Transport & Fate of Chemicals in Soils: Principles & Applications, 1st Edition (Paperback) book cover

Transport & Fate of Chemicals in Soils

Principles & Applications, 1st Edition

By H. Magdi Selim

CRC Press

352 pages | 202 B/W Illus.

Purchasing Options:$ = USD
Paperback: 9781138075924
pub: 2017-11-22
SAVE ~$16.59
$82.95
$66.36
x
Hardback: 9781466557949
pub: 2014-09-17
SAVE ~$44.00
$220.00
$176.00
x
eBook (VitalSource) : 9780429097959
pub: 2014-09-17
from $40.00


FREE Standard Shipping!

Description

During the last four decades, tremendous advances have been made towards the understanding of transport characteristics of contaminants in soils, solutes, and tracers in geological media. Transport & Fate of Chemicals in Soils: Principles & Applications offers a comprehensive treatment of the subject complete with supporting examples of mathematical models that describe contaminants reactivity and transport in soils and aquifers. This approach makes it a practical guide for designing experiments and collecting data that focus on characterizing retention as well as release kinetic reactions in soils and contaminant transport experiments in the laboratory, greenhouse), and in the field.

The book provides the basic framework of the principals governing the sorption and transport of chemicalsin soils. It focuses on physical processes such as fractured media, multiregion, multiple porosities, and heterogeneity and effect of scale as well as chemical processes such as nonlinear kinetics, release and desorption hysteresis, multisite and multireaction reactions, and competitive-type reactions. The coverage also includes details of sorption behavior of chemicals with soil matrix surfaces as well the integration of sorption characteristics with mechanisms that govern solute transport in soils. The discussions of applications of the principles of sorption and transport are not restricted to contaminants, but also include nitrogen, phosphorus, and trace elements including essential micronutrients, heavy metals, military explosives, pesticides, and radionuclides.

Written in a very clear and easy-to-follow language by a pioneer in soil science, this book details the basic framework of the physical and chemical processes governing the transport of contaminants, trace elements, and heavy metals in soils. Highly practical, it includes laboratory methods, examples, and empirical formulations. The approach taken by the author gives you not only the fundamentals of understanding of reactive chemicals retention and their transport in soils and aquifers, but practical guidance you can put to immediate use in designing experiments and collecting data.

Reviews

"Highly practical… includes laboratory methods, examples, and empirical formulations."

International Journal of Environmental Analytical Chemistry, 2015

"[This]new book by H. Magdi Selim, makes an important contribution to the available literature concerning the fate and transport of solutes in the soil environment. The text is ideal for use in both graduate and undergraduate instruction in a range of disciplines beyond soil science, and as a standard reference guide for many researchers and environmental practitioners interested in this field. A unique aspect of the text is the discussion of laboratory methods by which solute transport and partitioning properties are obtained, rather than focusing solely on an understanding of conceptual issues and modeling approaches."

—John C. Seaman, Savannah River Eco. Lab, University of Georgia, Athens, USA

"The significance and extent of chemicals in our environment demand concerted attention for purposes of understanding, management, and remediation. This book contributes greatly to each of these purposes. …Professor Selim has written this important book, which I highly recommend to all scientists and engineers interested in chemicals in the natural environment."

—Robert Horton, Iowa State University, Ames, USA

"… invaluable to students and professionals in soil and environmental sciences, environmental engineering, and hydrology, and other allied fields. Clear discussions on contaminant processes are included as well as kinetic based models that can be used to predict contaminant fate and transport over various temporal scales. In addition to principles, that are included for each topic, applications, to relate the results to real world scenarios, are presented. I highly recommend this timely and important book."

— Donald L. Sparks, Director, Delaware Environmental Institute (DENIN), University of Delaware

"… a comprehensive introduction and overview on physico-chemical approaches used to describe and model solute transport in soils and how it is affected by sorption to the solid matrix and exchange among pore space domains of contrasting mobility. The value of the book is furthermore greatly enhanced by the endeavor of the author to link the presented concepts to application. In addition to describing and discussing the methods used to determine model parameters, the book also gives a wealth of data relating parameter values to soil types and properties. Thus, it is not only most useful for students and advanced scientists looking for a concise introduction into soil solute sorption and transport principles and an overview over the state of the art in this field, but is also for practitioners as a valuable source of information needed for practical applications of transport models."

—Rainer Schulin, ETH Zurich, Switzerland

Table of Contents

Sorption Isotherms

Freundlich Isotherm

Langmuir Isotherm

Two-Site Langmuir

General Types of Isotherms

Empirical versus Mechanistic Models

Nonlinearity and Heterogeneity

Effect of Soil Properties

Predictions

References

Sorption Kinetics

Modeling of Kinetic Sorption

First-Order and Freundlich Kinetics

Second-Order and Langmuir Kinetics

Desorption and Hysteresis

Imperial Hysteresis Coefficient

Measuring Sorption

One-Step Batch

Kinetic Batch Reactor

Adsorption-Desorption Kinetic Batch Method

Thin Disk Method

Stirred-Flow Method

Miscible Displacement

References

Transport

Continuity Equation

Transport Mechanisms

Mass Flow

Molecular Diffusion

Dispersion

Equilibrium Linear and Nonlinear Sorption

Initial and Boundary Conditions

Exact Solutions

Brenner Solution

Lindstrom Solution

Cleary and Adrian Solution

Other Exact Solutions

Estimation of D

Numerical Solution of the Nonlinear CDE

Transport versus Batch

Simulations

References

Effect of Scale

Definition of Scale Effects

Mean Travel Distance and Distance from Source

Case Studies

Generalized Equations and Simulations

Effects of Nonlinearity of the Dispersivity Model

Transfer Function Models

Fractional CDE in Porous Media

Comparison between CDE and FCDE

Fractals

Simulations

Application to Field-Scale Experiments

Appendix A: Derivation of Finite-Difference Equations for CDE with a Linearly Time-Dependent Dispersivity

Appendix B: Derivations of Finite-Difference Equations for CDE with a Linearly Distance-Dependent Dispersivity

Appendix C: Derivations of Finite Difference Equations for CDE with a Nonlinearly Time-Dependent Dispersivity

Appendix D: Derivations of Finite-Difference Equations for CDE with a Nonlinearly Distance-Dependent Dispersivity

References

Multiple-Reaction Approaches

Two-Site Models

Multireaction Models

Applications

References

Second-Order Transport Modeling

Second-Order Kinetics

Transport Model

Sensitivity Analysis

Experimental Data on Retention

Experimental Data on Transport

Modified Second-Order Approach

Experimental Data on Retention

Experimental Data on Transport

References

Competitive Sorption and Transport

Transport Equation

Equilibrium Ion Exchange

Kinetic Ion Exchange

Examples

Competitive Freundlich Model

Competitive Multireaction Model (CMRM)

Competitive Langmuir Model

Experimental Evidence

Nickel and Cadmium

Zinc-Phosphate

Arsenate-Phosphate

Vanidate-Phosphate

Copper-Magnesium

Cadmium-Phosphate

Silver-Zinc

References

Mobile, Immobile, and Multiflow Domain Approaches

Matrix Diffusion

Preferential Flow

Mobile-Immobile or Two-Region

General Formulation

Estimation of α

Estimation of Θm and Θim

Experimental Evidence

A Second-Order Approach

Initial and Boundary Conditions

Sensitivity Analysis

Examples

A Modified Two-Region Approach

Multiflow Domain Approaches

Experimental Evidence

References

Transport in Nonuniform Media

Layered Media

Convection-Dispersion Equation

Boundary Condition at the Interface

Equilibrium Retention Models

Linear Adsorption

Nonlinear Freundlich Adsorption

Langmuir Model

Kinetic Retention

Water-Unsaturated Soils

Mixed Media

Multireaction and Transport Model

MRTM Simulations

Second-Order Model (SOTS)

Experimental Evidence

References

Index

About the Author

H. Magdi Selim is Professor of Soil Physics and George and Mildred Caldwell Endowed Professor of Soil Science, School of Plant, Environmental and Soil Sciences at Louisiana State University at Baton Rouge. He received his B.S. degree in Soil Science from Alexandria University, Alexandria, Egypt, and his M.S. and Ph.D. in Soil Physics from Iowa State University, Ames, Iowa. Professor Selim is internationally recognized for his research in the areas of transport and kinetics of reactive chemicals in heterogeneous porous media and modeling of dissolved chemicals in water-saturated and unsaturated soils. He is the original developer of several conceptual models for describing the retention processes of dissolved chemicals in soils and natural materials in porous media. Pioneering work also include two-site and

multireaction and nonlinear kinetic models for trace elements, heavy metals, radio-nuclides, explosive contaminants, phosphorus and pesticides in soils and geological media.

Professor Selim is the author or coauthor of numerous scientific publications in several journals. He is author and co-author of several books. He is a member of the American Society of Agronomy, Soil Science Society of America, International Society of Soil Science, International Society of Trace Element Biogeochemistry, Louisiana Association of Agronomy, and American Society of Sugarcane Technology. Dr. Selim was elected chair of the Soil Physics Division of the Soil Science Society of America. He served on numerous committees of the Soil Science Society of America, American Society of Agronomy, and the International Society of Trace Element Biogeochemistry. He also served as associate editor of Water Resources Research and the Soil Science Society of America Journal and as Technical Editor of the Journal of Environmental Quality.

Professor Selim is a Fellow of the American Society of Agronomy and the Soil Science Society of America. Dr. Selim is the recipient of several professional awards and honors. Awards received include Phi Kappa Phi Research, Gamma Sigma Delta Award for Research, Joe Sedberry Graduate Teaching Award, First Mississippi Research Award, Doyle Chambers Achievements Award, and EPA Environmental Excellence Award. Recent awards include the Soil Science Research Award from the Soil Science Society of America (SSSA) and von Liebeg Award from the International Union of Soil Science (IUSS).

Subject Categories

BISAC Subject Codes/Headings:
SCI013000
SCIENCE / Chemistry / General
SCI026000
SCIENCE / Environmental Science
TEC003000
TECHNOLOGY & ENGINEERING / Agriculture / General