Transformer Engineering : Design, Technology, and Diagnostics, Second Edition book cover
2nd Edition

Transformer Engineering
Design, Technology, and Diagnostics, Second Edition

ISBN 9781439853771
Published September 6, 2012 by CRC Press
750 Pages 270 B/W Illustrations

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Book Description

Transformer Engineering: Design, Technology, and Diagnostics, Second Edition helps you design better transformers, apply advanced numerical field computations more effectively, and tackle operational and maintenance issues. Building on the bestselling Transformer Engineering: Design and Practice, this greatly expanded second edition also emphasizes diagnostic aspects and transformer-system interactions.

What’s New in This Edition

  • Three new chapters on electromagnetic fields in transformers, transformer-system interactions and modeling, and monitoring and diagnostics
  • An extensively revised chapter on recent trends in transformer technology
  • An extensively updated chapter on short-circuit strength, including failure mechanisms and safety factors
  • A step-by-step procedure for designing a transformer
  • Updates throughout, reflecting advances in the field

A blend of theory and practice, this comprehensive book examines aspects of transformer engineering, from design to diagnostics. It thoroughly explains electromagnetic fields and the finite element method to help you solve practical problems related to transformers. Coverage includes important design challenges, such as eddy and stray loss evaluation and control, transient response, short-circuit withstand and strength, and insulation design. The authors also give pointers for further research. Students and engineers starting their careers will appreciate the sample design of a typical power transformer.

Presenting in-depth explanations, modern computational techniques, and emerging trends, this is a valuable reference for those working in the transformer industry, as well as for students and researchers. It offers guidance in optimizing and enhancing transformer design, manufacturing, and condition monitoring to meet the challenges of a highly competitive market.

Table of Contents

Transformer Fundamentals
Applications and Types of Transformers
Principles and the Equivalent Circuit
Representation of a Transformer in Power System
Open-Circuit and Short-Circuit Tests
Voltage Regulation and Efficiency
Parallel Operation of Transformers

Magnetic Characteristics
Hysteresis, Eddy, and Anomalous Losses
Excitation Characteristics
Over-Excitation Performance
No-Load Loss Test
Impact of Manufacturing Processes
Inrush Current
Influence of the Core Construction and Winding Connections on No-Load Harmonic Phenomenon
Transformer Noise
Rotational Core Losses

Impedance Characteristics
Reactance Calculation
Different Approaches for Reactance Calculation
Analytical Methods
Numerical Method for Reactance Calculation
Impedance Characteristics of Three-Winding Transformers
Reactance Calculation for Zigzag Transformers
Zero-Sequence Reactances
Stabilizing Tertiary Winding

Eddy Currents and Winding Stray Losses
Field Equations
Poynting Vector
Eddy Current and Hysteresis Losses
Effect of Saturation
Eddy Losses in Transformer Windings
Circulating Current Loss in Transformer Windings

Stray Losses in Structural Components
Factors Influencing Stray Losses
Overview of Methods for Stray Loss Estimation
Core Edge Loss
Stray Loss in Frames
Stray Loss in Flitch Plates
Stray Loss in Tank
Stray Loss in Bushing Mounting Plates
Evaluation of Stray Loss Due to High Current Leads
Measures for Stray Loss Control
Methods for Experimental Verification
Estimation of Stray Losses in Overexcitation Condition
Load Loss Measurement

Short-Circuit Stresses and Strength
Short-Circuit Currents
Thermal Capability During a Short-Circuit
Short-Circuit Forces
Dynamic Behavior under Short-Circuits
Failure Modes Due to Radial Forces
Failure Modes Due to Axial Forces
Failure Modes Due to Interactive (Combined Axial and Radial) Forces
Effect of Prestress
Short-Circuit Test
Effect of Inrush Current
Split-Winding Transformers
Short-Circuit Withstand
Calculation of Electrodynamic Force between Parallel Conductors
Design of Clamping Structures

Surge Phenomena in Transformers
Initial Voltage Distribution
Ground Capacitance Calculations
Capacitance of Windings
Inductance Calculation
Standing Waves and Traveling Waves
Methods for Analysis of Impulse Distribution
Computation of Impulse Voltage Distribution Using State Variable Method
Winding Design for Reducing Internal Overvoltages

Insulation Design
Calculation of Stresses for Simple Configurations
Field Computations
Factors Affecting Insulation Strength
Test Methods and Design Insulation Level (DIL)
Insulation between Two Windings
Internal Insulation
Design of End Insulation
High-Voltage Lead Clearances
Statistical Analysis for Optimization and Quality Enhancement

Cooling Systems
Modes of Heat Transfer
Cooling Arrangements
Dissipation of Core Heat
Dissipation of Winding Heat
Aging and Life Expectancy
Direct Hot Spot Measurement
Static Electrification Phenomenon
Recent Trends in Computations

Structural Design
Importance of Structural Design
Different Types of Loads and Tests
Classification of Transformer Tanks
Tank Design
Methods of Analysis
Overpressure Phenomenon in Transformers
Seismic Analysis
Transformer Noise: Characteristics and Reduction
Transport Vibrations and Shocks

Special Transformers
Rectifier Transformers
Converter Transformers for HVDC
Furnace Transformers
Phase Shifting Transformers

Electromagnetic Fields in Transformers: Theory and Computations – New!
Basics of Electromagnetic Fields Relevant to Transformer Engineering
Potential Formulations
Finite Element Method
FEM Formulations
Coupled Fields in Transformers
Computation of Performance Parameters

Transformer-System Interactions and Modeling – New!
Power Flow Analysis with Transformers
Harmonic Studies
Arc Furnace Application
Geomagnetic Disturbances
Sympathetic Inrush Phenomenon
Internal Resonances Due to System Transients
Very Fast Transient Overvoltages
Transients in Distribution Transformers
Low,-Mid- and High-Frequency Models of Transformers

Monitoring and Diagnostics – New!
Conventional Tests
Dissolved Gas Analysis
Partial Discharge Diagnostics
Degree of Polymerization and Furan Analysis
Time Domain Dielectric Response Methods
Frequency Domain Dielectric Response Method
Detection of Winding Displacements
Other Diagnostic Tests/Instruments
Life Assessment and Refurbishment

Recent Trends in Transformer Technology
Magnetic Circuit
New Insulating Liquids
Advanced Computations
Transformers for Renewable Energy Applications
Applications of Power Electronics
Other Technologies
Trends in Monitoring and Diagnostics

Appendix A: Sample Design – New!
Appendix B: Vector Groups –
Appendix C: Fault Calculations
Appendix D: Stress and Capacitance Formulae

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S.V. Kulkarni is a professor in the Department of Electrical Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Bombay. Previously, he worked at Crompton Greaves Limited and specialized in the design and development of transformers up to 400 kV class. He received the Young Engineer Award from the Indian National Academy of Engineering (INAE) for his contributions to electromagnetic field computations and high voltage insulation design in transformers. Professor Kulkarni has organized a number of training courses on the topics of transformers and computational electromagnetics for industry and academia in India. He has also delivered tutorials and keynote lectures in international conferences/workshops on transformers. He is a senior member of the IEEE. He is also a Fellow of INAE and an editor of IEEE Transactions on Power Delivery.

S.A. Khaparde is a professor in the Department of Electrical Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Bombay. He received his Ph.D. in 1981 from the Indian Institute of Technology Kharagpur. He is a member of the advisory committee to the Maharashtra Electricity Regulatory Commission (MERC), India and the Indian Energy Exchange. Professor Khaparde is a senior member of the IEEE and editor of the International Journal of Emerging Electrical Power Systems. He is also a consultant to MERC, the Indian Energy Exchange, and Power Grid Corporation of India Ltd, etc. He is a BIS (Bureau of Indian Standards) LITD-10 Committee Member and Chair of the Working Group on Common Information Model (CIM). He is member of IEC TC57 for working groups 13 and 16 representing India.


Praise for the Previous Edition

"… the timely publication of this book is quite a welcome delight. … the authors provide in-depth coverage on both theory and practical application of modern computational techniques in transformer engineering. … this book is an easy-to-use reference source and is recommended for academic and research libraries."

"… contains practical information used in the industry."
IEEE Electrical Insulation Magazine

"Authors' personal research and their experience in industry and in education is the source for the numerous worked examples—very useful for didactic purposes. … More than 400 references are mentioned, spread in the 12 chapters. The book is written in an impressively deep analytical spirit."
IEEE Power Electronics Society Newsletter