1st Edition

Ultra-Fast Fiber Lasers
Principles and Applications with MATLAB® Models

ISBN 9781138374171
Published September 10, 2018 by CRC Press
438 Pages 274 B/W Illustrations

USD $74.95

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Book Description

Ultrashort pulses in mode-locked lasers are receiving focused attention from researchers looking to apply them in a variety of fields, from optical clock technology to measurements of the fundamental constants of nature and ultrahigh-speed optical communications. Ultrashort pulses are especially important for the next generation of ultrahigh-speed optical systems and networks operating at 100 Gbps per carrier.

Ultra Fast Fiber Lasers: Principles and Applications with MATLAB® Models is a self-contained reference for engineers and others in the fields of applied photonics and optical communications. Covering both fundamentals and advanced research, this book includes both theoretical and experimental results. MATLAB files are included to provide a basic grounding in the simulation of the generation of short pulses and the propagation or circulation around nonlinear fiber rings. With its unique and extensive content, this volume—

  • Covers fundamental principles involved in the generation of ultrashort pulses employing fiber ring lasers, particularly those that incorporate active optical modulators of amplitude or phase types
  • Presents experimental techniques for the generation, detection, and characterization of ultrashort pulse sequences derived from several current schemes
  • Describes the multiplication of ultrashort pulse sequences using the Talbot diffraction effects in the time domain via the use of highly dispersive media
  • Discusses developments of multiple short pulses in the form of solitons binding together by phase states
  • Elucidates the generation of short pulse sequences and multiple wavelength channels from a single fiber laser

The most practical short pulse sources are always found in the form of guided wave photonic structures. This minimizes problems with alignment and eases coupling into fiber transmission systems. In meeting these requirements, fiber ring lasers operating in active mode serve well as suitable ultrashort pulse sources. It is only a matter of time before scientists building on this research develop the practical and easy-to-use applications that will make ultrahigh-speed optical systems universally available.

Table of Contents

Ultrahigh Capacity Demands and Short Pulse Lasers
   Ultrashort Pulse Lasers
Principal Objectives of the Book
Organization of the Book Chapters
Historical Overview of Ultrashort Pulse Fiber Lasers
   Mode-Locking Mechanism in Fiber Ring Resonators
      Amplifying Medium and Laser System
      Active Modulation in Laser Cavity
      Techniques Generation Terahertz- Repetition-Rate Pulse Trains
Necessity of Highly Nonlinear Optical
Waveguide Section for Ultrahigh-Speed Modulation
2 Principles and Analysis of Mode-Locked Fiber Lasers
Principles of Mode Locking
Mode-Locking Techniques
   Passive Mode Locking
   Active Mode Locking by Amplitude Modulation
   Active Medium and Pump Source
   Filter Design
   Modulator Design
   Active Mode Locking by Phase Modulation
Actively Mode-Locked Fiber Lasers
   Principle of Actively Mode-Locked Fiber Lasers
   Multiplication of Repetition Rate
   Equalizing and Stabilizing Pulses in Rational HMLFL
Analysis of Actively Mode-Locked Lasers
   Analysis Using Self-Consistence Condition w/ Gaussian Pulse        
   Series Approach Analysis
   Mode Locking
      Mode Locking without Detuning
3 Active Mode-Locked Fiber Ring Lasers: Implementation
Building Blocks of Active Mode-Locked Fiber Ring Laser
   Laser Cavity Design
   Active Medium and Pump Source
   Filter Design
   Modulator Design
AM and FM Mode-Locked Erbium-Doped Fiber Ring Laser
   AM Mode-Locked Fiber Lasers
   FM or PM Mode-Locked Fiber Lasers
Regenerative Active Mode-Locked Erbium-Doped Fiber Ring Laser
   Experimental Setup
   Results and Discussion
      Noise Analysis
      Temporal and Spectral Analysis
      Measurement Accuracy
      EDF Cooperative Up-Conversion
      Pulse Dropout
Ultrahigh Repetition-Rate Ultra-Stable Fiber Mode-Locked Lasers
   Regenerative Mode-Locking Techniques and Conditions for Generation of Transform-Limited Pulses from a Mode-Locked Laser
      Schematic Structure of MLRL
      Mode-Locking Conditions
      Factors Influencing the Design and Performance of Mode Locking and Generation of Optical Pulse Trains
   Experimental Setup and Results
4 NLSE Numerical Simulation of Active Mode-Locked Lasers: Time Domain Analysis
The Laser Model
   Modeling the Optical Fiber
   Modeling the EDFA
   Modeling the Optical Modulation
   Modeling the Optical Filter
The Propagation Model
   Generation and Propagation
   Results and Discussions
      Propagation of Optical Pulses in the Fiber
Harmonic Mode-Locked Laser
   Mode-Locked Pulse Evolution
   Effect of Modulation Frequency
   Effect of Modulation Depth
   Effect of the Optical Filter Bandwidth
   Effect of Pump Power
   Rational Harmonic Mode-Locked Laser
FM or PM Mode-Locked Fiber Lasers
Concluding Remarks
5 Dispersion and Nonlinearity Effects in Active Mode-Locked Fiber Lasers
Propagation of Optical Pulses in a Fiber
   Dispersion Effect
   Nonlinear Effect
   Propagation Equation in Optical Fibers
Dispersion Effects in Actively Mode-Locked Fiber Lasers
   Zero Detuning
Dispersion Effects in Detuned Actively Mode-Locked Fiber Lasers Locking Range
Nonlinear Effects in Actively Mode-Locked Fiber Lasers
   Zero Detuning
   Detuning in an Actively Mode-Locked Fiber Laser with Nonlinearity Effect
   Pulse Amplitude Equalization in a Harmonic Mode-Locked Fiber Laser
Soliton Formation in Actively Mode-Locked Fiber Lasers with Combined Effect of Dispersion and Nonlinearity
   Zero Detuning
   Detuning and Locking Range in a Mode-Locked Fiber Laser with Nonlinearity and Dispersion Effect
Detuning and Pulse Shortening
   Experimental Setup
   Mode-Locked Pulse Train with 0 GHz Repetition Rate
   Wavelength Shifting in a Detuned Actively Mode-Locked Fiber Laser with Dispersion Cavity
   Pulse Shortening and Spectrum Broadening under Nonlinearity Effect
6 Actively Mode-Locked Fiber Lasers with Birefringent Cavity
Birefringence Cavity of an Actively Mode-Locked Fiber Laser
   Simulation Model
   Simulation Results
Polarization Switching in an Actively Mode-Locked FiberLaser with Birefringence Cavity
   Experimental Setup
   Results and Discussion
      H-Mode Regime
      V-Mode Regime
   Dual Orthogonal Polarization States in an Actively Mode-Locked Birefringent Fiber Ring Laser
      Experimental Setup
      Results and Discussion
   Pulse Dropout and Sub-Harmonic Locking
   Concluding Remarks
Ultrafast Tunable Actively Mode-Locked Fiber Lasers
   Birefringence Filter
   Ultrafast Electrically Tunable Filter Based on
Electro-Optic Effect of LiNbO3
      Lyot Filter and Wavelength Tuning by a Phase Shifter
      Experimental Results
   Ultrafast Electrically Tunable MLL
      Experimental Setup
      Experimental Results
   Concluding Remarks
7 Ultrafast Fiber Ring Lasers by Temporal Imaging
Repetition Rate Multiplication Techniques
   Fractional Temporal Talbot Effect
   Other Repetition Rate Multiplication Techniques
   Experimental Setup
   Results and Discussion
Uniform Lasing Mode Amplitude Distribution
   Gaussian Lasing Mode Amplitude Distribution
   Filter Bandwidth Influence
   Nonlinear Effects
    Noise Effects
8 Terahertz Repetition Rate Fiber Ring Laser
Gaussian Modulating Signal
Rational Harmonic Detuning
   Experimental Setup
   Results and Discussion
Parametric Amplifier–Based Fiber Ring Laser
   Parametric Amplification
   Experimental Setup
   Results and Discussion
      Parametric Amplifier Action
      Ultrahigh Repetition Rate Operation
      Ultra-Narrow Pulse Operation
      Intracavity Power
      Soliton Compression
Regenerative Parametric Amplifier–Based Mode-Locked Fiber Ring Laser
   Experimental Setup
   Results and Discussion
9 Nonlinear Fiber Ring Lasers
Optical Bistability, Bifurcation, and Chaos
Nonlinear Optical Loop Mirror
Nonlinear Amplifying Loop Mirror
NOLM–NALM Fiber Ring Laser
   Simulation of Laser Dynamics
      Bidirectional Erbium-Doped Fiber Ring Laser
      Continuous-Wave NOLM–NALM
Fiber Ring Laser
      Amplitude-Modulated NOLM–NALM Fiber Ring Laser
10 Bound Solitons by Active Phase Modulation Mode-Locked Fiber Ring Lasers
Formation of Bound States in an FM Mode-Locked Fiber Ring Laser
Experimental Technique
Dynamics of Bound States in an FM Mode-Locked Fiber Ring Laser
   Numerical Model of an FM Mode-Locked Fiber Ring Laser
   The Formation of the Bound Soliton States
   Evolution of the Bound Soliton States in the FM Fiber Loop
Multi-Bound Soliton Propagation in Optical Fiber
Bi-Spectra of Multi-Bound Solitons
   The Phasor Optical Spectral Analyzers
   Bi-Spectrum of Duffing Chaotic Systems
11. Actively Mode-Locked Multiwavelength Erbium-Doped Fiber Lasers
Numerical Model of an Actively Mode-Locked Multiwavelength Erbium-Doped Fiber Laser
Simulation Results of an Actively Mode-Locked Multiwavelength Erbium-Doped Fiber Laser
   Effects of Small Positive Dispersion Cavity and Nonlinear Effects on Gain Competition Suppression Using a Highly Nonlinear Fiber
   Effects of a Large Positive Dispersion and Nonlinear Effects Using a Highly Nonlinear Fiber in the Cavity on Gain Competition Suppression
   Effects of a Large Negative Dispersion and Nonlinear Effects Using a Highly Nonlinear Fiber in the Cavity on Gain Competition Suppression
   Effects of Cavity Dispersion and a Hybrid Broadening Gain Medium on the Tolerable Loss Imbalance between the Wavelengths
Experimental Validation and Discussion on an Actively Mode-Locked Multiwavelength Erbium-Doped Fiber Laser
Conclusions and Suggestions for Future Work
Appendix A: Er-Doped Fiber Amplifier: Optimum Length and Implementation
Appendix B: MATLAB® Programs for Simulation
Appendix C: Abbreviations

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Le Nguyen Binh received his BE (Hons) and Ph.D degrees in electronic engineering and integrated photonics in 1975 and 1980, respectively, from the University of Western Australia, Nedlands, Western Australia. In 1980, he joined the Department of Electrical Engineering at Monash University, Clayton, Victoria, Australia, after a three-year period with Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation (CSIRO), Camberra, Australia, as a research scientist. In 1995, he was appointed as reader at Monash University. He has worked in the Department of Optical Communications of Siemens AG Central Research Laboratories in Munich, Germany, and in the Advanced Technology Centre of Nortel Networks at Harlow, United Kingdom. He has also served as a visiting professor of the Faculty of Engineering of Christian Albrechts University of Kiel, Germany. Dr. Binh has published more than 250 papers in leading journals and refereed conferences, and three books in the field of photonic signal processing and optical communications: the first is Photonic Signal Processing, the second is Digital Optical Communications and the third on Optical Fiber Communications Systems (both published by CRC Press, Boca Raton, Florida). His current research interests are in advanced modulation formats for long haul optical transmission, electronic equalization techniques for optical transmission systems, ultrashort pulse lasers, and photonic signal processing.

Nam Quoc Ngo received his BE and PhD degrees in electrical and computer systems engineering from Monash University, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia, in 1992 and 1998, respectively. From July 1997 to July 2000, he was a lecturer at Griffith University, Brisbane, Queensland, Australia. Since July 2000, he has been with the School of Electrical and Electronic Engineering (EEE), Nanyang Technological University, Singapore, where he is presently an associate professor. Since March 2009, he has been the deputy director of the Photonics Research Centre at the School of EEE. Among his other significant contributions, he has pioneered the development of the theoretical foundations of arbitrary order temporal optical differentiators and arbitrary-order temporal optical integrators, which resulted in the creation of these two new research areas. He has also pioneered the development of a general theory of the Newton– Cotes digital integrators, from which he has designed a wideband integrator and a wideband differentiator known as the Ngo integrator and the Ngo differentiator, respectively, in the literature. His current research interests are on the design and development of fiber-based and waveguide-based devices for application in optical communication systems and optical sensors. He has published more than 110 international journal papers and over 60 conference papers in these areas. He received two awards for outstanding contributions in his PhD dissertation. He is a senior member of IEEE.