2nd Edition

Transformer Engineering Design, Technology, and Diagnostics, Second Edition

By S.V. Kulkarni, S.A. Khaparde Copyright 2013
    750 Pages 270 B/W Illustrations
    by CRC Press

    Transformer Engineering: Design, Technology, and Diagnostics, Second Edition helps you design better transformers, apply advanced numerical field computations more effectively, and tackle operational and maintenance issues. Building on the bestselling Transformer Engineering: Design and Practice, this greatly expanded second edition also emphasizes diagnostic aspects and transformer-system interactions.

    What’s New in This Edition

    • Three new chapters on electromagnetic fields in transformers, transformer-system interactions and modeling, and monitoring and diagnostics
    • An extensively revised chapter on recent trends in transformer technology
    • An extensively updated chapter on short-circuit strength, including failure mechanisms and safety factors
    • A step-by-step procedure for designing a transformer
    • Updates throughout, reflecting advances in the field

    A blend of theory and practice, this comprehensive book examines aspects of transformer engineering, from design to diagnostics. It thoroughly explains electromagnetic fields and the finite element method to help you solve practical problems related to transformers. Coverage includes important design challenges, such as eddy and stray loss evaluation and control, transient response, short-circuit withstand and strength, and insulation design. The authors also give pointers for further research. Students and engineers starting their careers will appreciate the sample design of a typical power transformer.

    Presenting in-depth explanations, modern computational techniques, and emerging trends, this is a valuable reference for those working in the transformer industry, as well as for students and researchers. It offers guidance in optimizing and enhancing transformer design, manufacturing, and condition monitoring to meet the challenges of a highly competitive market.

    Transformer Fundamentals
    Applications and Types of Transformers
    Principles and the Equivalent Circuit
    Representation of a Transformer in Power System
    Open-Circuit and Short-Circuit Tests
    Voltage Regulation and Efficiency
    Parallel Operation of Transformers

    Magnetic Characteristics
    Hysteresis, Eddy, and Anomalous Losses
    Excitation Characteristics
    Over-Excitation Performance
    No-Load Loss Test
    Impact of Manufacturing Processes
    Inrush Current
    Influence of the Core Construction and Winding Connections on No-Load Harmonic Phenomenon
    Transformer Noise
    Rotational Core Losses

    Impedance Characteristics
    Reactance Calculation
    Different Approaches for Reactance Calculation
    Analytical Methods
    Numerical Method for Reactance Calculation
    Impedance Characteristics of Three-Winding Transformers
    Reactance Calculation for Zigzag Transformers
    Zero-Sequence Reactances
    Stabilizing Tertiary Winding

    Eddy Currents and Winding Stray Losses
    Field Equations
    Poynting Vector
    Eddy Current and Hysteresis Losses
    Effect of Saturation
    Eddy Losses in Transformer Windings
    Circulating Current Loss in Transformer Windings

    Stray Losses in Structural Components
    Factors Influencing Stray Losses
    Overview of Methods for Stray Loss Estimation
    Core Edge Loss
    Stray Loss in Frames
    Stray Loss in Flitch Plates
    Stray Loss in Tank
    Stray Loss in Bushing Mounting Plates
    Evaluation of Stray Loss Due to High Current Leads
    Measures for Stray Loss Control
    Methods for Experimental Verification
    Estimation of Stray Losses in Overexcitation Condition
    Load Loss Measurement

    Short-Circuit Stresses and Strength
    Short-Circuit Currents
    Thermal Capability During a Short-Circuit
    Short-Circuit Forces
    Dynamic Behavior under Short-Circuits
    Failure Modes Due to Radial Forces
    Failure Modes Due to Axial Forces
    Failure Modes Due to Interactive (Combined Axial and Radial) Forces
    Effect of Prestress
    Short-Circuit Test
    Effect of Inrush Current
    Split-Winding Transformers
    Short-Circuit Withstand
    Calculation of Electrodynamic Force between Parallel Conductors
    Design of Clamping Structures

    Surge Phenomena in Transformers
    Initial Voltage Distribution
    Ground Capacitance Calculations
    Capacitance of Windings
    Inductance Calculation
    Standing Waves and Traveling Waves
    Methods for Analysis of Impulse Distribution
    Computation of Impulse Voltage Distribution Using State Variable Method
    Winding Design for Reducing Internal Overvoltages

    Insulation Design
    Calculation of Stresses for Simple Configurations
    Field Computations
    Factors Affecting Insulation Strength
    Test Methods and Design Insulation Level (DIL)
    Insulation between Two Windings
    Internal Insulation
    Design of End Insulation
    High-Voltage Lead Clearances
    Statistical Analysis for Optimization and Quality Enhancement

    Cooling Systems
    Modes of Heat Transfer
    Cooling Arrangements
    Dissipation of Core Heat
    Dissipation of Winding Heat
    Aging and Life Expectancy
    Direct Hot Spot Measurement
    Static Electrification Phenomenon
    Recent Trends in Computations

    Structural Design
    Importance of Structural Design
    Different Types of Loads and Tests
    Classification of Transformer Tanks
    Tank Design
    Methods of Analysis
    Overpressure Phenomenon in Transformers
    Seismic Analysis
    Transformer Noise: Characteristics and Reduction
    Transport Vibrations and Shocks

    Special Transformers
    Rectifier Transformers
    Converter Transformers for HVDC
    Furnace Transformers
    Phase Shifting Transformers

    Electromagnetic Fields in Transformers: Theory and Computations – New!
    Basics of Electromagnetic Fields Relevant to Transformer Engineering
    Potential Formulations
    Finite Element Method
    FEM Formulations
    Coupled Fields in Transformers
    Computation of Performance Parameters

    Transformer-System Interactions and Modeling – New!
    Power Flow Analysis with Transformers
    Harmonic Studies
    Arc Furnace Application
    Geomagnetic Disturbances
    Sympathetic Inrush Phenomenon
    Internal Resonances Due to System Transients
    Very Fast Transient Overvoltages
    Transients in Distribution Transformers
    Low,-Mid- and High-Frequency Models of Transformers

    Monitoring and Diagnostics – New!
    Conventional Tests
    Dissolved Gas Analysis
    Partial Discharge Diagnostics
    Degree of Polymerization and Furan Analysis
    Time Domain Dielectric Response Methods
    Frequency Domain Dielectric Response Method
    Detection of Winding Displacements
    Other Diagnostic Tests/Instruments
    Life Assessment and Refurbishment

    Recent Trends in Transformer Technology
    Magnetic Circuit
    New Insulating Liquids
    Advanced Computations
    Transformers for Renewable Energy Applications
    Applications of Power Electronics
    Other Technologies
    Trends in Monitoring and Diagnostics

    Appendix A: Sample Design – New!
    Appendix B: Vector Groups –
    Appendix C: Fault Calculations
    Appendix D: Stress and Capacitance Formulae


    S.V. Kulkarni is a professor in the Department of Electrical Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Bombay. Previously, he worked at Crompton Greaves Limited and specialized in the design and development of transformers up to 400 kV class. He received the Young Engineer Award from the Indian National Academy of Engineering (INAE) for his contributions to electromagnetic field computations and high voltage insulation design in transformers. Professor Kulkarni has organized a number of training courses on the topics of transformers and computational electromagnetics for industry and academia in India. He has also delivered tutorials and keynote lectures in international conferences/workshops on transformers. He is a senior member of the IEEE. He is also a Fellow of INAE and an editor of IEEE Transactions on Power Delivery.

    S.A. Khaparde is a professor in the Department of Electrical Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Bombay. He received his Ph.D. in 1981 from the Indian Institute of Technology Kharagpur. He is a member of the advisory committee to the Maharashtra Electricity Regulatory Commission (MERC), India and the Indian Energy Exchange. Professor Khaparde is a senior member of the IEEE and editor of the International Journal of Emerging Electrical Power Systems. He is also a consultant to MERC, the Indian Energy Exchange, and Power Grid Corporation of India Ltd, etc. He is a BIS (Bureau of Indian Standards) LITD-10 Committee Member and Chair of the Working Group on Common Information Model (CIM). He is member of IEC TC57 for working groups 13 and 16 representing India.

    Praise for the Previous Edition

    "… the timely publication of this book is quite a welcome delight. … the authors provide in-depth coverage on both theory and practical application of modern computational techniques in transformer engineering. … this book is an easy-to-use reference source and is recommended for academic and research libraries."

    "… contains practical information used in the industry."
    IEEE Electrical Insulation Magazine

    "Authors' personal research and their experience in industry and in education is the source for the numerous worked examples—very useful for didactic purposes. … More than 400 references are mentioned, spread in the 12 chapters. The book is written in an impressively deep analytical spirit."
    IEEE Power Electronics Society Newsletter