Ultra-Fast Fiber Lasers: Principles and Applications with MATLAB® Models, 1st Edition (Paperback) book cover

Ultra-Fast Fiber Lasers

Principles and Applications with MATLAB® Models, 1st Edition

By Le Nguyen Binh, Nam Quoc Ngo

CRC Press

438 pages | 274 B/W Illus.

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Description

Ultrashort pulses in mode-locked lasers are receiving focused attention from researchers looking to apply them in a variety of fields, from optical clock technology to measurements of the fundamental constants of nature and ultrahigh-speed optical communications. Ultrashort pulses are especially important for the next generation of ultrahigh-speed optical systems and networks operating at 100 Gbps per carrier.

Ultra Fast Fiber Lasers: Principles and Applications with MATLAB® Models is a self-contained reference for engineers and others in the fields of applied photonics and optical communications. Covering both fundamentals and advanced research, this book includes both theoretical and experimental results. MATLAB files are included to provide a basic grounding in the simulation of the generation of short pulses and the propagation or circulation around nonlinear fiber rings. With its unique and extensive content, this volume—

  • Covers fundamental principles involved in the generation of ultrashort pulses employing fiber ring lasers, particularly those that incorporate active optical modulators of amplitude or phase types
  • Presents experimental techniques for the generation, detection, and characterization of ultrashort pulse sequences derived from several current schemes
  • Describes the multiplication of ultrashort pulse sequences using the Talbot diffraction effects in the time domain via the use of highly dispersive media
  • Discusses developments of multiple short pulses in the form of solitons binding together by phase states
  • Elucidates the generation of short pulse sequences and multiple wavelength channels from a single fiber laser

The most practical short pulse sources are always found in the form of guided wave photonic structures. This minimizes problems with alignment and eases coupling into fiber transmission systems. In meeting these requirements, fiber ring lasers operating in active mode serve well as suitable ultrashort pulse sources. It is only a matter of time before scientists building on this research develop the practical and easy-to-use applications that will make ultrahigh-speed optical systems universally available.

Table of Contents

Introduction

Ultrahigh Capacity Demands and Short Pulse Lasers

Demands

Ultrashort Pulse Lasers

Principal Objectives of the Book

Organization of the Book Chapters

Historical Overview of Ultrashort Pulse Fiber Lasers

Overview

Mode-Locking Mechanism in Fiber Ring Resonators

Amplifying Medium and Laser System

Active Modulation in Laser Cavity

Techniques Generation Terahertz- Repetition-Rate Pulse Trains

Necessity of Highly Nonlinear Optical

Waveguide Section for Ultrahigh-Speed Modulation

References

2 Principles and Analysis of Mode-Locked Fiber Lasers

Principles of Mode Locking

Mode-Locking Techniques

Passive Mode Locking

Active Mode Locking by Amplitude Modulation

Active Medium and Pump Source

Filter Design

Modulator Design

Active Mode Locking by Phase Modulation

Actively Mode-Locked Fiber Lasers

Principle of Actively Mode-Locked Fiber Lasers

Multiplication of Repetition Rate

Equalizing and Stabilizing Pulses in Rational HMLFL

Analysis of Actively Mode-Locked Lasers

Introduction

Analysis Using Self-Consistence Condition w/ Gaussian Pulse

Shape

Series Approach Analysis

Mode Locking

Mode Locking without Detuning

Simulation

Conclusions

References

3 Active Mode-Locked Fiber Ring Lasers: Implementation

Building Blocks of Active Mode-Locked Fiber Ring Laser

Laser Cavity Design

Active Medium and Pump Source

Filter Design

Modulator Design

AM and FM Mode-Locked Erbium-Doped Fiber Ring Laser

AM Mode-Locked Fiber Lasers

FM or PM Mode-Locked Fiber Lasers

Regenerative Active Mode-Locked Erbium-Doped Fiber Ring Laser

Experimental Setup

Results and Discussion

Noise Analysis

Temporal and Spectral Analysis

Measurement Accuracy

EDF Cooperative Up-Conversion

Pulse Dropout

Ultrahigh Repetition-Rate Ultra-Stable Fiber Mode-Locked Lasers

Regenerative Mode-Locking Techniques and Conditions for Generation of Transform-Limited Pulses from a Mode-Locked Laser

Schematic Structure of MLRL

Mode-Locking Conditions

Factors Influencing the Design and Performance of Mode Locking and Generation of Optical Pulse Trains

Experimental Setup and Results

Remarks

Conclusions

References

4 NLSE Numerical Simulation of Active Mode-Locked Lasers: Time Domain Analysis

Introduction

The Laser Model

Modeling the Optical Fiber

Modeling the EDFA

Modeling the Optical Modulation

Modeling the Optical Filter

The Propagation Model

Generation and Propagation

Results and Discussions

Propagation of Optical Pulses in the Fiber

Harmonic Mode-Locked Laser

Mode-Locked Pulse Evolution

Effect of Modulation Frequency

Effect of Modulation Depth

Effect of the Optical Filter Bandwidth

Effect of Pump Power

Rational Harmonic Mode-Locked Laser

FM or PM Mode-Locked Fiber Lasers

Concluding Remarks

References

5 Dispersion and Nonlinearity Effects in Active Mode-Locked Fiber Lasers

Introduction

Propagation of Optical Pulses in a Fiber

Dispersion Effect

Nonlinear Effect

Soliton

Propagation Equation in Optical Fibers

Dispersion Effects in Actively Mode-Locked Fiber Lasers

Zero Detuning

Dispersion Effects in Detuned Actively Mode-Locked Fiber Lasers Locking Range

Nonlinear Effects in Actively Mode-Locked Fiber Lasers

Zero Detuning

Detuning in an Actively Mode-Locked Fiber Laser with Nonlinearity Effect

Pulse Amplitude Equalization in a Harmonic Mode-Locked Fiber Laser

Soliton Formation in Actively Mode-Locked Fiber Lasers with Combined Effect of Dispersion and Nonlinearity

Zero Detuning

Detuning and Locking Range in a Mode-Locked Fiber Laser with Nonlinearity and Dispersion Effect

Detuning and Pulse Shortening

Experimental Setup

Mode-Locked Pulse Train with 0 GHz Repetition Rate

Wavelength Shifting in a Detuned Actively Mode-Locked Fiber Laser with Dispersion Cavity

Pulse Shortening and Spectrum Broadening under Nonlinearity Effect

Conclusions

References

6 Actively Mode-Locked Fiber Lasers with Birefringent Cavity

Introduction

Birefringence Cavity of an Actively Mode-Locked Fiber Laser

Simulation Model

Simulation Results

Polarization Switching in an Actively Mode-Locked FiberLaser with Birefringence Cavity

Experimental Setup

Results and Discussion

H-Mode Regime

V-Mode Regime

Dual Orthogonal Polarization States in an Actively Mode-Locked Birefringent Fiber Ring Laser

Experimental Setup

Results and Discussion

Pulse Dropout and Sub-Harmonic Locking

Concluding Remarks

Ultrafast Tunable Actively Mode-Locked Fiber Lasers

Introduction

Birefringence Filter

Ultrafast Electrically Tunable Filter Based on

Electro-Optic Effect of LiNbO3

Lyot Filter and Wavelength Tuning by a Phase Shifter

Experimental Results

Ultrafast Electrically Tunable MLL

Experimental Setup

Experimental Results

Concluding Remarks

Conclusions

References

7 Ultrafast Fiber Ring Lasers by Temporal Imaging

Repetition Rate Multiplication Techniques

Fractional Temporal Talbot Effect

Other Repetition Rate Multiplication Techniques

Experimental Setup

Results and Discussion

Uniform Lasing Mode Amplitude Distribution

Gaussian Lasing Mode Amplitude Distribution

Filter Bandwidth Influence

Nonlinear Effects

Noise Effects

Conclusions

References

8 Terahertz Repetition Rate Fiber Ring Laser

Gaussian Modulating Signal

Rational Harmonic Detuning

Experimental Setup

Results and Discussion

Parametric Amplifier–Based Fiber Ring Laser

Parametric Amplification

Experimental Setup

Results and Discussion

Parametric Amplifier Action

Ultrahigh Repetition Rate Operation

Ultra-Narrow Pulse Operation

Intracavity Power

Soliton Compression

Regenerative Parametric Amplifier–Based Mode-Locked Fiber Ring Laser

Experimental Setup

Results and Discussion

Conclusions

References

9 Nonlinear Fiber Ring Lasers

Introduction

Optical Bistability, Bifurcation, and Chaos

Nonlinear Optical Loop Mirror

Nonlinear Amplifying Loop Mirror

NOLM–NALM Fiber Ring Laser

Simulation of Laser Dynamics

Experiment

Bidirectional Erbium-Doped Fiber Ring Laser

Continuous-Wave NOLM–NALM

Fiber Ring Laser

Amplitude-Modulated NOLM–NALM Fiber Ring Laser

Conclusions

References

10 Bound Solitons by Active Phase Modulation Mode-Locked Fiber Ring Lasers

Introduction

Formation of Bound States in an FM Mode-Locked Fiber Ring Laser

Experimental Technique

Dynamics of Bound States in an FM Mode-Locked Fiber Ring Laser

Numerical Model of an FM Mode-Locked Fiber Ring Laser

The Formation of the Bound Soliton States

Evolution of the Bound Soliton States in the FM Fiber Loop

Multi-Bound Soliton Propagation in Optical Fiber

Bi-Spectra of Multi-Bound Solitons

Definition

The Phasor Optical Spectral Analyzers

Bi-Spectrum of Duffing Chaotic Systems

Conclusions

References

11. Actively Mode-Locked Multiwavelength Erbium-Doped Fiber Lasers

Introduction

Numerical Model of an Actively Mode-Locked Multiwavelength Erbium-Doped Fiber Laser

Simulation Results of an Actively Mode-Locked Multiwavelength Erbium-Doped Fiber Laser

Effects of Small Positive Dispersion Cavity and Nonlinear Effects on Gain Competition Suppression Using a Highly Nonlinear Fiber

Effects of a Large Positive Dispersion and Nonlinear Effects Using a Highly Nonlinear Fiber in the Cavity on Gain Competition Suppression

Effects of a Large Negative Dispersion and Nonlinear Effects Using a Highly Nonlinear Fiber in the Cavity on Gain Competition Suppression

Effects of Cavity Dispersion and a Hybrid Broadening Gain Medium on the Tolerable Loss Imbalance between the Wavelengths

Experimental Validation and Discussion on an Actively Mode-Locked Multiwavelength Erbium-Doped Fiber Laser

Conclusions and Suggestions for Future Work

References

Appendix A: Er-Doped Fiber Amplifier: Optimum Length and Implementation

Appendix B: MATLAB® Programs for Simulation

Appendix C: Abbreviations

About the Authors

Le Nguyen Binh received his BE (Hons) and Ph.D degrees in electronic engineering and integrated photonics in 1975 and 1980, respectively, from the University of Western Australia, Nedlands, Western Australia. In 1980, he joined the Department of Electrical Engineering at Monash University, Clayton, Victoria, Australia, after a three-year period with Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation (CSIRO), Camberra, Australia, as a research scientist. In 1995, he was appointed as reader at Monash University. He has worked in the Department of Optical Communications of Siemens AG Central Research Laboratories in Munich, Germany, and in the Advanced Technology Centre of Nortel Networks at Harlow, United Kingdom. He has also served as a visiting professor of the Faculty of Engineering of Christian Albrechts University of Kiel, Germany. Dr. Binh has published more than 250 papers in leading journals and refereed conferences, and three books in the field of photonic signal processing and optical communications: the first is Photonic Signal Processing, the second is Digital Optical Communications and the third on Optical Fiber Communications Systems (both published by CRC Press, Boca Raton, Florida). His current research interests are in advanced modulation formats for long haul optical transmission, electronic equalization techniques for optical transmission systems, ultrashort pulse lasers, and photonic signal processing.

Nam Quoc Ngo received his BE and PhD degrees in electrical and computer systems engineering from Monash University, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia, in 1992 and 1998, respectively. From July 1997 to July 2000, he was a lecturer at Griffith University, Brisbane, Queensland, Australia. Since July 2000, he has been with the School of Electrical and Electronic Engineering (EEE), Nanyang Technological University, Singapore, where he is presently an associate professor. Since March 2009, he has been the deputy director of the Photonics Research Centre at the School of EEE. Among his other significant contributions, he has pioneered the development of the theoretical foundations of arbitrary order temporal optical differentiators and arbitrary-order temporal optical integrators, which resulted in the creation of these two new research areas. He has also pioneered the development of a general theory of the Newton– Cotes digital integrators, from which he has designed a wideband integrator and a wideband differentiator known as the Ngo integrator and the Ngo differentiator, respectively, in the literature. His current research interests are on the design and development of fiber-based and waveguide-based devices for application in optical communication systems and optical sensors. He has published more than 110 international journal papers and over 60 conference papers in these areas. He received two awards for outstanding contributions in his PhD dissertation. He is a senior member of IEEE.

About the Series

Optics and Photonics

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Subject Categories

BISAC Subject Codes/Headings:
SCI053000
SCIENCE / Optics
TEC019000
TECHNOLOGY & ENGINEERING / Lasers & Photonics
TEC041000
TECHNOLOGY & ENGINEERING / Telecommunications