Toxic Chemicals: Risk Prevention Through Use Reduction, 1st Edition (Paperback) book cover

Toxic Chemicals

Risk Prevention Through Use Reduction, 1st Edition

By Thomas E. Higgins, Jayanti A. Sachdev, Stephen A. Engleman

CRC Press

352 pages | 14 B/W Illus.

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Description

Catastrophic events such as the Bhopal, India tragedy and rising incidences of cancer in areas neighboring industrial facilities have heightened concern over the use of toxic chemicals in manufacturing and industry, particularly with respect to long-term exposure. While legislation and publicity have reduced the use of some chemicals, risks remain that continue to threaten the health of individuals worldwide. Based on the authors’ research conducted through their development of a program in Sao Paulo, Brazil, Toxic Chemicals: Risk Prevention Through Use Reduction examines various toxicity factors and proposes a plan to reduce the toxic impact of these hazardous substances.

Explores all factors that contribute to toxicity

The book begins by exploring the history of toxic chemical release reporting programs, a trend growing out of the Bhopal tragedy. It surveys their impact both in the United States through the Toxics Release Inventory (TRI) program and in the 29 other countries that maintain similar programs. Then, with the goal of developing a rational method of prioritizing toxic chemicals for reduction, the authors discuss mobility, persistence, and bioconcentration adjustment factors and present a method for integrating all of these factors to estimate the relative impact of chemical release.

Compares alternate emphases in existing programs

The book describes programs that concentrate on reducing the release of chemicals with the greatest adverse toxic impact and those that require companies to prepare pollution prevention plans and set goals for reducing use or release. It also examines technical assistance programs that help companies search for alternative chemicals to use or process changes that eliminate the use of toxic chemicals. In addition, it explores alternative market-based approaches for achieving environmental protection.

Presents a workable plan for the future

In the final chapters, the authors lay out their proposed program for reducing the use of toxic chemicals. This plan builds on the existing TRI program and uses lessons learned from this and other programs. The combined research assembled by the authors and their multifaceted approach to the issue of chemical toxicity enables companies and policy makers to move to the next level of toxic chemical use reduction, resulting in a safer environment for future generations.

 

Reviews

Higgins, Sachdev, and Engleman are environmental engineers with a career-long mission to control hazardous waste by minimizing waste releases rather than just treating wastes. The existing Toxics Release Inventory program (TRI) requires reporting release of chemicals as poundage, with no regard for risk factors. … truly effective waste reduction programs require application of additional factors, including toxicity factors, air/water mobility factors, environmental persistence, and bioconcentration. Integration of all of these factors with the poundage released yields meaningful relative impact data or effective toxicity factors. This book provides tables of all of these data for hundreds of reportable chemicals. The authors also describe TRI programs for foreign countries, pollution prevention and waste reduction programs for eight states, and program costs. An appendix provides lists of chemicals with their CAS Registry Numbers. Valuable for safety and environmental engineers, toxicologists, ecologists, those in environmental policy positions, legislators, journalists, and the concerned public, as well as students in the relevant disciplines. Summing Up: Recommended. Upper-division undergraduates and above; general audiences.

—R.E. Buntrock, formerly University of Maine, in CHOICE, June 2011, Vol. 48, No. 10

Table of Contents

Introduction

Toxic Chemical Composition Reporting

California: Proposition

Basis for Program

Program Requirements

Role of Stakeholders

Financial Impacts

Effectiveness of Program

European Union’s Registration, Evaluation, Authorization, and

Restriction of Chemicals Program

Basis for Program

Program Requirements

Registration

Toxics Release Inventory

Toxic Chemical Release Reporting

Basis for the Program

Program Requirements

Refinements to TRI

Role of Stakeholders

Financial Impacts

Limitations of TRI Program

TRI Programs in Other Countries

Canadian National Pollutant Release Inventory Program

Australian National Pollutant Inventory

European Union

European Pollutant Emission Register

European Pollutant Release and Transfer Register

Japan

Accessing PRTR Data

North American Data

European Data from E-PRTR

International PRTR Data from OECD

TRI Program Impacts on Reducing Toxic Chemical Releases

TRI Success Stories

Quantifying Toxicity

Ingestion Carcinogenicity

Inhalation Carcinogenicity

Ingestion Noncarcinogenic Toxicity

Inhalation Noncarcinogenic Toxicity

Development of a Single Toxicity Factor

Ingestion Carcinogenic Toxicity Factor Development

Inhalation Carcinogenic Toxicity Factor Development

Ingestion Noncarcinogenic Toxicity Factor Development

Inhalation Noncarcinogenic Toxicity Factor Development

Single Combined Relative Toxicity Factor Development

Quantifying Mobility

Air Mobility Factor

Water Mobility Factor

Combined Mobility Factor

Quantifying Persistence

Persistence Factor

Quantifying Bioconcentration

Bioconcentration Adjustment Factor

Developing Effective Toxicity Factors

Effective Toxicity Factor

Toxicity Impact

Focusing on Impact Chemicals

US Environmental Protection Agency 33/50 Program

Basis for Program

Program Requirements

Role of Stakeholders

Financial Impacts

Effectiveness of Program

Washington Department of Ecology Persistent,

Bioaccumulative Toxins Program and Other Targeted (Mercury)

Chemicals Programs

Basis for the Mercury Reduction Program

Program Requirements

Role of Stakeholders

Financial Impacts

Effectiveness of Program

Registration, Evaluation Authorization, and Restriction of

Chemicals Program of the European Union

Basis for Program

Program Requirements

Evaluation

Authorization

PBT Substances

Very Persistent, Bioaccumulative, and Toxic Substances

Restriction

Use versus Release Reporting

Comparison of Use and Releases

Massachusetts Toxics Use Reduction Act

Reporting Requirements

Maine Toxics and Hazardous Waste Reduction Program

Reporting Requirements

New Jersey Pollution Prevention Program

Pollution Prevention Planning

Massachusetts Toxics Use Reduction Act

Maine Toxics and Hazardous Waste Reduction Program

Washington State Department of Ecology Pollution

Prevention Program

New Jersey Pollution Prevention Program

Lessons Learned by New Jersey Companies

California: Hazardous Waste Source Reduction and

Management Review Act of 1989 (Senate Bill 14)

Texas

Minnesota

Arizona Department of Environmental Quality

Voluntary Technical Assistance Programs

Technical Assistance

Massachusetts Toxics Use Reduction Act

Maine Toxics and Hazardous Waste Reduction Program

Technical Resources for Engineering Efficiency Program

Basis for Program

Program Requirements

Role of Stakeholders

Financial Impacts

Effectiveness of Program

Lean and the Environment Program (Washington State)

Basis for Program

Program Requirements

Role of Stakeholders

Financial Impacts

Effectiveness of Program

Company Examples

New Jersey Technical Assistance Program

Basis for Program

Program Requirements

Role of Stakeholders

Financial Impacts

Effectiveness of Program

California Technical Assistance Program

Market-Based Approaches to Environmental Protection

Command without Control

Cap and Trade

Pollution Taxes or Fees

A Program to Reduce Toxic Chemical Use

Target Impact Chemicals

Chemical Composition Reporting

Chemical Toxicity Rating

Chemical Use Reporting

Public Disclosure

Toxic Chemical Use Fee

Incentives

Chemical Use Reduction Planning

Technical Assistance

Costs and Benefits

Costs of the Program

Toxic Chemical Use Fees

Health Benefits of a Successful Toxic Chemical Usage

Reduction Program

Environmental Impacts

Direct Benefits to Businesses

Human Capacity Building

Technology Transfer and Productivity Enhancement

Positive Publicity and Associated Increased Revenue

Reduced Regulatory Burden

Other Benefits

Appendix A: Chemicals List with CAS Numbers

Appendix B: CAS Numbers with Chemical Names

About the Authors

Dr. Tom Higgins is one of the early founders and shapers of waste minimization and pollution prevention. He is a frequently invited speaker at technical conferences, company workshops, and board of directors to talk about Pollution Prevention. He has assisted companies and governmental agencies in setting up Pollution Prevention programs in the US, Germany, Great Britain, Italy, Canada, Hungary, Poland, Russia, Uzbekistan, Taiwan, Mainland China, Australia, and Brazil.

Subject Categories

BISAC Subject Codes/Headings:
LAW034000
LAW / Environmental
SCI026000
SCIENCE / Environmental Science
TEC020000
TECHNOLOGY & ENGINEERING / Manufacturing