Threat Assessment and Management Strategies: Identifying the Howlers and Hunters, Second Edition, 2nd Edition (Paperback) book cover

Threat Assessment and Management Strategies

Identifying the Howlers and Hunters, Second Edition, 2nd Edition

By Frederick S. Calhoun, Stephen W. Weston, J.D.

CRC Press

259 pages | 6 B/W Illus.

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Paperback: 9781498721844
pub: 2016-02-25
Hardback: 9781138458512
pub: 2017-07-27
eBook (VitalSource) : 9780429257834
pub: 2017-07-27
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The field of threat assessment and the research surrounding it have exploded since the first edition of Threat Assessment and Management Strategies: Identifying the Howlers and Hunters. To reflect those changes, this second edition contains more than 100 new pages of material, including several new chapters, charts, and illustrations, as well as updated cases.

The book has been reorganized into two parts. The first part offers the authors’ current thinking on how to conduct practical and effective threat management processes. The second provides an in-depth analysis of how howlers and hunters behave and how understanding those behaviors can be used to manage each type of problem individual.

This new edition draws on the latest research, as well as ideas and concepts from the authors’ previous books. It integrates the sum of their careers in threat management—both their individual experiences managing problem situations and their research and writing on the topic—into a single volume. As in each of their previous books, it focuses on operationally effective and practical methods for managing problem situations.

This book also covers special issues in threat management, exploring the relationship between the law and the intimacy effect as well as different ways to identify, assess, and manage howlers and hunters. Each chapter concludes with a real-life situation analysis relevant to the subject under focus.

Drawing upon the latest research and on the previous work of its authors, Threat Assessment and Management Strategies, Second Edition provides a complete guide to setting up successful threat management processes. It approaches the presented strategies as guidelines rather than prescriptions, emphasizing that threat managers must use their intelligence and originality to modify strategies as necessary to suit each situation.

Table of Contents


Establishing Threat Management Processes

Recognize the Need for Threat Management Processes

Assign Responsibility to Manage Inappropriate Situations to Trained Threat Managers

Provide Training and Liaison with Potential Targets and Administrative Staff

Create an Incident Tracking System with Well-Documented Files

Establish Liaison with Other Agencies, Neighboring Organizations, and Institutions with Shared Interests

Conduct Thorough Fact Finding

Use Consistent and Valid Threat Assessment Methods

Apply Threat Management Strategies Flexibly and Intelligently

Communicate with Potential Targets Professionally, Confidently, and Competently

Manage Inappropriate Situations Appropriately


Situation Analysis: When Physical Protection Fails

Identifying Problem Individuals

Understanding Violence

Identifying Problem Individuals

Protective Fact Finding Compared with Criminal Investigations

Conducting Protective Fact Finding

Using the Need to Knows

Interviewing the Subject


Situation Analysis: A Tragic Winters Tale

Assessing Problem Individuals

Formalized Threat Assessment Approaches


Situation Analysis: The Disgruntled Vet

Managing Problem Individuals

Threat Management Rules of Conduct

Take No Further Action at This Time

Watch and Wait

Third-Party Control or Monitoring

Subject Interviews: Refocus or Assist

Subject Interview: Warning or Confront

Civil Orders

Administrative Actions

Mental Health Commitments

Criminal Prosecutions

Managing the Risk


Situation Analysis: A Loser’s Shot at "Redemption"


Introducing Hunters versus Howlers

Balancing Physical Security and Threat Management

Who Needs Managing?

Purpose of Part 2: Identifying Howlers and Hunters


Situation Analysis: The Poacher

Defining Hunters and Howlers

Hunters Defined and Exemplified

Howlers Defined and Exemplified

Hunters versus Howlers


Situation Analysis: The Payoff

Understanding Hunters

What Hunters Do

The Undetectable


Situation Analysis: The Nonaccidental Tourist

Understanding Howlers

Howler Categories

What Howlers Want


Situation Analysis: The Snitch

Working with the Intimacy Effect and the Law

Working with the Intimacy Effect

Applying Federal Law

Working with State and Local Laws on Threats and Domestic Violence

State Stalking Laws


Situation Analysis: A Mother’s Help

Working with the Hunter, Howler, and Other Concepts

Working with the Last Straw Syndrome

Other Concepts Influencing the Threat Management Process

Managing Hunters and Howlers

10 Guidelines for Managing Hunters and Howlers


Situation Analysis: The Relentless Pursuer

Appendix: When Should Threats Be Seen As Indicative of Future Violence? Threats, Intended Violence, and the Intimacy Effect

About the Authors

Frederick S. Calhoun, PhD, oversaw a national workplace violence prevention program for a large federal agency. He earned his PhD from the University of Chicago. He was the lead researcher and principal architect in developing the threat assessment process used by the United States Marshals Service for analyzing risks to federal judicial officials. He also developed the service’s policies and procedures for conducting protective investigations and wrote the curriculum and led the training of deputy US Marshals Service threat investigators and their supervisors. He is the author of 12 books and teaches a periodic two-day seminar, "Managing Threats: Reducing the Risk of Violence," designed to train law enforcement officers, mental health professionals, and private security officials to identify, assess, and manage individuals of violent intent.

Stephen W. Weston, JD, is a retired 32-year veteran of the California Highway Patrol. For 15 years, he managed the unit responsible for investigating threats against California state officials and government facilities. He is the coauthor of four books with Frederick S. Calhoun, consults with government and private organizations in the management of threatening situations, and lectures throughout the United States on threat management topics. He has served as president of the Northern California Chapter of the Association of Threat Assessment Professionals and taught a class in the California State University system entitled "Violence and Terrorism."

Subject Categories

BISAC Subject Codes/Headings:
COMPUTERS / Security / General
LAW / Criminal Law / General
LAW / Forensic Science
SOCIAL SCIENCE / Criminology