Government and individual policymakers throughout the developed and developing world face the common problem of bringing expert knowledge to bear in government decision making. Policymakers need understandable, reliable, accessible, and useful information about the societies they govern. They also need to know how current policies are working, as well as possible alternatives and their likely costs and consequences. This expanding need has fostered the growth of independent public policy research organizations, commonly known as think tanks. Think Tanks and Civil Societies analyzes their growth, scope, and constraints, while providing institutional profiles of such organizations in every region of the world.Beginning with North America, contributors analyze think tank development past and future, consider their relationship to the general political culture, and provide detailed looks at such examples as the Heritage Foundation and the Institute for Research on Public Policy. A historical and subregional overview of think tanks throughout Europe notes the emphasis on European Union issues and points to a dramatic rise in the number and influence of free market institutes across the continent. Think tanks in Germany, Spain, and France are profiled with respect to national politics and cultures. Advanced industrial nations of northern Asia are compared and contrasted, revealing a greater need for independent policy voices. Moving to countries undergoing economic transition, contributors deal with challenges posed in Russia and the former Soviet bloc and their think tanks' search for influence, independence, and sustainability. Other chapters deal with the developing countries of Africa, Asia, the Middle East, and Latin America, finding that the number, quality, and independence of think tanks is largely determined by the degree of democracy in individual nations.
Table of Contents
1. Think Tanks and Civil Societies in a Time of Change 2. Think Tanks in North America 3. The Heritage Foundation 4. Institute for Research on Public Policy 5. Think Tanks in Western Europe 6. French Public Policy Research Institutes and Their Political Impact as Another Illustration of the French Exception 7. Experiences of a Multidimensional Think Tank: The Konrad-Adenauer-Stiftung 8. Think Tanks in Spain and Portugal: Searching for Relevance 9. Northeast Asian Think Tanks: Toward Building Capacity for More Democratic Societies 10. The Korean Institute of International Studies 11. From Dependency to the Market: The Uncertain Future for Think Tanks in Central and Eastern Europe 12. The Liberal Estate: Reflections on the Politics of Think Tanks in Central and Eastern Europe 13. Think Tanks in the Former Soviet Union 14. The Economic Research Center 15. Policy Making Beyond the Politics of Conflict: Civil Society Think Tanks in the Middle East and North Africa 16. Think Tanks in Transition—Center for Palestine Research and Studies: A Case Study 17. Dynamics of Think Tank Development in Southeast Asia, Australia, New Zealand, and Papua New Guinea 18. Think Tanks in Singapore 19. Think Tanks in South Asia: An Overview 20. Indira Gandhi Institute of Development Research: A Leading Think Tank in Asia 21. Think Tanks in Sub-Saharan Africa An Analysis of Francophone Economic Research Centers in Cote d’Ivoire, Burkina Faso, and Senegal 23. Think Tanks in Nigeria 24. Think Tanks in Latin America 25. Instituto APOYO 26. Think Tanks in Brazil: The Case of Instituto Brasileiro de 5Economia as an Illustration