U.S. Government Counterterrorism : A Guide to Who Does What book cover
1st Edition

U.S. Government Counterterrorism
A Guide to Who Does What

ISBN 9781439851432
Published December 13, 2011 by CRC Press
407 Pages 21 B/W Illustrations

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Book Description

U.S. Government Counterterrorism: A Guide to Who Does What is the first readily available, unclassified guide to the many U.S. government agencies, bureau offices, and programs involved in all aspects of countering terrorism domestically and overseas. The authors, veterans of the U.S. government’s counterterrorism efforts, present a rare insider’s view of the counterterrorism effort, addressing such topics as government training initiatives, weapons of mass destruction, interagency coordination, research and development, and the congressional role in policy and budget issues.

Includes a Foreword by Brian Michael Jenkins, Senior Advisor RAND Corporation

Individual chapters describe the various agencies, their bureaus, and offices that develop and implement the counterterrorism policies and programs, providing a useful unclassified guide to government officials at all levels as well as students and others interested in how the U.S. counters terrorism. The book also discusses the challenges involved in coordinating the counterterrorism efforts at federal, state, and local levels and explains how key terror events influenced the development of programs, agencies, and counterterrorism legislation. The legislative underpinnings and tools of the U.S. counterterrorism efforts are covered as are the oft-debated issues of defining terrorism itself and efforts to counter violent extremism.

In addition to outlining the specific agencies and programs, the authors provide unique insights into the broader context of counterterrorism efforts and developments in the last 10-plus years since 9/11 and they raise future considerations given recent landscape-altering global events.

The authors were interviewed by National Defense Magazine in a January 23, 2012 article entitled Counterterrorism 101: Navigating the Bureaucratic Maze.

They were interviewed on April 30, 2012 by Federal News Radio.

Michael Kraft was also interviewed on June 27, 2014 by Federal News Radio.

Table of Contents

Modern Terrorism and the Federal Government Response
Defining Terrorism
Contemporary Terrorism
Organizational and Program Response
The Era of "Boutique" Terrorism
Hijacking and Kidnappings and Other Techniques
At Home: Homeland Threats
U.S. Government Counterterrorism Response to 9/11
The Era of Terrorism and Religion
After 9/11
Definitions of Terrorism
More Definitions and Terrorism versus "Freedom Fighter"
Counterterrorism Legislation
Economic Sanctions
Nonstate Actors
Long-Arm Statute
Civil Suits
After 9/11
List of Counterterrorism Laws
Countering Violent Extremism
Section I: International Programs
Section II: Domestic Programs
U.S. Counterterrorism Training Programs
Department of Justice/FBI
Department of Homeland Security
Department of State
Justice Department
Weapons of Mass Destruction: Countering Bioterrorism
Department of Defense
Countering Terrorism Financing
Interagency Coordination of CTF Training and Technical Assistance
Key Organizations
Counterterrorism Research and Development Programs
Technical Support Working Group (TSWG)
Department of Homeland Security (DHS)
R&D at Individual Agencies

Cyber Terrorism
The Comprehensive National Cybersecurity Initiative
DHS-DOD Agreement
Department of Homeland Security
Department of Defense
Federal Bureau of Investigation
Central Intelligence Agency
State Department
Weapons of Mass Destruction
Diplomatic and Strategic Priorities for Combating WMD Terrorism
The Intelligence Community
Organizational Structure and Leadership
Resources and Budgets
Interagency Cooperation
Intelligence Community Components
Department of Defense
Office of the UnderSecretary of Defense for Policy
Assistant Secretary of Defense for Special Operations/Low-Intensity Conflict and Interdependent Capabilities
Deputy Assistant Secretary of Defense for Special Operations and Combating Terrorism
Unified Combatant Command
Supporting Organizations and Activities within DOD
Department of Homeland Security
Grant Programs
Cybersecurity Division
Department of Justice
National Security Division
Federal Bureau of Investigation
Multipurpose Programs
Department of Health and Human Services
Assistant Secretary for Preparedness and Response
Department of State
Counterterrorism Components

Department of the Treasury
The UnderSecretary for Terrorism and Financial Intelligence
Supporting Departments
Department of Commerce
Department of Energy
Department of Transportation
Nuclear Regulatory Agency
Interagency Coordination and the Whole of Government
Who Manages the Terrorist Threat?
Organizational Culture
Major Official Legislation and Reports
National Security Structure of the Federal Government

"Whole of Government"

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Michael B. Kraft is a Washington-based counterterrorism consultant, writer, and editor with more than thirty-five years of experience working on terrorism issues in the State Department, Congress, and the private sector. After retiring as a senior advisor in the State Department Counterterrorism Office, he served as an adjunct counterterrorism faculty member at the National Defense University Africa Center for Strategic Studies.

Edward Marks retired as a senior foreign service officer (minister-counselor) in 1995. Since then, Ambassador Marks has engaged in consulting, lecturing, and writing, primarily on terrorism, interagency coordination, United Nations’ affairs, and complex international emergencies. He has written extensively on these and other subjects.


"In order to really understand our struggle against terrorism, you will need to grasp the full breadth of U.S. government efforts. I am not aware of anyone who has to date done as thorough a job as Kraft and Marks in cataloging the scores of agencies, programs, and policies that play a role in the U.S. fight against terrorism. This is an extremely valuable reference for those in the CT field."
—Congressman Brad Sherman, Lead Democrat on the House Foreign Affairs Subcommittee on Terrorism, Nonproliferation and Trade

"U.S. Government Counterterrorism: A Guide to Who Does What is a long over-due work that will likely stand as the essential reference text for scholars and policymakers alike seeking to understand the components and dimensions of the U.S. government’s war on terrorism. Kraft and Marks are to be commended for producing the first comprehensive guide to the bureaucratic agencies, approaches, and laws that have shaped U.S. counterterrorism policy for the past decade."
—Professor Bruce Hoffman, Director, Center for Peace and Security Studies, Georgetown University

"For anyone trying to navigate the monster labyrinth of Washington’s counterterrorism agencies, this is the string you need. Kraft and Marks give you a very thorough, readable description of the entire counterterrorism community with specialties, expertise, and other helpful details. Moreover, this book is not just for visitors or amateurs. CT community members, who often don’t know each other as well as they should, will benefit from this focused reference book."
—Ambassador (Retired) Thomas McNamara,Adjunct Professor, George Washington University, former State Department Coordinator for Counterterrorism and National Security Council Advisor for Counterterrorism

"U.S. Government Counterterrorism: A Guide to Who Does What is an invaluable reference work written with great analytical depth by two distinguished practitioners in the field of national security."
—Peter Bergen, Author of The Longest War: the Enduring Conflict between America and Al-Qaeda

"Exactly what was missing when I worked for Congress. A much needed resource for the national security and law enforcement community and counterterrorism students in the U.S. and abroad. The first work of its kind and clearly the best."
—Raphael Perl, Head on Antiterrorism Issues, Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe (OSCE); former Specialist in International Terrorism Policy, Congressional Research Service

"This work is a long-awaited, important, and valuable addition to the short list of credible books on the evolution of U.S. counterterrorism policy. It will be an excellent supplemental textbook for courses on counterterrorism theory and policy."
—Prof. Dennis Pluchinsky, Adjunct professor, Georgetown and George Mason University, former State Department Senior Terrorism Analyst

"Reflecting the distinguished authors’ many decades of experience and considerable expertise on counterterrorism, this book provides an essential historical context for assessing the current threat and the nation’s response to it. It brings an unprecedented level of transparency and clarity about how we are organized and the full range of relevant activities. This is a "must-read" for any serious policymaker while remaining accessible to the general public, and thereby makes an outstanding contribution to the important debate about the kind of future we seek and how to achieve it."
—Suzanne E. Spaulding, Principal, Bingham Consulting Group, former General Counsel, Senate Select Committee on Intelligence and Assistant General Counsel, CIA

"Written by two experienced practitioners, this book provides a unique guide to the myriad government offices and programs involved in the U.S. counterterrorism effort. It is essential reading for those trying to understand the players in this critical mission area. With insiders’ knowledge, the authors offer perceptive descriptions of the context, interagency process, legislative underpinnings, and role of Congress."
—Jim Locher, President & CEO, Project on National Security Reform, Former Assistant Secretary of Defense for Special Operations and Low-Intensity Conflict

"Pulling together the government’s response to the challenge of terrorist attack has been a Himalayan task. Documenting the government’s effort has been even more challenging, given the cross-section of agencies, authorities, and budgets involved. Kraft and Marks have made a singularly valuable contribution for students, analysts, and policymakers concerned with the problem of terror and the need for a coordinated response. This volume fills an important gap in our understanding of how the government has reshaped itself to face this problem."
—Gordon Adams, Distinguished Fellow, The Stimson Center, former Associate Director for National Security and International Affairs at the Office of Management and Budget, the Senior White House Budget Official for National Security

"Kraft and Marks, two former U.S. Counterterrorism officials with three decades of experience, provide an insightful insider’s guide to the government’s counterterrorism agencies and programs. This extraordinary book is essential reading for anyone with an interest in the evolution and implementation of the United States’ counterterrorism policy."
—Prof. Michael P. Scharf, John Deaver Drinko Baker and Hostetler Professor of Law Director of the Frederick K. Cox International Law Center, Case Western Reserve University School of Law and former Counsel to the State Department Counterterrorism Office

"This is a uniquely useful reference source and an impressive labour of love strengthened by insider knowledge. I cannot imagine a better, more comprehensive, or more lucid unclassified—or, probably even, classified—guide to the dauntingly complex nexus of U.S. institutions now involved in all aspects of counterterrorism, from finance to WMD. As such, it will be of immense utility to members of the organisations concerned and other government officials, diplomats, journalists, police departments (within the U.S. and abroad) and business people in the security industry. But its utility goes still further. Because it also traces the evolution of the different organisations and their responsibilities, in response to terrorist events and political developments, Michael Kraft and Edward Marks’ book should find a place on the shelves of political scientists, legal scholars, and a wide variety of think tanks. I can see it remaining as a standard source, updated through numerous future editions."
—Paul Schulte, Senior Associate of the Carnegie Endowment Nuclear Policy Program, Senior Visiting Fellow at Kings College War Studies Dept, and The School of Oriental and African Studies, London University, and former Director of Proliferation and Arms Control in the British Defence Ministry

"Kraft and Marks offer the first truly encyclopedic guide to the great array of counterterrorism programs and agencies of the U.S. government. It will be a resource for anyone who deals with counterterrorism and wants to understand the many organizations that have contributed to the largely terror-free decade experienced by the United States after 9/11."
—Stewart Baker, Author of Skating on Stilts: Why We Aren’t Stopping Tomorrow’s Terrorism, Partner, Steptoe & Johnson, former Assistant Secretary for Policy, Department of Homeland Security

"Thanks to Mr. Kraft and Ambassador Marks for an enormous and welcome effort. I am aware of no other compendium that comes close to this book for thoroughness and usefulness. I will use it with students in my counterterrorism class as we discuss the effectiveness and appropriateness of the way the USG has organized itself to combat terrorism."
—William Pope, Adjunct Professor, George Washington University, former State Department Acting Coordinator for Counterterrorism

"In one place and for the first time, Michael Kraft and Edward Marks have provided a long overdue compendium of, in their words, the "who does what" reference guide on counterterrorism responsibilities within the United States government. The interests of students, researchers, government staff, and officials searching for clarity on rules, roles, and responsibilities of counterpart organizations are all well served. This comprehensive work serves as an important step in demystifying the complex, interrelated world of counterterrorism and our government’s attempts to bring greater efficiencies, knock down walls, eliminate stovepipes, and enhance the safety and security of our nation."
—Michael Rolince, Former FBI Special Agent in Charge, Counterterrorism Division, Washington Field Office

"U.S. Government Counterterrorism: A Guide to Who Does What is a readable and highly useful reference for anyone interested in learning how the United States has come to grips with post-9/11 global realities. The authors are long-time experts on the subject of counterterrorism and the related question of how to improve coordination within and among government agencies engaged in the fight. It should not be surprising that, despite vast improvements in interagency coordination over the past decade, the left hand does not always know what the right is doing. This book is a well organized guide to who is doing what, and should be required reading for any government official (including those at the state and local level) or military officer laboring in any part of the gigantic counterterrorism vineyard. It will help to further break down "silos" within government and cultural biases within those silos that have hampered coordination in the past and still do today. The book is an excellent teaching tool and makes an important contribution to our ability to "connect the dots."
—Ambassador (Retired) David Lambertson, Adjunct Professor of Political Science, Kansas University; Adjunct Faculty Member Command and General Staff College; Member of the Advisory Board of the Simons Center for the Study of Interagency Cooperation

"In U.S. Government Counterterrorism: A Guide to Who Does What, authors Michael B. Kraft and Edward Marks present a comprehensive look at how the U.S. government is organized to protect its citizens and fight terrorism. The authors present a well-researched and understandable review of the roles, responsibilities, and regulatory guidance of all U.S.institutions that are involved with our ongoing struggle to provide a safe and secure environment for all citizens. It is absolutely the definitive olume … a must read for anyone involved in the fight against terrorism, those studying national security, and those who want to understand how our nation is organized for that fight."
—Ryan B. Rydalch, U.S. Army Command and General Staff College, Fort Leavenworth, Kansas, InterAgency Journal