Transportation Systems Security: 1st Edition (Hardback) book cover

Transportation Systems Security

1st Edition

By Allan McDougall, Robert Radvanovsky

CRC Press

280 pages | 17 B/W Illus.

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pub: 2008-05-28
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Highlighting the importance of transportation to a country’s infrastructure and survival, Transportation Systems Security presents the strategic and practical considerations involved in the implementation of physical, procedural, and managerial safeguards required to keep all modes of transportation up and running during an actual or potential disaster.

Structured in an easy cognitive fashion, the book begins with a basic introduction providing terms and definitions. It describes both physical and information system layouts and defines who controls what parts of the process, how far control is extended, and who oversees controls within the system.

Building on this foundation, subsequent chapters discuss problems such as the need for a more defined “domain-based” approach when threats, assets, vulnerabilities, and safeguards are not under local control. The book describes and refines the concepts of criticality, impact, and consequence as they relate to the assignation of value for personnel, assets, facilities, information and activities in terms of how they might support performance.

By comparing continuity of operations planning (COOP) to business continuity planning (BCP), the book presents security measures as a value-added benefit rather than a hindrance to business and introduces the notion of certification, accreditation, and licensure. It demonstrates safeguards that layer outward from the entity and across the system with the ability to prevent, detect, and notify, as well as respond to and recover from a crisis.

Emphasizing the sharing of information and methods, the book encourages security to become an integrated component within the system, not just imposed on top of it. It takes a holistic approach to the transportation infrastructure, introducing the concept of fragility and the measurable factors involved, and including a 20 page questionnaire to help managers determine their company’s fragility in terms of transportation security.

Table of Contents

Introduction to Transportation Systems

Requirements for Securing the Sector

The Transportation Sector as Linked Systems

Impact Resulting from System Failure or Interruption

Trends within the Transportation Sector

Fragility and Reliability

Understanding Transportation System Security

Transportation System Topography

General Overview

Nodes and Conduits

Directly and Indirectly Derived Demands

Factors Affecting Directly Derived Demands

Factors Affecting Indirect Demands

Routing of Conduits

Spoke-and-Hub Systems

Control Points versus Nodes

Control Points in Fixed Conduits

Control Points along Flexible Conduits

Terminal or Transfer?

System as a Sum of Interlinked Systems

Recap of the System

Constraints within the System

Coordination Networks

Coordination Network—Operations

How the Coordination Network Interacts with the System

Conduit-Based Networks: Operations and Deployment

Use of Systems for Automation

Persons and Associations and Networks of Persons


Factors to Consider

Business Goals and Mission Analysis

Scales of Operability

General Interaction

How Is the System Mission Achieved?

Considerations of the Transportation System

System-Level Mission Statement

Transportation System Security Mission Statement

Determining the Mission Statement for Organizations

Strategic Level Mission Statements as Organizational Constraints

Operational Level within the Structure

Interaction between the Strategic and Operational Levels

Role of the Operational Level

Tactical Level within the Structure

Interaction between the Operational and Tactical Levels

Overview of the Structure

Limitations on Controls

Limitations on the Strategic Level

Limitations on the Operational Level

Limitations on the Tactical Level

Generation of the Mission Statements

ABC Transport’s Security Mission Statements

How Does the Mission Statement Fit into Critical Infrastructure Protection?


General Definitions and Approaches

Persons, Assets, Facilities, Information, and Activities

Follow-the-Pipe Approach

Mission-Driven Value

Vulnerability-Driven Considerations

Integrating the C-I-A Triad

Integrating the D-M-L Triad

CIP Management Approach


Means, Opportunity, and Intent

Convergence within the Transportation System

The Concept of Risk, Residual Risk, and Risk Appetite

Who Decides the Threshold for Risk Appetite?

Avoiding, Addressing, Transferring, Accepting, and Ignoring Risk

Responses to Risk and Regulation

Risk Awareness

The Concept of Safeguards

Prevention, Detection, Response, and Recovery

Looking at Vulnerabilities

Interim versus Proposed Measures

Layered Defenses

The Macro Level

ABC Transport

Local versus Systems Approaches

Structures of Networks

The Flux of the Transportation System

Imperatives Driving Network Component Behavior

Aligning Imperatives with the Mission Statement

Relationship between Imperatives and Levels

Tactical-Level Imperatives

Operational-Level Imperatives

Strategic-Level Imperatives

Aligning the Levels of the Organization

Communications among the Levels

Pace of Evolution

Internal Influences versus External Influences

Transorganizational Constraints

Alignment with Mission Statements

Influences on Follow the Pipe

Alignment of Transorganizational Groups with the Matrix

Constraints by Regulators



Criticality, Impact, Consequence, and Internal and External Distributed Risk

Assignment of Value





Risk Calculations

ABC Transport Example


Mitigation and Cost Benefit

First Step to Mitigating Risk—Strategy

Key Considerations

Selecting a Mitigation Strategy

Tactical-Level Considerations

Operational-Level Considerations

Strategic-Level Considerations

System-Level Considerations

Cost Considerations

Benefit Considerations

Aligning Procedures with Performance

Setting Strong Procedures

Linking Business Activities

Robustness, Resiliency, and Redundancy

Setting Goals and Benchmarks

Generating the Manual


Certification, Accreditation, Registration, and Licensing

Linking to Mitigation





The Trusted Transportation System

ABC Transport Example

Continuity of Operations Planning


Continuity of Operations

What Is COOP?

Aligning COOP, BCP, and Contingency Planning

Background of COOP




Issues Implementing COOP

Aligning with Preventive Safeguards


Response and Mitigation


Supply Chain Management Security


Networks and Communities of Trust

Value of Community Involvement





Community Building as a Continuum

Setting of Arrangements

Communities and Council Building

Tactical, Operational, and Strategic Considerations

Communities, Trusted Networks, and Operations

ABC Transport Example


Establishing and Monitoring Learning Systems

Intent of the Learning System

How the Intent Is Met

Assessing or Evaluating against Criteria

Prioritizing Based on Divergence

Determining Causes

Communicating Results

Challenges with ISACs

How Would Information Be Shared?

Legal Issues with ISACs

Consequences of Accidental Disclosure of Information

Intellectual Property and ISACs

Trend Analysis

Reporting Trends

Information Sharing and Definition and Categorization Challenges

ABC Transport


Fragility and Fragility Analysis Management

Requirement for Information

Repositories of Information

Lines of Communication

Data Categorization

Adaptability of the Categorization Process

Adaptability of Data Sets or Mutability


Integration into Mitigation Strategies

Addressing Capacity in Decision-Making Gaps

Translating of Strategies into Action

The Rough Fragility Score for Evolution

Additional Factors with Respect to Fragility

Rating Geographic, Sphere of Control, and Interdependency Fragility

Fragility Factor

Relating to Resiliency and Redundancy

Fragility and the Path of Least Resistance

Mean Time between Business Failure (MTBBF)

Mean Time between Market Failure (MTBMF)

Persistent Fragility Leading to System Revolution

Management of Fragility

Relating to Prevention, Detection, Response, and Recovery

Transportation System Security, Risk, and Fragility


Appendix A:

Sample Memorandum of Understanding between the Radio Amateurs of Canada, Inc. and the Canadian Red Cross Society

Memorandum of Understanding between the Radio Amateurs of Canada Inc. and the Canadian Red Cross Society

Appendix A Guidelines for Cooperation

Appendix B

Organization of The Canadian Red Cross Society

Organization of the Radio Amateurs of Canada, Inc.

Appendix B: Manager’s Working Tool

Section 1: Product or Service Delivery

Section 2: Geography and Community Building

Section 3: Data Categorization and Information Management

Section 4: Establish a Learning System

Section 5: Maintenance and Sustainability

About the Originator

Subject Categories

BISAC Subject Codes/Headings:
COMPUTERS / Security / General
SOCIAL SCIENCE / Disasters & Disaster Relief