Two-Dimensional Nanostructures: 1st Edition (Paperback) book cover

Two-Dimensional Nanostructures

1st Edition

By Mahmood Aliofkhazraei, Nasar Ali

CRC Press

321 pages | 134 B/W Illus.

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After the 2010 Nobel Prize in Physics was awarded to Andre Geim and Konstantin Novoselov "for groundbreaking experiments regarding the two-dimensional material graphene," even more research and development efforts have been focused on two-dimensional nanostructures. Illustrating the importance of this area in future applications, Two-Dimensional Nanostructures covers the fabrication methods and properties of these materials.

The authors begin with discussions on the properties, size effect, applications, classification groups, and growth of nanostructures. They then describe various characterization and fabrication methods, such as spectrometry, low-energy electron diffraction, physical and chemical vapor deposition, and molecular beam epitaxy. The remainder of the text focuses on mechanical, chemical, and physical properties and fabrication methods, including a new mechanical method for fabricating graphene layers and a model for relating the features and structures of nanostructured thin films.

With companies already demonstrating the capabilities of graphene in a flexible touch-screen and a 150 GHz transistor, nanostructures are on their way to replacing silicon as the materials of choice in electronics and other areas. This book aids you in understanding the current chemical, mechanical, and physical processes for producing these "miracle materials."


This is a book that combines presentation of state-of-the-art scientific techniques employing a highly pedagogical approach that makes it suitable for use in advanced classes in Chemistry and Materials Science. The first chapter includes a brief, but essential, introduction to all aspects of nanomaterials, with emphasis on size-dependent properties, which also makes it suitable as an introductory text for nanoscience. The following chapters focus on the hot topic of two-dimensional nanomaterials; most aspects of synthesis, characterization, physical and chemical properties are discussed. This is an excellent source of information for the hottest research topic of our decade.

—Ioannis Remediakis, University of Crete, Greece

I like the approach followed by the book. First of all, key concepts in nanoscience are introduced from the very beginning, and then the main features that characterize the 2D nanomaterials are presented and thoroughly developed. … The way that the book contents are organized makes it really appealing to anyone working in the field of nanoscience and nanotechnology.

—Eva Pellicer, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, Spain

Given the increase in research and technological applications of nanolayered 2-D materials recently, this book is being published at the right time. Although the focus is on graphene, the coverage is broader and covers other 2-D nanosystems as well. … The presentation of concepts of synthesis and properties of nanostructures is at a simple level, easy to understand and appropriate for graduate students.

—Amit Misra, Los Alamos National Laboratory, New Mexico, USA

… a highly arranged and well-organized approach to study the low-dimensional structures … This book can be recommended to both students and researchers working in the field of nanotechnologies. The relatively large number of figures and suitable physical explanation of low-dimensional effects make understanding the subject easier.

—Alex Axelevitch, Holon Institute of Technology, Israel

Table of Contents

Synthesis, Processing, and Application of Nanostructures

Introduction to Nanotechnology

History of Nanotechnology

What Is a Nanomaterial?

Properties of Nanostructured Materials

Thermal Stability of Nanostructures

Nanotechnology and Future Perspectives

Some Applications of Nanostructures

Classification of Two-Dimensional Nanostructures


Various Methods for Production of Nanostructures

Physical and Chemical Analysis of Nanoparticles

Different Forms of Growth

Relation between Growth and Energy Level

Overaturation Effect on Growth

Quantitative Description of Initial Stages of Film Growth

Kinetic Theory of Growth

Orientation of Thin Films

Film Growth with a Certain Orientation

Film–Substrate Interfaces

Characterization and Fabrication Methods of Two-Dimensional Nanostructures


Silicon (Si)

Dimer-Adatom-Stacking Fault (DAS) Model

Auger Electron Spectrometry (AES)

Low-Energy Electron Diffraction (LEED) Technique

X-Ray Phototransmission Spectrometry

Physical Vapor Deposition (PVD) Methods

Chemical Vapor Deposition (CVD)

Molecular Beam Epitaxy (MBE)

Ion Beam-Assisted Film Deposition

Pulsed Laser Deposition (PLD)

Chemical Bath Deposition (CBD)

Mechanical Fabrication/Properties of Two-Dimensional Nanostructures


Multiple-Layer Coatings

Fabrication Methods of Multiple-Layer Coatings

Examining the Characteristics of the Multiple-Layer Coatings

Examples of Mechanical Affected Properties of Two-Dimensional Nanostructures

Chemical/Electrochemical Fabrication/Properties of Two-Dimensional Nanostructures



Direct Writing of Metal Nanostructures

Theory and Thermodynamic Method of Codeposition

Phase Transition of Two-Dimensional Nanostructure by Electrochemical Potential

Procurement of Nanomaterials through Deposition


Physical and Other Fabrication/Properties of Two-Dimensional Nanostructures


Concepts of Nanostructured Thin Films

Important Physical Fabrication Methods

Specification of Sculptured Thin Films

Phase, Length, and Time Sandwich

A Model to Make a Relation between Features and Structures of Dielectric Helicoidal Sculptured Thin Films

Analysis of Precise Couple Wave for the Incident Transverse Wave

Physical Principles and Applications of Different Fabrication Methods


References appear at the end of each chapter.

About the Authors

Mahmood Aliofkhazraei is a researcher in the corrosion and surface engineering group at the Tarbiat Modares University. Dr. Aliofkhazraei has received several honors, including the Khwarizmi award and the best young nanotechnologist award of Iran. He is a member of the National Association of Surface Sciences, Iranian Corrosion Association, and National Elite Foundation of Iran. His research focuses on nanotechnology and its use in surface and corrosion science.

Nasar Ali is the chairman of NANOSMAT and a director of CNC Coatings. Dr. Ali’s research interests include chemical vapor deposition processes, polymer-based nanocomposites, nanotechnology, and vacuum coating.

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