Toxicology of 1 - 3-Beta-Glucans: Glucans as a Marker for Fungal Exposure, 1st Edition (Hardback) book cover

Toxicology of 1 - 3-Beta-Glucans

Glucans as a Marker for Fungal Exposure, 1st Edition

Edited by Shih-Houng Young, Vincent Castranova

CRC Press

232 pages | 6 Color Illus. | 69 B/W Illus.

Purchasing Options:$ = USD
Hardback: 9780415700375
pub: 2005-03-18
SAVE ~$29.00
$145.00
$116.00
x


FREE Standard Shipping!

Description

The investigation of indoor air quality has shown that microbial contamination is often a problem in buildings. Recent evidence indicates that fungi are often a part of the picture. A component of the fungal cell wall, 1®3-ß-glucans not only affect human health, they are a marker for the existence of fungi in environmental samples.

Toxicology of 1®3-ß-Glucans covers the basic chemistry and immunobiology of these substances. The authors begin by introducing current methods for detecting 1®3-ß-glucans in environmental samples and reviewing risk evaluation in the environment. They go on to discuss numerous topics including likely occupational and environmental exposure, studies suggesting a strong link between environmental glucan concentrations and pulmonary inflammation, and signal transduction pathways and specific receptors.

No other book currently available brings together the expertise of leading international researchers to provide a straightforward monograph on the toxicology of 1®3-ß-glucans. It pulls together current knowledge of these compounds, their effects, measurement, monitoring, and risk assessment.

Table of Contents

INTRODUCTION TO THE CHEMISTRY AND IMMUNOBIOLOGY OF b-GLUCANS, D. Williams, D. Lowman, and H. Ensley

Introduction

What are Fungal Glucans?

Physicochemical Characterization of Glucans

Immunobiology of Glucans

Recognition and Binding of Glucans by Membrane Receptors

The Influence of Glucan Polymer Molecular Weight, Structure and Solution Conformation on Binding to (1®3)-ß-D-Glucan Receptors

Glucan Receptors Differentially Recognize Glucan Polymers Based on Solution Conformation and Molecular Weight

Identification of Dectin-1 and Scavenger Receptors as Glucan Specific Membrane Receptors

Activation of Pro-Inflammatory and Immunoregulatory Intracellular Signaling Pathways by Glucans

Effect of Glucans on Cytokine and Growth Factor Expression

Anti-Inflammatory Activity of Glucans

Conclusions

References

HEALTH EFFECTS OF (1?3)-?-GLUCAN: THE EPIDEMIOLOGICAL EVIDENCE, J. Douwes

Introduction

Field Studies

Human Challenge Studies

The Epidemiological Evidence

Control of (1?3)-ß-D-Glucan Exposure in the Home and Work Environment

Research Needs

Conclusions

References

(1®3)-b-D-GLUCAN IN THE ENVIRONMENT - A RISK ASSESSMENT, R. Rylander

Introduction

General Considerations

Animal Inhalation Studies

Human Inhalation Studies

Synthesis

Application to Field Studies

Environmental Risk Evaluation

Conclusion

References

ANIMAL MODEL OF (1®3)-b-D-GLUCANS-INDUCED PULMONARY INFLAMMATION IN RATS, S.-H. Young and V. Castranova

Introduction: Why Study 1®3-b-Glucans?

What is the Cause of Controversy Regarding Glucan-Induced Pulmonary Inflammation Studies?

Important Factors Determining the Biological Activity of 1®3-b-Glucans

Why Choose Zymosan as the Test Glucan in Animal Studies?

Similarities between Symptoms Observed in Workers and Responses in an Animal Model

Parameters Monitored in the Animal Model

Dose-Response Relationship of Zymosan A-Induced Pulmonary Inflammation

Time Course of Recovery from Zymosan A Exposure

Which form of Zymosan, Soluble or Particulate, Causes Greater Inflammation?

Which Conformation of Particulate Zymosan A, Partially Open Triple-Helix vs. Closed Triple-Helix, Induces Greater Pulmonary Inflammation in Rats ?

Conclusions from Zymosan-Induced Pulmonary Inflammation Studies

Pre-Treatment with 1®3-b-Glucans Modifies Endotoxin Response

Conclusion and Need for Developing Methods for Analyzing Insoluble Glucans

References

b-GLUCANS RECEPTOR(S) AND THEIR SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION, Y. Adachi

Introduction

Soluble b-Glucan Recognition Proteins

1,3-b-Glucan Receptors on the Plasma Membrane of Leukocytes

Concluding Remarks

References

FATE OF b-GLUCANS IN VIVO, -- ORGAN DISTRIBUTION AND DEGRADATION MECHANISMS OF FUNGAL b-GLUCANS IN THE BODY, N.N. Miura

Introduction

Study of Organ Distribution Using a Metabolically Labeled form of SSG from Sclerotinia sclerotiorum

Study of Blood b-Glucan Concentrations Using the Limulus Test

Analysis of Internal Accumulation Using a Metabolically Labeled Form of Candida

Measurement of Amounts of Candida Cells Accumulating in Organs

Relationship Between b-Glucan Dosage and Duration of Antitumor Activity

Solubilization of b-Glucans from Candida Cells

Conclusion

References

ADJUVANT EFFECTS OF b-GLUCANS IN A MOUSE MODEL FOR ALLERGY, H. Ormstad and G. Hetland

Abstract

Introduction

Materials and Methods

Results

Discussion

References

ENDOGENOUS SEPTIC SHOCK BY COMBINATION OF b-GLUCAN AND NSAIDS, N. Ohno

Introduction

Expression of Lethal Toxicity by Concomitant Administration of Microbial Components and NSAIDs

Changes in Inflammatory and Immune Parameters During Concomitant Administration of b-Glucan and Indometacin

Increased Sensitivity to Endotoxin Due to Concomitant Administration of b-Glucan and Indometacin

Effects of Nitric Oxide in the Appearance of Lethal Side Effects Caused by b-Glucans

Strain Differences in Response to b-Glucans

Conclusion

References

PARTICULATE AND SOLUBLE b-GLUCANS FROM CANDIDA ALBICANS MODULATE CYTOKINE RELEASE FROM HUMAN LEUKOCYTES, K.-I. Ishibashi, Y. Nakagawa, N. Ohno, and T. Murai

Summary

Introduction

Preparation and Biological Activity of Candida Cell Wall b-Glucans

Higher Order Structure of Glucans

Anti-CSBG Antibody

Analysis of Gene Expression in Leukocytes Activating Candida Cell Wall b-Glucans Using the DNA Microarray Method

Conclusion

References

DETECTION AND MEASUREMENT OF (1®3)-b-D-GLUCAN WITH LIMULUS AMEBOCYTE BASED REAGENTS, M. Finkelman and H. Tamura

Introduction

Structure of (1®3)-b-D-Glucan

Measurement of (1®3)-b-D-Glucan by LAL

(1®3)-b-D-Glucan-Specific Photometric Techniques

Applications of (1®3)-b-D-Glucan-Specific LAL

Summary

References

CLINICAL UTILIZATION OF THE MEASUREMENT OF (1®3)-b-GLUCAN IN BLOOD, T. Obayashi

Introduction

Methodology

Clinical implications

References

Subject Categories

BISAC Subject Codes/Headings:
MED079000
MEDICAL / Pulmonary & Thoracic Medicine
MED096000
MEDICAL / Toxicology
SCI026000
SCIENCE / Environmental Science