Title IX: The Transformation of Sex Discrimination in Education, 1st Edition (Paperback) book cover

Title IX

The Transformation of Sex Discrimination in Education, 1st Edition

By Elizabeth Kaufer Busch, William E. Thro


232 pages | 5 B/W Illus.

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This book examines the history and evolution of Title IX, a landmark 1972 law prohibiting sex discrimination at educational institutions receiving federal funding. Elizabeth Kaufer Busch and William Thro illuminate the ways in which the interpretation and implementation of Title IX have been transformed over time to extend far beyond the law's relatively narrow statutory text. The analysis considers the impact of Title IX on athletics, sexual harassment, sexual assault, and, for a time, transgender discrimination. Combining legal and cultural perspectives and supported by primary documents, Title IX: The Transformation of Sex Discrimination in Education offers a balanced and insightful narrative of interest to anyone studying the history of sex discrimination, educational policy, and the law in the contemporary United States.


This provocative view of Title IX by Busch and Thro provides a valuable examination of the statute’s origin and scope. From the law’s quest for gender equity in intercollegiate athletics through its development as the primary deterrent to sexual discrimination at the nation’s colleges and universities, the book indeed makes an important and timely contribution to the higher education community.

- Oren Griffin, Associate Dean for Strategic Initiatives & Professor of Law, University of Mercer School of Law

A thoroughly researched and well-written volume, Title IX: The Transformation of Sex Discrimination in Education is a must read for all interested in Title IX, whether students, faculty members, compliance officers, and/or attorneys. This is the most current book on Title IX; written in jargon-free language, it provides a comprehensive, cutting-edge analysis of the law’s applications from its earliest days through today’s controversies on from its earliest use as a mandate for equal opportunity in sports to its application to sexual harassment to contemporary disputes about sexual assault and campus disciplinary proceedings.

- Charlie Russo, Director, Ph.D. Program in Educational Leadership and Research Professor of Law, University of Dayton

Table of Contents

Chapter 1: The Adoption of Title IX: A Ban on Sex Discrimination in Education

Chapter 2: Title IX's Transformation into a mandate for Equal Representation in Athletics: The 1979 Three Part Test

Chapter 3: The Expansion of Title IX Liability to Sexual Harassment: The 1997 Sexual Harassment Guidance Document

Chapter 4: Title IX's Transformation Into A Mandate to Adjudicate Campus Sexual Assault: The 2011 Dear Colleague Letter.

Chapter 5: The Politicization of Title IX Guidelines and its Implications

About the Authors

Elizabeth Kaufer Busch is Associate Professor and Director of American Studies at Christopher Newport University, and Founder and Co-Director of CNU's Center for American Studies.

William E. Thro is the General Counsel of the University of Kentucky and former Solicitor General of Virginia.

About the Series

Critical Moments in American History

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Subject Categories

BISAC Subject Codes/Headings:
HISTORY / General
HISTORY / United States / 20th Century
HISTORY / United States / 21st Century
LAW / Educational Law & Legislation
LAW / Discrimination
SOCIAL SCIENCE / Women's Studies