354 Pages
    by CRC Press

    354 Pages 196 B/W Illustrations
    by CRC Press

    Broadly tunable lasers have had, and continue to have, an enormous impact in many and diverse fields of science and technology. From a renaissance in spectroscopy to laser guide stars and laser cooling, the nexus is the tunable laser.

    Tunable Laser Optics offers a transparent and comprehensive treatment of the physics of tunable laser optics based on a detailed description of first principles. Authored by a leading expert in the field, the book covers the optics and optical principles needed to build lasers, the optics instrumentation necessary to characterize laser emission, and laser-based optical instrumentation, addressing key topics such as Dirac’s notation, the interferometric equation, the uncertainty principle, pulse compression, and tunable narrow-linewidth lasers.

    This revised, expanded, and improved Second Edition:

    • Contains new and additional material on tunable lasers and quantum optics
    • Explains the first principles of tunable laser optics in a clear and concise manner
    • Presents an explicit exposition of the relevant theory, without the use of short cuts
    • Employs numerous examples, case studies, and figures to illustrate important concepts
    • Includes carefully designed problems of direct practical significance to stimulate application

    Emphasizing the utilitarian aspects of the optics and theory, Tunable Laser Optics, Second Edition provides valuable insight into the optics and the trade-offs involved in the design and construction of tunable lasers and optical devices. It makes an ideal textbook for advanced undergraduate-level and graduate-level optics courses for physics and engineering students, as well as a handy reference for researchers and experimentalists.

    List of Figures

    List of Tables



    Introduction to Lasers


    Historical Remarks


    Laser Optics

    Laser Categories

    Excitation Mechanisms and Rate Equations

    Rate Equations

    Dynamics of Multiple-Level System

    Transition Probabilities and Cross Sections

    The Schrödinger Equation and Semiconductor Lasers

    A Heuristic Introduction to the Schrödinger Equation

    The Schrödinger Equation via Dirac’s Notation

    The Time-Independent Schrödinger Equation

    Semiconductor Emission

    Quantum Wells

    Quantum Cascade Lasers

    Quantum Dots

    Introduction to Laser Resonators and Laser Cavities


    Dirac Optics


    Dirac’s Notation in Optics



    Geometry of the N-Slit Interferometer

    N-Slit Interferometer Experiment

    Generalized Diffraction

    Positive Diffraction

    Positive and Negative Refraction


    The Cavity Linewidth Equation

    Introduction to Angular Dispersion

    Dirac and the Laser


    The Uncertainty Principle in Optics

    Approximate Derivation of the Uncertainty Principle

    The Wave Character of Particles

    The Diffraction Identity and the Uncertainty Principle

    Alternative Versions of the Uncertainty Principle

    Applications of the Uncertainty Principle in Optics

    Beam Divergence

    Beam Divergence and Astronomy

    The Interferometric Equation and the Uncertainty Principle

    Quantum Cryptography


    The Physics of Multiple-Prism Optics


    Generalized Multiple-Prism Dispersion

    Double-Pass Generalized Multiple-Prism Dispersion

    Multiple Return-Pass Generalized Multiple- Prism Dispersion

    Single-Prism Equations

    Multiple-Prism Dispersion Linewidth Narrowing

    Mechanics of Linewidth Narrowing in Optically Pumped Pulsed Laser Oscillators

    Design of Zero-Dispersion Multiple-Prism Beam Expanders

    Dispersion of Amici, or Compound, Prisms


    Multiple-Prism Dispersion and Pulse Compression


    Applications of Multiple-Prism Arrays




    Maxwell Equations

    Polarization and Reflection

    Plane of Incidence

    Jones Calculus


    Polarizing Prisms

    Transmission Efficiency in Multiple-Prism Arrays

    Induced Polarization in a Double-Prism Beam Expander

    Double-Refraction Polarizers

    Intensity Control of Laser Beams Using Polarization

    Polarization Rotators

    Birefringent Polarization Rotators

    Broadband Prismatic Polarization Rotators


    Laser Beam Propagation Matrices


    ABCD Propagation Matrices

    Properties of ABCD Matrices

    Survey of ABCD Matrices

    The Astronomical Telescope

    A Single Prism in Space

    Multiple-Prism Beam Expanders

    Telescopes in Series

    Single Return-Pass Beam Divergence

    Multiple Return-Pass Beam Divergence

    Unstable Resonators

    Higher Order Matrices


    Narrow-Linewidth Tunable Laser Oscillators


    Transverse and Longitudinal Modes

    Transverse Mode Structure

    Longitudinal Mode Emission

    Tunable Laser Oscillator Architectures

    Tunable Laser Oscillators without Intracavity Beam Expansion

    Tunable Laser Oscillators with Intracavity Beam Expansion

    Widely Tunable Narrow-Linewidth External Cavity Semiconductor Lasers

    Distributed Feedback Lasers

    Wavelength Tuning Techniques

    Prismatic Tuning Techniques

    Diffractive Tuning Techniques

    Synchronous Tuning Techniques

    Bragg Gratings

    Interferometric Tuning Techniques

    Longitudinal Tuning Techniques for Laser Microcavities

    Birefringent Filters

    Polarization Matching

    Design of Efficient Narrow-Linewidth Tunable Laser Oscillators

    Useful Axioms for the Design of Narrow- Linewidth Tunable Laser Oscillators

    Narrow-Linewidth Oscillator-Amplifiers

    Laser-Pumped Narrow-Linewidth Oscillator- Amplifiers

    Narrow-Linewidth MO Forced Oscillators



    Nonlinear Optics


    Introduction to Nonlinear Polarization

    Generation of Frequency Harmonics

    Second Harmonic and Sum-Frequency Generation

    Difference-Frequency Generation and Optical Parametric Oscillation

    The Refractive Index as a Function of Intensity

    Optical Phase Conjugation

    Raman Shifting

    Optical Clockwork


    Lasers and Their Emission Characteristics


    Gas Lasers

    Pulsed Molecular Gas Lasers

    Pulsed Atomic Metal Vapor Lasers

    CW Gas Lasers

    Organic Dye Lasers

    Pulsed Organic Dye Lasers

    CW Organic Dye Lasers

    Solid-State Lasers

    Ionic Solid-State Lasers

    Transition Metal Solid-State Lasers

    Color Center Lasers

    Diode Laser-Pumped Fiber Lasers

    Optical Parametric Oscillators

    Semiconductor Lasers

    Tunable Quantum Cascade Lasers

    Tunable Quantum Dot Lasers

    Additional Lasers


    The N-Slit Laser Interferometer: Optical Architecture and Applications


    Optical Architecture of the NSLI

    Beam Propagation in the NSLI

    An Interferometric Computer

    Secure Interferometric Communications in Free Space

    Very Large NSLIs for Secure Interferometric Communications in Free Space

    Applications of the NSLI

    Digital Laser Micromeasurements

    Light Modulation Measurements

    Wavelength Meter and Broadband Interferograms

    Imaging Laser Printers




    Two-Beam Interferometers

    The Sagnac Interferometer

    The Mach–Zehnder Interferometer

    The Michelson Interferometer

    Multiple-Beam Interferometers

    The Hanbury Brown–Twiss Interferometer

    The Fabry–Pérot Interferometer

    Design of Fabry–Pérot Etalons

    Coherent and Semicoherent Interferograms


    Interferometric Wavelength Meters

    Fabry–Perot Wavelength Meters





    Prism Spectrometers

    Diffraction Grating Spectrometers

    Dispersive Wavelength Meters


    Physical Constants and Optical Quantities

    Fundamental Physical Constants

    Conversion Quantities

    Units of Optical Quantities

    Dispersion Constants of Optical Materials

    ∂n/∂t of Laser and Optical Materials





    F. J. Duarte is a research physicist with Interferometric Optics, Rochester, New York, USA, and an adjunct professor at the University of New Mexico, USA. His career as a laser physicist encompasses academia, industry, and the defense establishment. He holds a Ph.D in physics from Macquarie University, Sydney, Australia, where he was a student of the well-known quantum physicist J. C. Ward. Dr. Duarte is the author of the generalized multiple-prism dispersion theory, has made unique contributions to the physics and architecture of tunable laser oscillators, and pioneered the use of Dirac’s quantum notation in interferometry, oscillator physics, and classical optics.

    "The book’s emphasis on the tuning optics provides the common thread connecting the wide range of laser systems discussed and makes it particularly useful to anyone using or constructing tunable laser systems. This Second Edition of Tunable Laser Optics extends the material presented to be applicable to quantum well, quantum cascade, and quantum dot lasers. These additions, as well as a discussion of Bragg gratings as a tuning element ensure this book is relevant to recent developments in laser physics."
    —Dr Ian S Falconer, School of Physics, University of Sydney, Australia

    "I like the examples given in the text… Even a physicist not expert in laser optics can replicate the examples, test the theory, and design such good lab experiments for students… The topics presented are well referenced and several results are shown with pictures and numerical data. … I think that this book gives a thorough review of laser optics with many worked out examples … These kinds of detailed descriptions of the experiments are not easy to find in a textbook."
    —Ernesto Gramsch Labra, University of Santiago de Chile

    "Dr. Duarte is the world’s foremost expert in the area of tunable lasers and has once again written what will become the standard reference for laser researchers. His use of the Dirac Optics notation for compact and concise tracking of the interferometers spectral tuning is not only brilliant physics but also brilliant pedagogically! … a definite must have for anyone interested in designing or understanding the physics and engineering of tunable laser systems. It will be a standard for both professionals and students alike!"
    —Dr. Thomas Shay, University of New Mexico

    "I want a copy of this book. Nowhere else is there such a clear and concise description of the Dirac-Feynman, and dare I add, Duarte, approach to diffraction and interference theory and applications. This is using quantum mechanics in a very pragmatic and useful way!"
    —Dr. Travis S. Taylor, US Army Space and Missile Defense Command

    "… concise, accessible, and comprehensive. It starts from the essential physics, and mathematically builds the fundamental equations governing the phenomena in a clear manner, with outstanding use of figures to illustrate the various points. Incorporation of numerous examples of experimental data alongside the analytical calculations provides an excellent grounding for the reader, and sets the material apart from other presentations I have seen."
    —Kathleen M. Vaeth, MicroGen Systems Inc.