Ultra-Realistic Imaging: Advanced Techniques in Analogue and Digital Colour Holography, 1st Edition (Hardback) book cover

Ultra-Realistic Imaging

Advanced Techniques in Analogue and Digital Colour Holography, 1st Edition

By Hans Bjelkhagen, David Brotherton-Ratcliffe

CRC Press

664 pages | 491 Color Illus.

Purchasing Options:$ = USD
Hardback: 9781439827994
pub: 2013-05-20
SAVE ~$41.00
eBook (VitalSource) : 9780429151217
pub: 2016-04-19
from $28.98

FREE Standard Shipping!


Ultra-high resolution holograms are now finding commercial and industrial applications in such areas as holographic maps, 3D medical imaging, and consumer devices. Ultra-Realistic Imaging: Advanced Techniques in Analogue and Digital Colour Holography brings together a comprehensive discussion of key methods that enable holography to be used as a technique of ultra-realistic imaging.

After a historical review of progress in holography, the book:

  • Discusses CW recording lasers, pulsed holography lasers, and reviews optical designs for many of the principal laser types with emphasis on attaining the parameters necessary for digital and analogue holography
  • Gives a full review of current photosensitive materials for colour holography
  • Covers modern methods of analogue holography and digital holographic printing
  • Introduces mathematical and geometrical notation for horizontal parallax-only holograms and practical computational algorithms for the full-parallax case
  • Reviews systems and the image processing algorithms required to convert the raw image data to the format required by digital printers
  • Develops the physical theory of the holographic grating and the hologram
  • Provides an up-to-date review of illumination sources, including LED and laser diode sources

Written by leaders in dynamic holography, this handbook provides complete coverage of real-time colour holographic processes, including applications. The book covers not only the optics and theory behind such holographic systems, but also laser technologies, recording devices, data acquisition and processing techniques, materials for reproduction, and current and developing applications.


"[This] work is marked by a mature and balanced relationship and density, specifically as regards [to] mathematical relationships of description on the one hand, and physical interpretation on the other, as well as methods, implementation arrangements, applications, and full (holographic) images. And all this in an outstanding aesthetic presentation, printed in vivid color …"

Contemporary Physics, 2014

"Produced to the highest quality, with excellent illustrations throughout … this book will no doubt become the standard reference work on the subject. … an outstanding contribution to holographic literature. … it deserves a permanent place on the shelves of every optics department."

—Graham Saxby, RPS Journal, April 2014

"It is written in a very accessible style, with clear exposition of all the main results. Also worthy of note is the collection of over 500 photographs, diagrams and schematics relating to the recording and production of ultra-realistic holographic images."

Optics & Photonics News, 2014

"This book is a condensation at the highest level of the authors’ collective knowledge and experience in the area of display holography that includes history, theory, practice, and detailed designs of industrial systems. It includes over 500 photographs, diagrams, and design schematics for the recording and production of ultrarealistic holographic images."

—From the Foreword by Professor Tung H. Jeong, Lake Forest College

Table of Contents

Ultra-Realistic Imaging and Its Historical Origin in Display Holography

Ultra-Realistic Imaging and Interferential Techniques

Before Holography

Early Holography

Display Holography Milestones

Digital and Analogue Full-Colour Holography

Lippmann Photography

Brief History of Interferential Colour Recordings

Examples of Interferential Structures in Nature

Lippmann Photography

Theory of the Lippmann Process

Early Lippmann Emulsions

Recording of Early Lippmann Photographs

Modern Lippmann Photography

Concluding Remarks

Continuous Wave Lasers for Colour Holography


Gas Lasers

Dye Lasers

Diode-Pumped Solid-State Lasers

Semiconductor Diode Lasers

Fibre Lasers

CW Laser Sources for Colour Holography Today

Recording Materials for Colour Holography


Holographic Recording

Holographic Emulsions

Problems Due to Short or Long Exposure

Increasing Sensitivity by Hypersensitisation and Latensification

Substrates for Holographic Emulsions

Commercial Recording Materials for Colour Holography

SilverCross Emulsion Research Project

Additional Silver Halide Materials for Holography

DCG Materials

Photopolymer Materials

Analogue Colour Holography


Origins in Monochromatic Holography

History of True Full-Colour Holography

Colour Recording in Holography

Setup for Recording Colour Holograms

Full-Colour Pulsed Portraiture

Pulsed Lasers for Holography


Ruby Laser

Flashlamp-Pumped Lasers Based on Crystals Doped with Neodymium at 1 μm

High-Energy Two-Colour Emission: Stimulated Raman Amplification

Pulsed RGB Lasers—Neodymium Lasers at μm

Pulsed Holography Lasers Based on Titanium Sapphire (Ti:Al2O3) and Cr:LiSAF

Chromium Forsterite

Pulsed Diode-Pumped Lasers for Holography and the Future

Digital Colour Holography


Holographic Stereograms

One-Step Digital Holograms

A Simple DWDH Printer

Modern DWDH Printers

MWDH Printers

Copying Full-Colour DWDH Holograms

Digital Holographic Printing: Data Preparation, Theory and Algorithms


Basic Considerations

Coordinate Systems

Coordinate Meshes

Independent Primary Colours

Viewing Plane

Simple Cases

Image-Planed DWDH HPO Holograms

Rainbow and Achromatic Transmission Holograms

Correcting for Inherent Distortion in Printer Optical Objective

Digital Holographic Printing: Computational Methods for Full-Parallax Holograms


Practical Strategies for Changing the Image Plane

Resolution Requirements of DWDH Reflection Holograms

DWDH Transmission Holograms

MWDH Reflections Holograms

Full-Parallax and HPO DWDH

Image Data Creation and Acquisition for Digital Display Holograms


Image Acquisition from a Physical Scene: HPO Holograms

Image Acquisition from a Physical Scene: Full-Parallax Digital Holograms

Images Derived from a Virtual Computer Model: HPO Holograms

Images Derived from a Virtual Computer Model: Full-Parallax Holograms

Theoretical Basis for High-Fidelity Display Holograms


Three-Dimensional Paraxial Theory of a Thin Transmission Hologram

Laser Transmission Holograms and the Problem of Speckle

Three-Dimensional Theory of the Thick Transmission Hologram

Reflection Holograms

Simple Model of Thick Hologram: PSMs

Holograms of Finite Thickness

Emulsion Swelling and Change in Refractive Index on Processing

Nonparaxial Behaviour and Digital Image Predistortion

Solving Helmholtz Equation in Volume Grating: Coupled Wave Theory

Blurring Revisited

Computational Methods of Calculating Diffractive Efficiency of Planar Gratings

Diffraction Efficiency: An Alternative Approach Using the PSM Model


Formulation of Simplest Model—Normal-Incidence Reflection Grating

Comparison with Numerical Solution of Helmholtz Equation

Multiple-Colour Gratings

Unslanted Reflection Grating at Finite Angle

Slanted Reflection Grating

Slanted Reflection Grating in Three Dimensions

Transmission Gratings with Slanted Fringes

Comparison of PSM Theory with Kogelnik’s Theory for Slanted Grating

Polychromatic Slanted Reflection Gratings

Extending PSM to Describe Spatially Multiplexed Monochromatic Gratings

Lippmann Photography


Illumination of Colour Holograms


Illumination of Holograms by Laser Sources

Nonlaser Light Sources Used for Hologram Illumination

Exhibition Facilities and Galleries Suitable for Displaying Holograms

Edge-Lit Holograms

Illumination of Large Displays

Applications of Ultra-Realistic Holographic Imaging


Some Scientific Applications of Holographic Imaging

Visual Applications of Full-Colour Holographic Imaging

Future Applications



Appendix 1: Historical Origins of Display Holography: Spreading Awareness

Hologram Exhibitions

Commercial and Educational Entities Involved in Holography

Appendix 2: History of the Geola Organisation

The Beginning

First Meeting in Vilnius

Incorporation of Geola UAB

First Romanian Exhibition of Large-Format Holography

Start of XYZ

Panchromatic Film and Sfera-S

Vilnius Digital Printer

Sale of XYZ

Appendix 3: Active Cavity Length Stabilisation in Pulsed Neodymium Lasers


Example of Cavity Stabilisation System Using Heated Rear Mirror Holder

Active Cavity Length Stabilisation by Piezo Element

Extension to Other Lasers

Appendix 4: Aberration Correction by Image Predistortion in Digital Hologram


Mathematical Model

Calculation of Optimal Reference Replay Angle

Compensation for Geometrical Distortion

Compensation for Chromatic Aberration

Other Corrections


Appendix 5: MAXScript Holocam Program

Appendix 6: Design Study of Compact RGB LED Hologram Illumination Source


Monochromatic Light Source

Polychromatic Light Source

Design of Main Lens Surface

Selected Cases: Computational Results

Additional Considerations

Commercial Design of Nine-Diode Framing Light Source


Appendix 7: Bilinear and Bicubic Interpolation


Bilinear Interpolation

Bicubic Interpolation

Appendix 8: Rigorous Coupled Wave Theory of Simple and Multiplexed Gratings


Derivation of RCW Equations

Simplification in the Case of Simple Non-Multiplexed Grating

Derivation of Boundary Conditions

Numerical Solution of RCW Equations

Recent Developments

New Equipment, Materials, Techniques, and Applications

Progress at Zebra Imaging

The Queen Elizabeth II Portrait and the Jersey Postage Stamp

Lasers for Colour Holography

Progress in Recording Materials and Recording Techniques

Printers to Record Digital Colour Holograms

3D Display Systems

New Holography Camera from the Hellenic Institute of Holography

HoloKit from Liti Holographics



Subject Categories

BISAC Subject Codes/Headings:
SCIENCE / Physics