustainability as it relates to plastics. It also includes a chapter on functionalized thermoplastics, written by Andrey Beyle.

Table of Contents

Introduction and History of the Plastics Industry
Definition and Types
Overview of the Plastics Industry
Areas of Application of Plastics
Chronology of the Thermoplastics (Plastics) Industry:
The Need Factor
Current Trends in the Plastics Industry
Raw Materials and Their Sources: "The Plastics Tree"
Sources and Raw Materials of Polymers and Plastics
Compounding and Property Enhancement
Processing of Polymers and Plastics
Basic Structures and Characteristics of Polymers and Plastics
Chemical Bonding in Polymers and Plastics
Ionization Potential and Chemical Bonding
Major Types of Chemical Bonding in Polymers and Plastics
Structural Units in Polymers (Plastics Resins)
Molecular Weight of Polymers
Molecular Weight Distribution
Average Molecular Weight of Polymers
Polymerization (Resinification) Methods
Chemistry of Reaction of Monomer(s) Involved with Respect to Toxicity, Flammability, and Odor
Heat of Polymerization Removal Capacity of System
Bulk Polymerization
Solution Polymerization
Emulsion Polymerization
Suspension Polymerization
Crystallinity and Crystallization in Polymers and Plastics
Definitions, Concepts, Etc
Specific Volume and Crystallinity
Crystallization Kinetics
Determination of Degree or Percentage Crystallinity-DSC; XRD, etc
Practical Applications of Crystallinity and Crystallization in the Polymers and Plastics Industries
Classification of Thermoplastics
Commodity or General Purpose Thermoplastics
Quasi-Commodity Thermoplastics
Engineering Thermoplastic Materials
Specialty Thermoplastic Materials
New and Emerging Materials
Permeability and Environmental-Stress-Cracking Resistance of Thermoplastics: Barrier Properties and Packaging Applications of Polymers
Permeability and Packaging
Modified-Atmosphere Packaging Technology
Permeability and ESCR of Thermoplastics
Polyolefins: Polyethylene, Polypropylene, and Their Copolymers
Chronology of Polyolefins Revisited
The Polyolefin Family
Raw Materials
Manufacturing (Polymerization) Methods for
Unique Properties of Polyethylene
Materials Selection of Polyethylenes
Processing and Applications of Polyethylenes
Overview and Chronology
Raw Materials for Polypropylene
Manufacturing of Polypropylene
Unique Properties of Polypropylene
Material Selection Parameters for Polypropylene
Applications of Polypropylene
Polypropylene Fibers
Olefin Copolymers of Ethylene and Propylene
EPM: Ethylene-Propylene Monomer Rubber
EPDM: Ethylene-Propylene-Diene Monomer Rubber
Ethylene-Vinyl Acetate Copolymers
Ionomers: Copolymers and Terpolymers
Ethylene-Ester Copolymers
The Vinyls: PVC and Copolymers
Chronology of PVC Revisited
The Vinyl Family
Raw Materials for PVC
Manufacturing (Polymerization) Methods for PVC
Unique Properties of PVC
Material Selection of PVC
Processing and Applications of PVC
Common Copolymers of PVC
Trends in PVC Formulations
Susceptibility to PVC Exposure
Future Look: A Health Concern Addendum
Polystyrene and Copolymers
The Styrene Family
Chronology of Polystyrene Revisited
Raw Materials for Polystyrene
Manufacturing (Polymerization) Methods for Polystyrene
Properties and Characteristics of Polystyrene
Combustion of Polystyrene
Processing and Applications of Polystyrene
Acrylonitrile–Butadiene–Styrene Terpolymer Resin
K-Resin (Styrene–Butadiene Copolymer)
Acrylonitrile Styrene Acrylate Terpolymer
Styrene-Butadiene Rubber
Acrylic (Acrylate) Family
Chronology of PMMA Revisited
The Acrylic Family and Their Raw Materials
Polymethyl Methacrylate
Manufacturing (Polymerization) Methods for PMMA
Unique Properties of PMMA
Materials Selection of PMMA
Processing and Applications of PMMA
Common Copolymers of MMA
Polyester Family
The Thermoplastic Polyester Family
Polyethylene Terephthalate
Raw Materials and Manufacturing Method of PET
Unique Properties and Characteristics of PET Resins
Processing and Applications of Polyethylene Terephthalate
Polybutylene Terephthalate
Polyethylene Naphthalate
New Thermoplastic Polyester Resins
The Extended Polyester Family: Biodegradable Polyester Material
Nylon (Polyamide) Family
Chronology of Nylon: Revisited
The Nylon (Polyamide) Family
Raw Materials and Manufacturing (Polymerization)
Methods for Nylons
Unique Characteristics of Nylons
Processing and Applications of Nylons
The Extended Polyamide Family: Semi-Aromatic and Aromatic Polyamides
Polycarbonates: Overview
Raw Materials and Manufacturing Methods
for Polycarbonates
Unique Properties of Polycarbonates
Processing of Polycarbonate Resins
Applications of Polycarbonate Resins
Polycarbonate Resins Case Study: Environmental and Health Impact of Bisphenol A: An Ethical Perspective
Raw Materials and Manufacturing Method of Polyacetal
Unique Properties of Polyacetal
Problems of Polyacetal
Processing and Applications of Polyacetal
Polyphenylene Sulfides
Polyphenylene Sulfides
Raw Materials and Manufacture of PPS
Unique Properties
Processing and Applications of Polyphenylene Sulfides
Fluorocarbons (Teflon Family)
The Fluorocarbon Family (Teflon)
Liquid Crystalline Polymers
LCP Overview
LCP Types
Raw Materials and Manufacturing (Polymerization)
Methods for LCP
Unique Properties of Liquid Crystalline Polymers
Processing and Applications of LCPs
Polysulfone Family (PSU)
Raw Materials and Manufacturing (Polymerization)
Methods for Polysulfones
Unique Properties of Polysulfones
Processing and Applications of Polysulfones
Polyimide Family
Polyetherimide: Overview
Raw Materials and Manufacturing Method
Unique Properties of Polyetherimide
Processing of PEI
Applications of PEI
PEEK: Overview
Raw Materials and Manufacturing (Polymerization)
Methods for PEEK
Unique Properties
Processing and Applications of PEEK
Polyphenylene Oxide
Polyphenylene Oxide
Raw Materials and Manufacturing (Polymerization)
Methods for PPO
Unique Properties of PPOs
Processing and Applications of PPO
Cellulosics: Overview
Raw Materials and Manufacturing (Polymerization)
Methods for Cellulosics
Unique Properties
Processing and Applications of Cellulosics
Functionalized Thermoplastic and Elastomers
Terminology and Definitions
Chemical Reactions of Polymers
Functionalizing of Inert Polymers and Fillers
Thermoplastic Elastomers
Blends and Alloys
Functionalized Thermoplastics and Elastomers
Plastics Nanocomposites
Major Types of Nanocomposites
Processing Challenges of Nanocomposites
Process Optimization
Plastics and Sustainability: A Life Cycle Cost Analysis Approach
Life Cycle Analysis Format
LCA Steps
Impact Assessment
LCA Interpretation
LCA Benefits

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Christopher Ibeh is a professor of plastics engineering technology at Pittsburg State University in Kansas. He is also director of the Center for Nanocomposites and Multifunctional Materials. Dr. Ibeh holds a doctorate from the Department of Chemical Engineering at Louisiana Tech University. He is a member of the Society of Plastics Engineers, the American Society for Engineering Education, National Collegiate Inventors and Innovators Alliance, American Chemical Society, the American Composites Manufacturers Association, and the Consortium for Upgrading Educational Standards. His research interests include fuel cells, biodegradable blends, fracture toughness of composites, and polymeric nanocomposites. Dr. Ibeh is the organizer of the Nanotechnology Entrepreneurship Forum.