Globalization and the easy movement of people, weapons, and toxins across borders has transformed security into a transnational phenomenon. Preventing transnational security threats has proven to be a very difficult challenge for governments and institutions around the world. Transnational Security addresses these issues, which are at the forefront of every global security professional’s agenda.
This book analyzes the most pressing current transnational security threats, including weapons of mass destruction, terrorism, organized crime, cybercrime, natural disasters, human-made disasters, infectious diseases, food insecurity, water insecurity, and energy insecurity. It considers the applicable international laws and examines how key international organizations are dealing with these issues.
The author uses a combination of theory and real-world examples to illustrate the transnational nature of security risks. By providing a detailed account of the different threats, countermeasures, and their implications for a number of different fields—law, public policy and administration, security, and criminology—this book will be an extremely useful resource for academicians, practitioners, and graduate and upper-level undergraduate students in these areas.
Table of Contents
Transnational Security: An Introduction
The State of Security
Security and Its Relationship to Threats
The Pursuit of Security: Prioritizing Security and Societal Values
The Cost of Pursuing Security: The Problem with Trade-Offs
The Provision of Security
The Transformation of Security
Dealing with Transnational Security
Decisions Under Uncertainty: Theories and Practice in Security Studies
Perpetrators as Rational Actors
The Perils of Uncertainty
Certainty Also Matters: The Pitfalls of Misplaced Certainty
The Problems with Preemption
Targeted Killings: Justified Preemptive Strikes?
Ushering in the Age of Precaution
Errors in Decision Making in Response to Uncertainty: Lessons from Psychology
Weapons of Mass Destruction and Nonproliferation
Nonproliferation: Arms Control in Practice
Kant and the Objectives of Classical Arms Control Theory
Democracies and Arms Control
Choosing Arms Control: What Determines This
Identities and Roles in Practice
Nuclear Weapons and the Double-Damned Dilemma
What Is Terrorism?
Typologies of Terrorism
Terrorists’ Modus Operandi
Drivers for Counterterrorism
Criminalizing and Combating Terrorism
Transnational Organized Crime
Transnational Organized Crime
Drivers of Drug Trafficking
Drug Trafficking Hubs
Drivers for Wildlife Trafficking
International Laws and Initiatives
Trafficking in Precious Metals and Gemstones
Cultural Property Trafficking
Desperately Seeking Cybersecurity
United and Structured Cybersecurity Response
Natural Disasters: A Forgotten Security Risk?
Natural Disasters: Costs and Consequences
The Risk of Natural Disasters
Lessons Learned in International Emergency Management
Types of Human-Made Disasters
Nuclear Events: Accidents or Incidents?
The Spread of Infectious Diseases
Impact of Infectious Diseases
Weaponization of Infectious Diseases
Dealing with Infectious Diseases
Prevention and Mitigation
Security Issues in Conflict and Post-Conflict Societies
Dealing with Mass Atrocities
Early Warning Systems
Repairing Harm Done
The Fight for Natural Resources: Seeking Food and Water Security
Dealing with Food Insecurity
The Right to Food and the Right to Be Free from Hunger
Drivers of Water Scarcity
The Right to Water
Energy Security: Current Issues
The Pursuit of Energy Security
Energy Geopolitics of Turkey
Persian Gulf Energy Resources
Transporting Energy Resources: Disruptions and Vulnerabilities
Oil Embargoes and World Energy Security
Dealing with Energy Insecurity
The Future of Transnational Security: Concluding Remarks
Structural Issues in Transnational Security
The Way Forward
Environmental Issues: Climate Change
"New" Transnational Security Threats
Dr. Marie-Helen Maras is an Associate Professor at the Department of Security, Fire, and Emergency Management at John Jay College of Criminal Justice. She has a DPhil in Law and an MPhil in Criminology and Criminal Justice from the University of Oxford. In addition, she holds a graduate degree in Industrial and Organizational Psychology from the University of New Haven and undergraduate degrees in Computer and Information Science and Psychology from the University of Maryland University College. She has taught at New York University and SUNY-Farmingdale.
Dr. Maras has published four major works at Jones and Bartlett, books titled: Computer Forensics: Cybercriminals, Laws and Evidence (1st edition); Computer Forensics: Cybercriminals, Laws and Evidence (2nd edition); Exploring Criminal Justice: The Essentials; and Counterterrorism. She has also published in peer-reviewed academic journal articles on the economic, social and political consequences of measures seeking the surveillance of the telecommunications and electronic communications data of all EU citizens in the European Journal of Law and Economics, International Journal of Law, Crime and Justice and the Hamburg Review of Social Sciences. Moreover, she has provided chapters for edited volumes by Benjamin Goold and Daniel Neyland, titled New Directions in Privacy and Surveillance (Willan Publishing, 2009), and Justin Sinclair and Daniel Antonius, titled The Political Psychology of Terrorism Fears (Oxford University Press, 2013). Furthermore, she published an edited volume titled CRC Press Reader on Terrorism (2013).
In addition to her teaching and academic work, her background includes approximately seven years of service in the U.S. Navy with significant experience in security and law enforcement from her posts as a Navy Law Enforcement Specialist and Command Investigator. While in the Navy, she supervised her personnel in conducting over 130 counter-surveillance operations throughout Operations Enduring Freedom and Iraqi Freedom. During the early stages of her military career, she worked as an Electronics and Calibration Technician.
"In her latest book, Dr. Maras launches readers into a world where the bricks of national security are held in place by the mortar of transnational security. Dr. Maras spares no one in framing transnational threats for her reader’s consideration. This book is both well researched and well documented. For those tasked with researching and developing security policy, student and practitioner alike, this is your book."
—General Aviation Security Magazine