Can trade liberalization and environmental protection be pursued together, or do the two objectives inevitably conflict? The rapid evolution of international regimes and institutions is increasingly bringing such conflicts to the fore. A consensus, both on the extent of the clash, and on how it can be resolved, does not yet exist. This volume includes the proceedings from the RIIA's April 1997 conference on trade and the environment, which brought together prominent contributors from all sides of the debate, including industry, governments, academics, NG0s and intergovernmental institutions such as the World Trade Organization, UNEP, UNCTAD and the OECD. They examine the background to the issue; the impacts of trade-related environmental measures; the relationship between environmental policy, competitiveness and investment; industry and developing country concerns; and the evolution of dispute settlement procedures in the EU and the WTO. The concluding chapter features a wide-ranging discussion on the future of the debate and of the WTO's Committee on Trade and Environment.
1 Introduction: the trade and environment debate 1. 1 Guide to the issues (Duncan Brack) 1.2 Trade and environment after Singapore (Leon Brittan) 2 Trade versus environment: the evidence 2.1 Introduction (Frits Schlingemann) 2.2 Trade-related environmental measures: how much is a dolphin worth? (James Lee) 2.3 Competitiveness and investment (Jonathan Barton) 3 Industry concerns 3.1 Industry perspectives (John Canning, William Seddon-Brown, David Wakeford, David Wallis) 3.2 Process and production methods (Charles Arden-Clarke) 3.3 Developing-country perspectives (Veena Jha) 3.4 Trade and climate change policies (Duncan Brack) 3.5 Discussion 4 Resolving trade and environment disputes 4.1 Introduction (Juan Carlos Sanchez Arnau) 4.2 Lessons from the European experience (Damien Geradin) 4.3 WTO dispute settlement: the environmental dimension (Jeffrey L Gertler) 5 Conclusion: the future 5. 1 Trade and environment in the WTO (Sabrina Shaw) 5.2 Industry perspective (Reinhard Quick) 5.3 Developing-country perspective (Magda Shahin) 5.4 OECD perspective (Michael Reiterer) 5.5 UN-EP perspective (Hussein Abaza) 5.6 The CTE: a renewed mandate for change or more dialogue? (James Cameron) 5.7 Discussion