Transformer Engineering: Design, Technology, and Diagnostics, Second Edition, 2nd Edition (Hardback) book cover

Transformer Engineering

Design, Technology, and Diagnostics, Second Edition, 2nd Edition

By S.V. Kulkarni, S.A. Khaparde

CRC Press

750 pages | 270 B/W Illus.

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pub: 2012-09-06
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Transformer Engineering: Design, Technology, and Diagnostics, Second Edition helps you design better transformers, apply advanced numerical field computations more effectively, and tackle operational and maintenance issues. Building on the bestselling Transformer Engineering: Design and Practice, this greatly expanded second edition also emphasizes diagnostic aspects and transformer-system interactions.

What’s New in This Edition

  • Three new chapters on electromagnetic fields in transformers, transformer-system interactions and modeling, and monitoring and diagnostics
  • An extensively revised chapter on recent trends in transformer technology
  • An extensively updated chapter on short-circuit strength, including failure mechanisms and safety factors
  • A step-by-step procedure for designing a transformer
  • Updates throughout, reflecting advances in the field

A blend of theory and practice, this comprehensive book examines aspects of transformer engineering, from design to diagnostics. It thoroughly explains electromagnetic fields and the finite element method to help you solve practical problems related to transformers. Coverage includes important design challenges, such as eddy and stray loss evaluation and control, transient response, short-circuit withstand and strength, and insulation design. The authors also give pointers for further research. Students and engineers starting their careers will appreciate the sample design of a typical power transformer.

Presenting in-depth explanations, modern computational techniques, and emerging trends, this is a valuable reference for those working in the transformer industry, as well as for students and researchers. It offers guidance in optimizing and enhancing transformer design, manufacturing, and condition monitoring to meet the challenges of a highly competitive market.


Praise for the Previous Edition

"… the timely publication of this book is quite a welcome delight. … the authors provide in-depth coverage on both theory and practical application of modern computational techniques in transformer engineering. … this book is an easy-to-use reference source and is recommended for academic and research libraries."


"… contains practical information used in the industry."

IEEE Electrical Insulation Magazine

"Authors' personal research and their experience in industry and in education is the source for the numerous worked examples—very useful for didactic purposes. … More than 400 references are mentioned, spread in the 12 chapters. The book is written in an impressively deep analytical spirit."

IEEE Power Electronics Society Newsletter

Table of Contents

Transformer Fundamentals


Applications and Types of Transformers

Principles and the Equivalent Circuit

Representation of a Transformer in Power System

Open-Circuit and Short-Circuit Tests

Voltage Regulation and Efficiency

Parallel Operation of Transformers


Magnetic Characteristics


Hysteresis, Eddy, and Anomalous Losses

Excitation Characteristics

Over-Excitation Performance

No-Load Loss Test

Impact of Manufacturing Processes

Inrush Current

Influence of the Core Construction and Winding Connections on No-Load Harmonic Phenomenon

Transformer Noise

Rotational Core Losses


Impedance Characteristics

Reactance Calculation

Different Approaches for Reactance Calculation

Analytical Methods

Numerical Method for Reactance Calculation

Impedance Characteristics of Three-Winding Transformers

Reactance Calculation for Zigzag Transformers

Zero-Sequence Reactances

Stabilizing Tertiary Winding


Eddy Currents and Winding Stray Losses

Field Equations

Poynting Vector

Eddy Current and Hysteresis Losses

Effect of Saturation

Eddy Losses in Transformer Windings

Circulating Current Loss in Transformer Windings


Stray Losses in Structural Components

Factors Influencing Stray Losses

Overview of Methods for Stray Loss Estimation

Core Edge Loss

Stray Loss in Frames

Stray Loss in Flitch Plates

Stray Loss in Tank

Stray Loss in Bushing Mounting Plates

Evaluation of Stray Loss Due to High Current Leads

Measures for Stray Loss Control

Methods for Experimental Verification

Estimation of Stray Losses in Overexcitation Condition

Load Loss Measurement


Short-Circuit Stresses and Strength

Short-Circuit Currents

Thermal Capability During a Short-Circuit

Short-Circuit Forces

Dynamic Behavior under Short-Circuits

Failure Modes Due to Radial Forces

Failure Modes Due to Axial Forces

Failure Modes Due to Interactive (Combined Axial and Radial) Forces

Effect of Prestress

Short-Circuit Test

Effect of Inrush Current

Split-Winding Transformers

Short-Circuit Withstand

Calculation of Electrodynamic Force between Parallel Conductors

Design of Clamping Structures


Surge Phenomena in Transformers

Initial Voltage Distribution

Ground Capacitance Calculations

Capacitance of Windings

Inductance Calculation

Standing Waves and Traveling Waves

Methods for Analysis of Impulse Distribution

Computation of Impulse Voltage Distribution Using State Variable Method

Winding Design for Reducing Internal Overvoltages


Insulation Design

Calculation of Stresses for Simple Configurations

Field Computations

Factors Affecting Insulation Strength

Test Methods and Design Insulation Level (DIL)

Insulation between Two Windings

Internal Insulation

Design of End Insulation

High-Voltage Lead Clearances

Statistical Analysis for Optimization and Quality Enhancement


Cooling Systems

Modes of Heat Transfer

Cooling Arrangements

Dissipation of Core Heat

Dissipation of Winding Heat

Aging and Life Expectancy

Direct Hot Spot Measurement

Static Electrification Phenomenon

Recent Trends in Computations


Structural Design

Importance of Structural Design

Different Types of Loads and Tests

Classification of Transformer Tanks

Tank Design

Methods of Analysis

Overpressure Phenomenon in Transformers

Seismic Analysis

Transformer Noise: Characteristics and Reduction

Transport Vibrations and Shocks


Special Transformers

Rectifier Transformers

Converter Transformers for HVDC

Furnace Transformers

Phase Shifting Transformers


Electromagnetic Fields in Transformers: Theory and Computations – New!


Basics of Electromagnetic Fields Relevant to Transformer Engineering

Potential Formulations

Finite Element Method

FEM Formulations

Coupled Fields in Transformers

Computation of Performance Parameters


Transformer-System Interactions and Modeling – New!

Power Flow Analysis with Transformers

Harmonic Studies


Arc Furnace Application

Geomagnetic Disturbances

Sympathetic Inrush Phenomenon

Internal Resonances Due to System Transients

Very Fast Transient Overvoltages

Transients in Distribution Transformers

Low,-Mid- and High-Frequency Models of Transformers


Monitoring and Diagnostics – New!

Conventional Tests

Dissolved Gas Analysis

Partial Discharge Diagnostics

Degree of Polymerization and Furan Analysis

Time Domain Dielectric Response Methods

Frequency Domain Dielectric Response Method

Detection of Winding Displacements


Other Diagnostic Tests/Instruments

Life Assessment and Refurbishment


Recent Trends in Transformer Technology

Magnetic Circuit


New Insulating Liquids

Advanced Computations

Transformers for Renewable Energy Applications

Applications of Power Electronics

Other Technologies

Trends in Monitoring and Diagnostics


Appendix A: Sample Design – New!

Appendix B: Vector Groups – New!

Appendix C: Fault Calculations

Appendix D: Stress and Capacitance Formulae


About the Authors

S.V. Kulkarni is a professor in the Department of Electrical Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Bombay. Previously, he worked at Crompton Greaves Limited and specialized in the design and development of transformers up to 400 kV class. He received the Young Engineer Award from the Indian National Academy of Engineering (INAE) for his contributions to electromagnetic field computations and high voltage insulation design in transformers. Professor Kulkarni has organized a number of training courses on the topics of transformers and computational electromagnetics for industry and academia in India. He has also delivered tutorials and keynote lectures in international conferences/workshops on transformers. He is a senior member of the IEEE. He is also a Fellow of INAE and an editor of IEEE Transactions on Power Delivery.

S.A. Khaparde is a professor in the Department of Electrical Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Bombay. He received his Ph.D. in 1981 from the Indian Institute of Technology Kharagpur. He is a member of the advisory committee to the Maharashtra Electricity Regulatory Commission (MERC), India and the Indian Energy Exchange. Professor Khaparde is a senior member of the IEEE and editor of the International Journal of Emerging Electrical Power Systems. He is also a consultant to MERC, the Indian Energy Exchange, and Power Grid Corporation of India Ltd, etc. He is a BIS (Bureau of Indian Standards) LITD-10 Committee Member and Chair of the Working Group on Common Information Model (CIM). He is member of IEC TC57 for working groups 13 and 16 representing India.

Subject Categories

BISAC Subject Codes/Headings:
SCIENCE / General
TECHNOLOGY & ENGINEERING / Electronics / General
TECHNOLOGY & ENGINEERING / Electronics / Circuits / General
TECHNOLOGY & ENGINEERING / Power Resources / Electrical