Toxic Chemicals : Risk Prevention Through Use Reduction book cover
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Toxic Chemicals
Risk Prevention Through Use Reduction




ISBN 9781138116191
Published May 31, 2017 by CRC Press
352 Pages 14 B/W Illustrations

 
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Book Description

Catastrophic events such as the Bhopal, India tragedy and rising incidences of cancer in areas neighboring industrial facilities have heightened concern over the use of toxic chemicals in manufacturing and industry, particularly with respect to long-term exposure. While legislation and publicity have reduced the use of some chemicals, risks remain that continue to threaten the health of individuals worldwide. Based on the authors’ research conducted through their development of a program in Sao Paulo, Brazil, Toxic Chemicals: Risk Prevention Through Use Reduction examines various toxicity factors and proposes a plan to reduce the toxic impact of these hazardous substances.

Explores all factors that contribute to toxicity

The book begins by exploring the history of toxic chemical release reporting programs, a trend growing out of the Bhopal tragedy. It surveys their impact both in the United States through the Toxics Release Inventory (TRI) program and in the 29 other countries that maintain similar programs. Then, with the goal of developing a rational method of prioritizing toxic chemicals for reduction, the authors discuss mobility, persistence, and bioconcentration adjustment factors and present a method for integrating all of these factors to estimate the relative impact of chemical release.

Compares alternate emphases in existing programs

The book describes programs that concentrate on reducing the release of chemicals with the greatest adverse toxic impact and those that require companies to prepare pollution prevention plans and set goals for reducing use or release. It also examines technical assistance programs that help companies search for alternative chemicals to use or process changes that eliminate the use of toxic chemicals. In addition, it explores alternative market-based approaches for achieving environmental protection.

Presents a workable plan for the future

In the final chapters, the authors lay out their proposed program for reducing the use of toxic chemicals. This plan builds on the existing TRI program and uses lessons learned from this and other programs. The combined research assembled by the authors and their multifaceted approach to the issue of chemical toxicity enables companies and policy makers to move to the next level of toxic chemical use reduction, resulting in a safer environment for future generations.

 

Table of Contents

Introduction
Toxic Chemical Composition Reporting

California: Proposition
Basis for Program
Program Requirements
Role of Stakeholders
Financial Impacts
Effectiveness of Program
European Union’s Registration, Evaluation, Authorization, and
Restriction of Chemicals Program
Basis for Program
Program Requirements
Registration
Toxics Release Inventory
Toxic Chemical Release Reporting
Basis for the Program
Program Requirements
Refinements to TRI
Role of Stakeholders
Financial Impacts
Limitations of TRI Program
TRI Programs in Other Countries
Canadian National Pollutant Release Inventory Program
Australian National Pollutant Inventory
European Union
European Pollutant Emission Register
European Pollutant Release and Transfer Register
Japan
Accessing PRTR Data
North American Data
European Data from E-PRTR
International PRTR Data from OECD
TRI Program Impacts on Reducing Toxic Chemical Releases
TRI Success Stories
Quantifying Toxicity
Ingestion Carcinogenicity
Inhalation Carcinogenicity
Ingestion Noncarcinogenic Toxicity
Inhalation Noncarcinogenic Toxicity
Development of a Single Toxicity Factor
Ingestion Carcinogenic Toxicity Factor Development
Inhalation Carcinogenic Toxicity Factor Development
Ingestion Noncarcinogenic Toxicity Factor Development
Inhalation Noncarcinogenic Toxicity Factor Development
Single Combined Relative Toxicity Factor Development
Quantifying Mobility
Air Mobility Factor
Water Mobility Factor
Combined Mobility Factor
Quantifying Persistence
Persistence Factor
Quantifying Bioconcentration
Bioconcentration Adjustment Factor
Developing Effective Toxicity Factors
Effective Toxicity Factor
Toxicity Impact
Focusing on Impact Chemicals
US Environmental Protection Agency 33/50 Program
Basis for Program
Program Requirements
Role of Stakeholders
Financial Impacts
Effectiveness of Program
Washington Department of Ecology Persistent,
Bioaccumulative Toxins Program and Other Targeted (Mercury)
Chemicals Programs
Basis for the Mercury Reduction Program
Program Requirements
Role of Stakeholders
Financial Impacts
Effectiveness of Program
Registration, Evaluation Authorization, and Restriction of
Chemicals Program of the European Union
Basis for Program
Program Requirements
Evaluation
Authorization
PBT Substances
Very Persistent, Bioaccumulative, and Toxic Substances
Restriction
Use versus Release Reporting
Comparison of Use and Releases
Massachusetts Toxics Use Reduction Act
Reporting Requirements
Maine Toxics and Hazardous Waste Reduction Program
Reporting Requirements
New Jersey Pollution Prevention Program
Pollution Prevention Planning
Massachusetts Toxics Use Reduction Act
Maine Toxics and Hazardous Waste Reduction Program
Washington State Department of Ecology Pollution
Prevention Program
New Jersey Pollution Prevention Program
Lessons Learned by New Jersey Companies
California: Hazardous Waste Source Reduction and
Management Review Act of 1989 (Senate Bill 14)
Texas
Minnesota
Arizona Department of Environmental Quality
Voluntary Technical Assistance Programs
Technical Assistance
Massachusetts Toxics Use Reduction Act
Maine Toxics and Hazardous Waste Reduction Program
Technical Resources for Engineering Efficiency Program
Basis for Program
Program Requirements
Role of Stakeholders
Financial Impacts
Effectiveness of Program
Lean and the Environment Program (Washington State)
Basis for Program
Program Requirements
Role of Stakeholders
Financial Impacts
Effectiveness of Program
Company Examples
New Jersey Technical Assistance Program
Basis for Program
Program Requirements
Role of Stakeholders
Financial Impacts
Effectiveness of Program
California Technical Assistance Program
Market-Based Approaches to Environmental Protection
Command without Control
Cap and Trade
Pollution Taxes or Fees
A Program to Reduce Toxic Chemical Use
Target Impact Chemicals
Chemical Composition Reporting
Chemical Toxicity Rating
Chemical Use Reporting
Public Disclosure
Toxic Chemical Use Fee
Incentives
Chemical Use Reduction Planning
Technical Assistance
Costs and Benefits
Costs of the Program
Toxic Chemical Use Fees
Health Benefits of a Successful Toxic Chemical Usage
Reduction Program
Environmental Impacts
Direct Benefits to Businesses
Human Capacity Building
Technology Transfer and Productivity Enhancement
Positive Publicity and Associated Increased Revenue
Reduced Regulatory Burden
Other Benefits
Appendix A: Chemicals List with CAS Numbers
Appendix B: CAS Numbers with Chemical Names

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Author(s)

Biography

Dr. Tom Higgins is one of the early founders and shapers of waste minimization and pollution prevention. He is a frequently invited speaker at technical conferences, company workshops, and board of directors to talk about Pollution Prevention. He has assisted companies and governmental agencies in setting up Pollution Prevention programs in the US, Germany, Great Britain, Italy, Canada, Hungary, Poland, Russia, Uzbekistan, Taiwan, Mainland China, Australia, and Brazil.

Reviews

Higgins, Sachdev, and Engleman are environmental engineers with a career-long mission to control hazardous waste by minimizing waste releases rather than just treating wastes. The existing Toxics Release Inventory program (TRI) requires reporting release of chemicals as poundage, with no regard for risk factors. ... truly effective waste reduction programs require application of additional factors, including toxicity factors, air/water mobility factors, environmental persistence, and bioconcentration. Integration of all of these factors with the poundage released yields meaningful relative impact data or effective toxicity factors. This book provides tables of all of these data for hundreds of reportable chemicals. The authors also describe TRI programs for foreign countries, pollution prevention and waste reduction programs for eight states, and program costs. An appendix provides lists of chemicals with their CAS Registry Numbers. Valuable for safety and environmental engineers, toxicologists, ecologists, those in environmental policy positions, legislators, journalists, and the concerned public, as well as students in the relevant disciplines. Summing Up: Recommended. Upper-division undergraduates and above; general audiences.
—R.E. Buntrock, formerly University of Maine, in CHOICE, June 2011, Vol. 48, No. 10