Trophic Organization in Coastal Systems: 1st Edition (Hardback) book cover

Trophic Organization in Coastal Systems

1st Edition

By Robert J. Livingston

CRC Press

408 pages | 124 B/W Illus.

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pub: 2002-12-23
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Description

Derived from an unprecedented research effort covering over 70 field years of field data in a series of studies, Trophic Organization in Coastal Systems represents an alternative approach to coastal research that has been successfully applied to coastal resource management issues. This unique book is based upon a sequence of long-term, interdisciplinary studies of a series of coastal regions in the NE Gulf of Mexico that include nutrient loading, habitat definition, quantified collections of organisms from microbes to fishes, and the determination of the trophic organization that defines the processes that shape the productivity of these areas.

A multidisciplinary team of marine scientists, chemists, physical oceanographers, geologists, hydrologists, engineers, experimental biologists, and taxonomists have created a singular database of changes in a series of Gulf of Mexico coastal systems. This field information, together with field and laboratory experimentation, is integrated with the scientific literature to advance our understanding of how coastal food webs work. The central focus is on the relationship of primary production in the form of species-specific phytoplankton communities with associated food webs of coastal systems and the relationship of tropho-dynamic processes to long-term changes (natural and polluted) in such areas. The impacts of phytoplankton blooms on trophic organization is elucidated.

The author, a renowned marine scientist, provides detailed knowledge of the processes that drive coastal ecosystems. He presents an in-depth discussion of a hierarchy of cyclical periods associated with the formation and development of aquatic food webs. Trophic Organization in Coastal Systems will be particularly useful to those involved in research related to the importance of aquatic food webs to an understanding of how aquatic systems function. The principles and processes of trophic organization presented here can serve as a valuable model for research in other regions of the world.

Table of Contents

INTRODUCTION

Food Webs and the Ecosystem Paradigm

Trophodynamic Aspects of Ecosystem Processes

Food Web Ecology in Coastal Systems

Trophic Studies in the NE Gulf of Mexico

THE NORTHEAST GULF OF MEXICO

Background

Drainage Basins

Coastal Habitats

Estuarine/Coastal Systems of the NE Gulf

Perdido Bay System

Pensacola Bay System

Choctawhatchee Bay System

Apalachicola Bay System

Apalachee Bay System

LONG-TERM STUDIES: NE GULF OF MEXICO

Field Programs

TROPHIC ORGANIZATION IN GULF COASTAL SYSTEMS

Approaches to the Study of Trophodynamics

Field Collections

The Trophic Unit

Feeding Variability

Spatial Features of Trophic Response

Temporal Features of Trophic Response

Inadequacy of Species-level Designations in Ecological Studies

Trophic Level Designations

Trophic Unit Transformation

STRUCTURAL COMPONENTS OF TROPHIC ORGANIZATION

Infaunal Macroinvertebrates

Descriptive Field Data

Habitat Changes

Spatial Variation

Temporal Variation

Predation experiments

Physical Habitat Changes, Predation, and Food Web Relationships

Effects of Toxic Agents on Trophic Relationships

Long-Term Changes of Trophic Organization

Habitat Background

Biological Trends

Trophic Relationships

Dynamic Regression Models

Long-Term Trends

COASTAL PHYTOPLANKTON ORGANIZATION

Freshwater Runoff and Primary Production

The Perdido Drainage System

Seasonal and Interannual River Flow Patterns

Nutrient Loading

Nutrient Concentration Gradients

Nutrient Limitation

Sediment/Water Quality

Phytoplankton Changes in Perdido Bay

Phytoplankton Changes in Wolf Bay

FOOD WEB RESPONSE TO PLANKTON BLOOMS

Introduction

Habitat Trends in Perdido Bay

Biomass Distribution and Species Richness

Trophic Organization

Future Analytical Directions

COMPARATIVE ASPECTS OF TROPHIC ORGANIZATION

Overfishing and Pollution in the NE Gulf

Spatial Distribution of Food Web Components

Spatial Patterns of Primary Productivity

Herbivores

Omnivores

C1 Carnivores

C2 Carnivores

C3 Carnivores

Comparative Aspects of Trophic Organization

Temporal Distribution of Trophic Units

Baywide Trends of Invertebrates and Fishes

Trophic Indices

REGULATION AND FOOD WEB FACTORS

Pulp Mill Effluents and Food Web Dynamics (Apalachee Bay)

Phytoplankton Organization in Apalachee Bay, Florida

Mercury in the Penobscot River-Estuary, Maine

Scientific Literature

Food Web Dynamics of Mercury in the Penobscot System

TROPHIC ORGANIZATION AND RESOURCE MANAGEMENT

Resource Management: the Promise and the Reality

The Apalachicola Experiment

Freshwater Flows and the Apalachicola Resource

Planning and Management Initiatives in the Apalachicola System

ECOSYSTEM STUDIES: APPROACHES AND METHODS

Ecosystem Research vs. Patch-Quilt Ecology

An Alternate Approach to Ecosystem Studies

Tier 1: Establishment of Research Goals

Tier 2: Development of the Research Programs

Tier 3: Development of Resource Management Programs

Tier 4: Review of Research Activities

Tier 5: Comparison with Other Systems

Tier 6: Development of a Resource Management Program

Tier 7: Application of Research Activities to Education

CONCLUSIONS

SUMMARY OF RESULTS

APPENDIX I: Field/Laboratory Methods Used for the CARRMA Studies (1971 - 2002)

APPENDIX II: Trophic Organization of Infaunal and Epibenthic Macroinvertebrates and Fishes

APPENDIX III: Statistical Analysis Used in the Long-Term Studies of the Northeastern Gulf of Mexico (1971 - 2002)

INDEX

About the Series

CRC Marine Science

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Subject Categories

BISAC Subject Codes/Headings:
SCI026000
SCIENCE / Environmental Science
SCI039000
SCIENCE / Life Sciences / Biology / Marine Biology
TEC009020
TECHNOLOGY & ENGINEERING / Civil / General