Underground. The Way to the Future  book cover
1st Edition

Underground. The Way to the Future

ISBN 9781138000940
Published May 14, 2013 by CRC Press
386 Pages

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Book Description

Underground – the way to the future was the motto of the World Tunnel Congress 2013 in Geneva, Switzerland. The use of underground space has gained importance during the last years due to the tremendous global urbanization, the high demand on transportation capacities and energy production. All this result in a wider range of use of underground space: besides the traditional road, railway, metro and utility tunnels, more and more other functionalities of modern life are placed under ground in order to free the surface for other uses. The 300 papers of the present book cover important aspects of modern underground infrastructures: Development and use of underground space; project planning and implementation (construction management, risk control, cost estimation and scheduling, contracting practices); design and analysis methods and considerations; construction technology developments; tunnel operation (safety, maintenance, rehabilitation and repair); case histories (learning from failures, long deep tunnels, underground construction for hydropower).

Underground – the way to the future will be invaluable to specialists, contractors and design engineers in underground planning, construction and tunnelling worldwide, and to academics interested in underground and geotechnical engineering.

Table of Contents

Underground space utilisation

Innovative developments in creating underground structures
J. Thomson & Ch. Howe

Urban planning & design for underground space development – the experience in Asia compact cities
K. Law & P. Hui

Challenges during design of an underground chip factory (Waferfab)
C. Rüegg, H. Wannenmacher & C. Schönlechner

Underground citing of nuclear stations
J. Likar & E. Grøv

Reuse of abandoned underground structures – the compressed air energy storage test plant in Switzerland
A. Pedretti, D. Vietti, M. Bazzi Pedrazzini & M. Neuenschwander

The design of the Chillida Underground Sculpture
P. Varley, C. Merino & S. Macklin

Undergrounding Sydney’s high voltage cable feeder network
J. Ashley, M. Frewer & W. Liew

LAGUNA-LBNO Project – Geomechanical feasibility study of the largest man made cavern worldwide
F. Amberg & R. Stucchi

Lisbon Metro. Red Line extension between Oriente Station and the Airport
F. Melaneo

Design of the Western Metro Section Matinkylä-Kivenlahti, Espoo, Finland
J. Salminen

The TMG and TMF concepts: the right approach for large tunnel crossings
S. Pompeu-Santos

Unconventional segmentally lined shaft applications: explained & contrasted
D. Kruse, Q. Li, A. Le, T. Tan & A. Basso

Project planning and implementation

Lifecycle risk management methods for controlling risk factors of underground infrastructure and tunneling projects
P. György & I.S. Fogarasi

Financial risk identification and tracking in underground projects
A. Bourget & J. Blanchard

Application of a methodology for risk management on tunnel project
C. Gaillard, E. Humbert & A. Robert

Project management: why have computers made things harder? And what to do about it
A. Hodgkinson & J. Kaelin

Decision analysis for underground infrastructure using uncertain data and fuzzy scales
M. Thewes & S. Kamarianakis

A study of tunnelling records applying different excavation methods under similar geological conditions
A. Kato, R. Okawa, K. Yamada, M. Yamamoto, N. Tachibana & D. Miyagi

Necessity of geotechnical data base and of reliable technical committee for subway constructions under severe conditions
T. Adachi & H. Mukai

Medical aspects of tunnelling with compressed air – swiss experience
J. Wendling, W. Ciscato, S. Brunschwiler & A. Strauss

Planning and documenting reinforcement system test programs
A.G. Thompson, E. Villaescusa & C.R. Windsor

Use of dispute review board’s on East Side Access
A. Thompson

Exploring the applicability of the Swiss Tunnel Code Principles in other jurisdictions
A. Marulanda

Evaluation of new trends in contracting and delivering underground infrastructure projects
A.P. Flately, G. Fortuna, G. Stack & I.S. Fogarasi

Presentation of the activity of the AFTES’ Working Group 25, “Cost control and contractual practice”
M. Pré, J.F. Thibault, A.P.F. Bourget, M. Russo, G. Hamaide, M. Roignot & R. Munier

Comparison SIA – ITA on contractual practices
T. Huber, R. Schuerch, C. Bachofner, F. Henke, J. Leu, A. Zimmermann & M. Neuenschwander

Stockholm’s Cityline Project Odenplan and Vasatunnel – keys for the success of a cooperation contract
A. Groten & P.A. Erixon

CO2 emissions during the construction of a large diameter tunnel with a slurry shield TBM
Q.S. Li, L. Li & Y. Bai

Second phase of the Eastern European High speed railway line: Stretch 47 and the Saverne Tunnel
A. Cuccaroni, P.L. Veyron, A. Lacroix & M. Russo

Geological and geotechnical risk management for the A89 East motorway (France)
H. Tournery, F. Bultel & P. Bienfait

The Koralm tunnel project – 33 km to connect Europe
H. Wagner, K. Keiper, H. Hölzl & K. Mussger

Planning and investigating geotechnical challenges for the Toronto Eglinton Scarborough Crosstown Project
J. Habimana, M. Manzari & A. Lionço

Construction of an underground ring in a historical center
P. Torta, M. Tutinelli, F. Forchino, S. Porrello & G. Soddu

Safety and other operational issues

Tunnel safety in new and old railway tunnels of Swiss Federal Railways SBB
J.D.S. Chabot

Scenario-oriented safety design of underground traffic infrastructures
M. Bettelini & S. Rigert

Disaster-prevention measures for Tokyo Metro tunnels
Y. Tashiro & Y. Mutou

Surveillance of road tunnels by means of fused detection systems
C. Thienert, A. Piazzolla, A. Lehan & K. Fehren-Schmitz

Optimum emergency management through physical simulation – findings from the EMILI research project
M. Bettelini, S. Rigert & N. Seifert

A proposed method to enhance safety in complex urban road tunnels, going beyond the mere implementation of the technical instructions dated August 25th, 2000 on the Safety of road tunnels in France
M. Tramblay, N. Melhem, G. Labrit, J. Blanchard & P. Merand

Fire design methodology for the CLEM7 Tunnel, Brisbane
E. Van Der Horst, J. Ashley, R. Wong & G. Charlesworth

Methodological approaches for tunnel classification according to ADR agreement
N. Vagiokas, A. Bletsas & R.M.L. Nelisse

On the use of flexible devices for controlling smoke propagation in road tunnels – perspectives and limitations
M. Bettelini & S. Rigert

Smoke extraction of road tunnels – scope, limits and prospects of fire control engineering
M. Wehner & E. Krokos

Gas analytics for the early detection of fires in road tunnels
M. Wietek, C. Berweger & C. Lämmle

Slag based geopolymer for passive fire protection of tunnels
K. Sakkas, P. Nomikos, A. Sofianos & D. Panias

Fire safety of underground structures using Fire Safety Engineering – the underground network of La Défense
B. Bertrand, M. Oucherfi, P. Van Hulle, A. Wyzgolik, É. Cesmat, B. Moreau & J. Dupont

Lyon’s Caluire tunnel renovation – structural fire resistance assessment contributing to safety improvement
J. N’Kaoua, J. Dupont & F. Walet

Fire tests for water mist fire suppression systems in road tunnels
R. Leucker & F. Leismann

Development of an optimal temporary ventilation system for a long tunnel
C. Hong, D. Hwang & H. Kang

Challenges and solutions for tunnel ventilation of Doha Metro
P. Reinke, A. Krpo & M. Flueckiger

Design and implementation of an innovative ventilation system using natural flow amplification in Moghanak access tunnel – Qumroud tunnel project
M. Khosrotash & M. Torabi

Enhancement of tunnel safety in the Albula railway tunnel
S. Wälchli & C. Bernet

How much flow recirculation is acceptable at tunnel portals?
S. Gehrig, R. Buchmann & R. Yousaf

Measuring pressure differences between portals of long road tunnels
A. Rudolf & T. Kienzler

Tunnel ventilation in practice – insights from testing
P. Pospisil & L. Ilg

Large-scale project to improve Tokyo subway network efficiency – Minami-sunamachi Station improvement plan
A. Numata & T. Hirano

Innovative 3D lighting planning for all kind of tunnel geometries
H. Heis & B. Parth

The importance of drainage system in railway tunnels and possibilities to reduce the LCC
J.D.S. Chabot, F. Sandrone & T. Gamisch

Structural health assessment and tunnel refurbishment

Methodology of diagnosis of urban tunnels in service
D. Llanca, P. Breul, Y. Haddani & P. Goirand

Tunnel conditions assessment based on image analysis: a new inspection procedure for railway tunnels
F. Sandrone

New tunnel inspection and maintenance strategy using 3D laser scanning
T. Yoshida, Y. Adachi & K. Hayashi

Evaluation method of the falling of concrete piece from tunnel lining
K. Tsuno, Y. Kojima, T. Nakayama & T. Ushida

Quantitative health evaluation for existing tunnel against scaling and spalling
N. Isago & H. Mashimo

Inspection and repairing examination for the large scale immersed tube tunnel
T. Shiraki, M. Shimonishi, H. Sakurai, S. Shimada, T. Yui, M. Fuse & S. Takatsu

The fire in the Simplon Tunnel 2011 – event, effects on the tunnel and reconstruction
W. Kradolfer

Innovative method of rail tunnel refurbishment
V. Wetzig, K. Baumann & A. Riedl

The enhancement of performance on road tunnel lining by repair and rehabilitation
J.H. Choo, T.J. Lee, T.G. Yoon & Y.S. Shin

The refurbishment strategy of the Seelisberg Tunnel
R. Marty, B. Schädler & D. Frey

Integration of the existing Beverentunnel in the new Liefkenshoek Railway Link
B. de Pauw, J. Moyaert, Ph. van Bogaert & K. Berten

Swiss motorway N06 – repair of the Allmend Tunnel
F. Gisler, M. Ramoni & P. Kübler

Tunnel refurbishment and evolving standards – the safety file solution in New Zealand
J.G. Miezio & J.Q. Cooper

Methods and basic aspects of design and analysis

Optimal calculation of reinforcement in tunnel segmental lining
A.P. Fantilli, B. Chiaia, S. Marello & B. de Rivaz

Practical aspects of segmental tunnel lining design
M. Bakhshi & V. Nasri

Analysis of shield tunnel lining by frame structure analysis using ground reaction curve
M. Sugimoto, L.G. Le, C. Jian & T. Tamai

Some criteria to consider in final lining design and supervision in conventional tunnelling
E. von Munthe af Morgenstierne, H. Vélez Pérez & P. Caro Perdigón

Restrictive specifications for reinforced sprayed concrete for underground support
C. Larive

Design of sprayed concrete lining in soft ground – a UK perspective
J. Su

A rational technique for FEM/FDM simulation of TBM tunnelling
S. Soni, K.G. Sharma & G.V. Ramana

Design aspects for appropriate additional support measures in TBM excavations
G.M. Volkmann & H. Wannenmacher

Influence of annular gap grout on shield tunnel lining bedding behaviour
C. Thienert & M. Pulsfort

Study on the stratum loss and displacement mechanism of mined urban tunnel with cavity behind lining
Y.C. Zheng, J. Zhang, J. Chen & X.G. Zhang

Tunneling influence zones for adjacent existing pile foundation in soft soil developed by numerical analysis
P. Jongpradist, A. Sawatparnich, S. Youwai, J. Sunitsakul, W. Kongkitkul & S. Suwansawat

Volume loss and settlement trough in Warsaw II line
R. Kuszyk & A. Sieminska-Lewandowska

Guidelines for Gaussian curve-fitting to settlement data
B. Jones & C. Clayton

Pre-support nomenclature and support selection methodology for temporary support systems within weak rock masses
J. Oke, N. Vlachopoulos & M.S. Diederichs

Investigation of the loads on the primary lining for tunnels excavated with face support or improvement
P. Fortsakis, F. Chortis, G. Prountzopoulos & M. Kavvadas

Quantitative two-dimensional numerical analysis for evaluation of effects of steel pipe umbrella arch method
D.Y. Kim, H.S. Lee & J.J. Jung

The effects of long face bolts on face stability in the squeezing ground
R. Hirata, K. Yashiro, Y. Haga, H. Ueno & T. Asakura

The effect of hemi-spherical tunnel face on the stability of mountain tunnels
F. Kusumoto, K. Tanimura & J. Sato

Face stability assessment and ground deformation analysis for soft ground TBM tunnels
S. Konstantis

Face stability improvement by advance drainage via pilot tunnel
S. Zingg, D. Bronzetti & G. Anagnostou

Analysis of the stand-up time of the tunnel face
R. Schuerch & G. Anagnostou

A limit equilibrium method for the assessment of the tunnel face stability taking into account seepage forces
P. Perazzelli, T. Leone & G. Anagnostou

A comparison of viscous models under constant strain and constant stress: implications for tunnel analysis
C. Paraskevopoulou & M. Diederichs

Evaluation of overstressing of deep hard rock tunnels
D. Brox

New development using the “convergence-confinement” method in an anisotropic stress field
C. Jassionnesse, A. Tsirogianni & M. Favre

Large deformation analysis for a planned tunnel crossing heavily squeezing ground
A. Vrakas & G. Anagnostou

The practical modelling of dilation in excavations with a focus on continuum shearing behaviour
G. Walton & M.S. Diederichs

An alternative constitutive model for squeezing rocks in tunneling
W. Dong & G. Anagnostou

Invert heaving in operational tunnels – problems and countermeasures
C.H. Lee, T.T. Wang, L.J. Sun & T.H. Huang

An analytical study on the hydraulic resistance for the immersed tunnel elements during transportation for the project of Hong Kong-Zhuhai-Macao Bridge
L. Weiqing, Y. Zongquan, W. Ruida & S. Linwang

Instability risk assessment of soil tunnel excavation based on ground properties variability
M.O. Cecílio Jr., P.I.B. Queiroz & A. Negro Jr.

Incorporation of geostructural data into discrete analysis for tunnel design
J.J. Day, M.S. Diederichs & D.J. Hutchinson

Mechanical characteristics of Swiss molassic formations
M. Gencer & J.F. Mathier

In-situ experiment concerning thermally induced spalling of circular shotcreted shafts in deep crystalline rock
L.K.T. Uotinen, T. Siren, D. Martinelli & M. Hakala

Consideration on the influence and stability of middle ground area (center pillar) in binocular tunnels
M. Nakata, M. Kawakita, M. Inagaki & T. Okuno

The adoption of soil coefficients from FEA (Finite Element Analysis) models for use in stiffness matrix models to allow for multiple load cases generating large numbers of load combinations
J. Donohue, R.G. Eberhardt & M. Kuhn

Numerical simulation of mechanism behavior of the horizontal stratum tunnel adopting 3 Dimensional Element Code (3DEC)
G. Huang, W. Qiu & H. Zhang

Behaviour of a tunnel with rapid ring closure and curved face in low-strength ground
J. Sato, K. Kanematsu & F. Kusumoto

Design case studies

Brisbane’s Cross River Rail project – geomechanics supporting city-building
G. Charlesworth, R. Gong, J. Ashley & K. Bagget

Excavation analysis using crack tensor theory at the Mizunami Underground Research Laboratory, Japan
H. Sanada, R. Hikima, T. Tanno, T. Sato, M. Gohke, H. Tada & H. Kumasaka

Urban, geotechnical and construction challenges for the realization of the CEVA Tunnel de Champel in Geneva
T. Witschi, W. Steiner & A. Ferrari

Geotechnical challenges for the construction of Tunnel de Court of the A16 Transjurane highway in Switzerland
A. Ferrari, S. Wachter & J.M. Jeanneret

Prediction of behavior of structures due to large bore EPBM tunneling at the Port of Miami
V. Gall, A. Bauer & P. Bourdon

Segmental lining in squeezing rock – innovative concepts for the Koralm tunnel
K. Keiper, S. Frodl, A. Lange, B. Moritz, H. Wagner, D. Handke & J. Matter

Design considerations and construction of the Schuman-Josaphat tunnel in the centre of the European district in Brussels
B. de Pauw, P. Vanderhaeghe, N. Hamaide, G. Joris & Ph. van Bogaert

Case study of EPB excavation using three-dimensional analysis
N. Allahverdi & V. Nasri

Farringdon Station SCL design – reducing risk at the heart of Crossrail
P. Duarte & A. Davis

Complex 3D calculation models for shaft-bored tunnel connection applied to the Liefkenshoek railways tunnels project
S. Giuliani-Leonardi & J. Dupeyrat

Three-dimensional elasto-plastic numerical analysis and mechanical evaluation of extremely close twin tunnels excavated with early invert closure
M. Inagaki, M. Kawakita, M. Nakata, K. Ushida, D. Awaji & T. Okuno

Cut and cover tunnel adjacent to a slope with a deep-seated slip-surface: assessment of ground and tunnel lining stability for various ultimate limit state cases
S. Papakonstantinou

Design of segmental lining using cam-pocket coupling for Waterview Project, Auckland (NZ)
R. Mahajan, A. Kuras, K. Allan & T. Kawakami

Important design aspects of the Railway Tunnel T-74R
G. Carrieri, A. Poli & L. Repetto

Crossrail sprayed concrete linings design
A. Pickett

Chenani-Nashri Tunnel, the longest road tunnel in India: a challenging case for design-optimization during construction
M. Palomba, G. Russo, F. Amadini, G. Carrieri & A.R. Jain

Study on rock mass stability of large scale complex underground tunnels in the urban underground
K. Chao, Q. Wenge & L. Hao

Geotechnical design of underground infra-structure works for the Mine Chuquicamata in Chile
A.R.A. Gomes, G. Reyes & J.C. Ulloa

Large diameter shafts: a 3D analysis
T.G.S. Dias, M.M. Farias & A.P. Assis

Cooks Lane Tunnels in Baltimore, design and construction challenges
M.G. Kashi & V. Nasri

Lyon-Turin high speed railway link – Italian part base tunnel mixed shield TBM proposal
Y. Boissonnas & A. Mignini

Roveredo bypass tunnel – a pilot project
P. Spinedi, G. Sciuto, D. Fortunato & I. Broggini

The fixed point over the Strait of Messina: final design of the underground works
P. Lunardi, G. Cassani, A. Bellocchio & F. Pennino

Albula tunnel II: concept for tunneling in karst-like cellular dolomite
A. Schneider & N. Lavdas

Effect of tunnel construction on lining of an adjacent tunnel
C. Yoo & H.M. Jeon

Mechanical behaviors of shallow conventional tunnels installed the previous ground improved auxiliary method
Y. Cui, K. Kishida, M. Wako & M. Kimura

Engineering geological characterizing of alluvial sediments along the Line A of Qom metro project, Iran
J. Hassanpour, J. Rostami & S. Tarigh Azali

Tunnel Visp / Valais (CH) – challenges in a twin-tube motorway project incorporating an existing tunnel
A. Waldmeyer, H. Schmaus & J. Hohberg

Tunneling in Israel: challenges for excavation of “Hahamisha” tunnel
M. Concilia, K. Keiper, R. Crapp & D. Fabbri

The Fehmarn tunnel crossing: special elements
O.P. Jensen & S.K. Pedersen

Seismic design and experiences

Studies on seismic damage mechanism of mountain tunnels in poor geological conditions
K. Yashiro, Y. Kojima, N. Fukazawa, T. Asakura & J. Takemura

Failure Characteristics and Influencing factors of highway tunnels damage due to the Chinese Wen-chuan Earthquake
M. Zhirong & J. Zhang

Blind prediction of the seismic response of tunnels observed in centrifuge experiments
G. Elia, M. Rouainia & S. Nadimi Shahraki

Seismic impacts on tunnels in a two-layer rock stratum
T.T. Wang, J.T. Hsu, C.H. Chen & T.H. Huang

Design of running tunnel transversal section under seismic conditions using simplified numerical analysis
M. Pescara, G.M. Gaspari & L. Repetto

Impact of seismic loading on the design of underground projects – example of the Line 3 phase 2 of the Greater Cairo metro
S. Giuliani-Leonardi & J. Dupeyrat

Damage pattern analysis of tunnels in highly seismic region based on shaking table test
T. Chen, B. Gao, Y.S. Shen, Y.M. Wen, X.F. Zhao & S.B. Chen

TBM performance and wear

Down time analysis of hard rock TBM case histories
E. Farrokh, J. Rostami & O.G. Askilsrud

Probabilistic estimation of project duration using TBM prediction models: application to the safety gallery of the Fréjus Tunnel
G. Piaggio, J.P. Novel, G.W. Bianchi & A. Bochon

Evaluation of EPB TBM performance in mixed ground conditions
Á. Tóth & J. Zhao

A methodology of using past experiences in the performance prediction of a TBM in a complex geology
M. Namli, O. Cakmak, I.H. Pakis, L. Tuysuz, D. Talu, M. Dumlu, C. Balci, H. Copur & N. Bilgin

Performance of penetration models for hard rock TBMs in the case of the Gotthard Base Tunnel
J. Cheda, R. Schuerch, P. Perazzelli & F. Mezger

A fuzzy logic model to predict the performance of hard rock tunnel boring machine
M. Hedayatzadeh & J. Khademi Hamidi

Review of the TBM performance in blocky rocks with potential face stability issues
A. Delisio & J. Zhao

Evaluation of soil abrasivity for soft ground TBM tunnelling applications
G. Barzegari, A. Uromeihy & J. Zhao

Abrasisivity test results from Lao-PDR: verification of the CAI-LCPC abrasivity classification
R. Longden & J.F. Mathier

Introducing the Penn State soil abrasion index (PSAI) for application in soft ground mechanized tunneling
E. Alavi Gharahbagh, J. Rostami & K. Talebi

Assessment of TBM cutter wear using Cerchar abrasiveness test
S. Lee, H.Y. Jeong & S. Jeon

Developments in the technology of mechanized tunnelling

Tunnelling experiences of the largest EPB Shield to date for the Galleria Sparvo highway tunnel
M. Herrenknecht & K. Bäeppler

First results of the use of “Martina”, the world’s largest EPB-TBM (15.62 m in diameter), to bore the Sparvo Tunnel (A1 Motorway)
P. Lunardi, G. Cassani & M. Gatti

Birth of Earth Pressure Balanced shield method and its applications in Japan
Y. Kashima & T. Adachi

Urban road tunnel in Seattle – a new TBM philosophy
E. Fernández & A. Sanz

Challenges of the largest diameter TBM tunnel in the world – the Alaskan Way Tunnel in Seattle, USA
N. Munfah, M. Preedy & S. Zlatanic

The next generation of large diameter, mixed ground tunnel boring machines
D. Jordan

EPB-specific cutting tools for challenging mixed ground applications
A. Shanahan

The study of pressurized support in a modern rock TBM
G.D. Kang, Y.S. Kwon & I.M. Lee

Tunnel Dismantling Machine – from innovation to completion
F. Vallon, C. Salisbury, G. Roux, M. Gonzalez & E. Baranger

Pre-treatment of ground in hard rock TBM tunneling: probe drilling and pre-grouting
S. Log, D. Ofiara, A. Bruland & P. Jakobsen

Strain and infrared thermal camera measurements to evaluate the deformability of a disc cutter during linear cutting tests
G.J. Bae, S.H. Chang, S.W. Choi, Y.T. Park & G.P. Lee

TBM cutter head instrumentation MOBYDIC system–BOUYGUES TP
M.A.N. Sahi, T.N.D.R. Barrett, E. Baranger & P. Moulin

Intensive application of the TBM data management system for the work supervisor of the largest worldwide TBM-EPB project
M. Marchionni, A. Selleri, F. Stahl & L. Messina

Operation monitoring and risk assessment of earth pressure balance tunnel boring machines in urban environment; high speed tunnel Sants-La Sagrera, in the city of Barcelona, right beside Sagrada Familia Basilica (World Heritage)
J.G. Cabrera & E.P. Fernández

Soil conditioning laboratory trials for the Port of Miami Tunnel, Miami, Florida, USA
A. Merritt, S. Jefferis, R. Storry & L. Brais

Foam parameters in saturated sand, theory and model tests
A. Bezuijen

Studies by a mobile laboratory on soil conditioning for EPB tunneling
H. Copur, F. Aksu, K.Y. Levent & M. Cinar

Studies on rock conditioning for hard rock tunnelling by a mobile laboratory
K.Y. Levent, F. Aksu, S. Tokcan, U. Gumus, A. Yazici & S. Akdemir

Developments in monitoring technology

Application of satellite radar interferometry for tunnel and underground infrastructures damage assessment and monitoring
C. Giannico, A. Ferretti, S. Alberti & S. Del Conte

Groundwater inflow analysis during tunnel construction using SDA-SWING method
N. Kishinaka, T. Koyama, K. Takahashi, T. Yasuda & Y. Ohnishi

Surface deformation control based on high-speed laser scanning systems
O. Schneider, J. Bertsch & M. Buri

The High Speed Railway Hub of Florence: 4D-monitoring – data integration and real-time post-processing during construction phase
P. Cucino, G. Eccher & C. Meyer

Risk control – online deformation monitoring inside an urban TBM-driven tunnel using the tShape measurement system
Ch. Meyer & S. Schütz

The Florence High-Speed Railway Hub: 4D monitoring – innovations in data acquisition and data management for tunnelling projects in sensitive urban areas
C. Meyer, P. Cucino, G. Eccher & D. Ulrich

Ground condition estimation of collapsed tunnel zones using tunnel electrical resistivity prospecting system (TEPS)
H.H. Ryu, G.W. Joo, K.H. Yun & G.C. Cho

Investigation of geoelectric-while-tunneling methods through numerical modeling
M.A. Mooney, M. Karaoulis & A. Revil

Is geological uncertainty ahead of the face controllable?
T. Dickmann & D. Krueger

Developments in concrete and shotcrete linings technology

Future trends for tunnel lining design for modern rail and road tunnels in hard rock and cold climate
K.G. Holter, H. Buvik, B. Nermoen & B. Nilsen

Fibre reinforced lining technologies for TBM tunnels in Asia
R. Winterberg & B. Rossi

Results of a tunneling project using the extruded concrete lining system with shield – Tsugaru-Yomogita Tunnel on the Hokkaido Shinkansen Line
M. Noguchi, H. Kanda, A. Tanaka & T. Miyazaki

Preliminary tests on concrete aggregates with high sulphate content for tunnel lining
N. Monin, J. Burdin, L. Brino, J. Colas, L. Divet & T. Chaussadent

Permeability of steel fiber-reinforced concrete measured by surface electrical resistivity
D. Moon, S.W. Choi, S.H. Chang & G.P. Lee

A big full-round tunnel formwork designed for the Ingula Pumped Storage Scheme in South Africa
G. Lanticina

Proven tunnel forms at works in the Acre – Karmiel railway
B. Candeloro & M. Galimberti

Development of flat insulated lining method and its application for Shinkansen tunneling
H. Ishii, K. Akita, T. Iura, T. Komatsu, A. Morita & T. Konda

Polymer rubber gel technology for waterproofing underground structures
H. Russell, S. Schendel & J. Huh

Sprayed on waterproofing in frozen ground conditions: a shaft liner application case
J. Ouellet, J. Hatley, S. Greensted & M. Harper

Sprayed concrete application – high speed camera observations
M. Reinhold & T. Kulbe

Experimental Investigation into the interface properties of composite concrete lined structures
J. Su, A. Bloodworth & B. Haig

A feasibility study on polyamide fiber reinforced shotcrete for rock support in a tunnel
J.H. Yoon, J.K. Jeon, Y.K. Kim & J.M. Chung

Applications of various shotcrete types in mine tunnels: a case study
E. Guclu, H. Tuncdemir, S. Altinoluk, B. Parali & O. Tas

Other construction technology developments

Innovative use of directionally-drilled borings for underground exploration and construction monitoring
H. Parker, R.A. Robinson, G. Martin, A. Elioff & E. Cording

Roof suspended equipment for excavation face and vault support installation on Toulon tunnel project (France)
Y. Chamberlin & B. Combe

Applying the lost shield method by freezing to connect bored tunnels to Rokin station on the North/South metro line, Amsterdam
R.E. Kleinlugtenbelt, R.N. Drijver, F.P.H. Haring, C. Schulze & W. Friedemann

Tunnel excavation using waterjet pre-cutting technology
T.-M. Oh, G.-W. Joo, C.-H. Hong, G.-C. Cho & I.-T. Ji

Development of tremie concrete mix design for underwater mass concrete placement – Lake Mead Intake No. 3 Tunnel Project
J. Grayson & J. Nickerson

Case study of pressurizing support trenchless tunneling method
D.Y. Kim, H.S. Lee, S.J. Lee, H.K. Lee, B.K. Sim & S.S. Han

On-site tests of new techniques for blasting noise attenuation and dust reduction
M. Noda, S. Furuki, T. Imamura, S. Yamashita, T. Matsuno, D. Sensui & Y. Honda

Quality control of drill and blast excavated tunnels using GPR EDZ method
P. Kantia, E. Heikkinen, S. Mustonen, S. Mellanen, T. Lehtimäki & M. Silvast

Pre-grouting and chemical injection for preserving groundwater environment and safe tunnelling
K. Date, N. Narita, Y. Yokota, Y. Takuji, S. Sakamaki, M. Kashiwaya, S. Kobayashi & T. Chiba

The chemistry of polyurethane grouts and their uses in tunneling
D.E. Galbreath

Elastomeric “eco-friendly” material based on end-of-life tyres blended with organic bind resin for railway applications
E. Sillerico & A. Alvarez

Protective layer for tunnels under rock fall impacts
A. Rezagholilou & H. Nikraz

Application of expansion joints in diaphragm walls – VleuGel project
R.W.M.G. Heijmans, J.A.G. Jansen, P. Konijnenbelt & B. Van Sinten

Stainless steel in tunnels – a sustainable and safe solution
D.J. Cochrane, B. Heritier & A. Kosmaˇc

Alptransit tunnels

Safety and health in long deep tunnelling – lessons learned on Swiss transalpine tunnel projects
M. Vogel & I. Kunz-Vondracek

Spoil management: curse or blessing? Looking back on 20 years of experience
C. Thalmann, M. Petitat, M. Kruse, L. Pagani & B. Weber

Project-specific logistics for the Gotthard and Ceneri Base Tunnels
A. Belloli & A. Kälin

Infrastructure projects – logistical considerations for the planning and realization of deep shafts
M. Rehbock-Sander & P. Erdmann

Gotthard base tunnel – simultaneous execution of civil works construction and installation of electromechanical equipment in the Sedrun section – implementation and conclusions
T. Stammwitz & H. Höfle

Railways Technology – the key lessons learnt from the Gotthard Base Tunnel project in Switzerland
R. Sigrist

The Gotthard Base Tunnel: the challenges of implementing the hoisting machinery in the Sedrun shafts – the owners view
S. Peggs & H. Höfle

Gotthard Base Tunnel, sector Sedrun – real scale testing of gliding steel ring beams
A. Theiler, P. Beeler & B. Baumann-Heidenreich

Verification of rock temperature prediction along the Gotthard base tunnel – a prospect for coming tunnel projects
L. Rybach & A. Busslinger

Ceneri Base Tunnel advancement in difficult rock conditions: tunnel design and construction optimization through back-analysis of the geomechanical parameters
D. Merlini & M. Falanesca

Anisotropic geomechanical behaviour of tunnelling Val Colla Line, Ceneri base Tunnel, Switzerland
A. Malaguti, S. Morandi & D. Stocker

Underground construction for hydropower

Linth-Limmern – the fascination of construction
R. Dubach

The Linth-Limmern hydro-power plant – design and construction of a large pumped storage scheme
U. Müller, R. Marclay, J. Dunn, J.M. Hohberg & M. Hase

Design and verification challenges of the Limmern caverns
T. Marcher, M. John, J.-M. Hohberg, D. Fellner, K. Blank & R. Marclay

Geomechanical influences on shaft construction for hydropower projects, a case study of the PSW Grimsel 3
H. Wannenmacher, A. Stucki, M. Bauert, C. Rüegg & B. Schwegler

Nant de Drance – pumped storage plant in the heart of the Alps
O. Balmer

Veytaux 2 Expansion – sensitive excavation to double the old plant capacity
M. Meury & J. Kukkonen

Rock mass assessment and corresponding TBM operation optimization for TBM tunneling at depth – a case study of Jinping II hydropower station
L.J. Yin, Q.M. Gong & J. Zhao

Improved pressure tunnel lining methods, a case study of the Niagara Tunnel Facility Project
H. Wannenmacher, M. Bauert, H. Krenn, F. Engel & N. Komma

Kishanganga hydroelectric project (J&K India) head race tunnel tunneling by TBM under Himalaya mountains dealing with adverse conditions
L. Giacomini, F. Bartimoccia & D. Rodriguez Calderon

Economic and energy loss minimization: design and repair works after failure of the Pucará headrace tunnel in Ecuador
F. Micheli, N. Moncayo, V.H. Jacome & P.F. Bertola

Boring with no. 3 EPB TBMs in chaotic Lahar formations under variable cover
R. Grandori, A. Barioffi & F. Bove

11th Machine PSP Vianden – rock engineering of powerhouse & transformer cavern
B. Stabel

The future of TBM tunnelling in hydroelectric projects
P.A. Scherwey

Hydro tunnel contracting challenges
H. Wagner

Boring of inclined pressure shafts by double shield TBM and problems of casting concrete in the Parbati H E Project Stage-II (Lot PB-3), Kullu, HP, India – a case study
R.K. Khali

Decisive design basis and parameters for power plant caverns
E. Saurer, T. Marcher & M. John

Other hydraulic tunnels

The project TEO “Tunnel Emisor Oriente” in Mexico city
E. Dal Negro, A. Boscaro & R. Carmona

Challenge in high-speed TBM excavation of long-distance water transfer tunnel, Pahang-Selangor Raw Water Transfer Tunnel, Malaysia
T. Kawata, Y. Nakano, T. Matsumoto, A. Mito, F. Pittard & Y. Honda

The planning and construction of a 44.6 km long tunnel within 5 years in Malaysia
Z. Nordin, A.A. Rashid, H. Ukon, T. Tsuri & N. Narita

CSM BESSAC built a challenging rainstorm sewer
Y. Rouillard

Pushing the limits – hyperbaric maneuvering with a rock TBM through mixed ground for the Lai Chi Kok Drainage Tunnel, Hong Kong
H.S. Kan, B. Frew, S. Lai, A.J. Westmoreland & P.K. Cheung

A consolidation grout application in a water conduit tunnel in Istanbul
H. Tunçdemir, E. Güçlü, O. Bayram & E. Bahçıvan

Key issues of Yuan-Shan-Tzu flood diversion tunnel project in Taiwan
M. Lee & P. Chang

The use of steel fiber reinforcement in Lee Tunnel Project – model code new design perspective – precast segment and shaft slip formed inner lining
B. Rivaz

Ground conditioning: STEP Abu Dhabi sewer project
E. Dal Negro, A. Boscaro, D. Michelis, C. Campinoti & D. Nebbia

Reinforced-pillar system in multi-placed caverns for rainwater detention
S.I. Han, D.J. Jo, J.H. Lee, Y.W. Jung, H.J. Seo & I.M. Lee

The Southeast Collector Trunk Sewer Project – creative solutions to unique challenges
T. Hrkac & G.J. Urschitz

Special formwork for hydraulic tunnel lining with application of HDPE membrane
E. Bertino

Cases with particularly demanding geological conditions

Lessons learned from EPBM tunneling on the Sound Transit Beacon Hill Project, Seattle, Washington
R. Robinson, R. Sage, E. Cording & R. Clark

Case study on the application of conventional tunneling method in backfilled ground condition
C.S. Kim, Y.H. Cho, J.S. Lim & H. Cho

Excavation of Shinmoheji Tunnel in former large-scale landslide after groundwater lowering
T. Yamazaki, K. Kato, D. Saito, T. Goto & N. Kurokawa

Overcoming rock squeeze and overbreak in a large diameter TBM excavation
U.H. Grunicke, M. Risti´c & D.F. Wood

On some factors affecting squeezing intensity in tunnelling
F. Mezger, G. Anagnostou & H.J. Ziegler

Consideration of stress and structural influence on high stress response in deep tunnelling – the Olmos Tunnel, Peru
M.S. Diederichs, E. Eberhardt & B. Fisher

Gotthard Base Tunnel – 3-dimensional numerical calculations for part of the Clavaniev Zone considering geotechnical measurement data
C. Volderauer, R. Galler & T. Marcher

Relationship between rock mass properties and damage of a concrete lining during shaft sinking in the Horonobe Underground Research Laboratory Project
K. Tsusaka, D. Inagaki, M. Nago, K. Kamemura, M. Matsubara & M. Shigehiro

Analysis of a demanding historical tunnel: Albula
A. Theiler, S. Zingg & G. Anagnostou

Cairo Metro Line 3 – sinkhole resumption
R. Roussel, B. Combe, O. Martin, P. Boutigny, F. Renault & B. Lecomte

Tunnelling through running sands
S. Marican, S.B. Tay & C.K. Poh

Quejigares Tunnels. Excavation in soft ground and rock with a mixed shield EPB
J. Tebar & N. Alonso

Impact of discontinuity orientation and roof shape on the stability of shallow tunnels and intersections
W. Peck, D. Sainsbury & M. Lee

EPB–TBM tunnelling issues on mixed faced ground at Tabriz Metro line 1, Iran
G. Barzegari, A. Uromeihy & J. Zhao

Line 9 of the Barcelona metro: challenges and solutions during tunnelling in “Zona Franca”
C. Deulofeu Palomas

Observations from monitoring of tunnel excavations in clayey silt
F. Buselli, A. Graziani, S. Lieto & T. Rotonda

The rockfall of 17/12/09 at Tempi Valley, central Greece, in correlation to the blast vibrations of a new motorway tunnel
E.K. Baliktsis & A.E. Baliktsis

Future tunnelling projects in Istanbul and some considerations for using mechanized tunnelling based on previous experiences
N. Bilgin, C. Balci, H. Copur, S. Akyuz, M. Namli & L. Tuysuz

Bypass Roveredo, Tunnel San Fedele – successful handling of different occurrences in soft ground
M. Fasani, M. Rüttimann & E. Ammann

Clogging and squeezing effect of marl-clayey limestone on the performance of a hard rock TBM in Suruc Tunnel, Turkey
N. Ilci, M. Temel, S. Sezgin, T. Akpınar, S. Guarasio, C. Polat & N. Bilgin

Monitoring of a tunnel through mixed geology in the Himalaya
R.K. Goel, R.D. Dwivedi, G. Viswanathan & J.S. Rathore

Other construction case histories

A geotechnical challenge at the limit: TBM tunnelling beneath the Port of Miami, Florida, USA
R.B. Storry, L.P. Brais & P. Pascual

Deep subsea rock tunnels in Hong Kong
K.F. Garshol, J.K.W. Tam, S.W.B. Mui, H.K.M. Chau & K.C.K. Lau

Design and construction of a massive tunnel junction for Hong Kong’s Express Rail Link Project
S. Pollak, K. Choi, K. Diemont & D. Kwok

Construction of deep underground railways station and cross over tunnels in historical area, Istanbul, Turkey
M. Iwano, S. Kobayashi, T. Kaneko, K. Ikeda, Y. Shimizu & S. Sakurai

Prague Metro Line A extension – the future belongs to continuous geotechnical monitoring
T. Ebermann, O. Hort & M. Záleský

Technical solutions of driven stations on the new part of metro line A in Prague
O. Hasik, J. Kunak & J. Ruzicka

Works for new Metro Line 5 – a challenge for Bucharest
O. Arghiroiu & S. C˘alinescu

Experiences from the design and construction of a track switching hall at the West metro between Helsinki and Espoo
J.P. Pöllä & I. Konstantas

Design and construction of the Place des Martyrs Station of the Metro Line1 of Algiers
M. Conceição, C. Baião, A. Santos, R. Oliva, R. Prado, A. Hadbi & M. Haouchine

Design and construction of the Ali Boumendjel Station of the Metro Line1 of Algiers
M. Conceição, C. Baião, A. Santos, R. Oliva, R. Prado, A. Hadbi & M. Haouchine

Tunnel des Oudayas, monitoring as a key factor in controlling the efficiency of a project
A. Panciera, G. Gubler & M. Neuenschwander

Design and excavation aspects for Vila Prudente Station of Sao Paulo Metro Line 2 (Green), Brazil
F.R. Neto, P.T. França & M. Seixas

Construction aspects for Lot 3 São Paulo Metro Line 5 Expansion
M.A.A.P. Silva, F.L. Gonçalves, F.L. Aguiar, G. Aguiar, L.B. Lemos, D. Soares Jr., D. Mitrugno, G. Pradella & P. Grasso

Cut and cover construction of underground space in sensitive urban environments
A.P. Flatley, D. Kirkland, I.S. Fogarasi & J. Goffredo

Increasing allowable deformation criteria through application of level II LTSM approach
H. Mortier, J.H. Jonker, J.G. Rots, G.J. Hobbelman, G. Giardina & M.A.N. Hendriks

The Hausmatt Tunnel – demanding urban tunnelling in loose ground
P. Beeler, M. Noll, M. Sidler & P. Hess

N01/40 safety gallery Milchbuck, Zürich Switzerland
L. Grieder, F. Mehnert & U. Jörin

Design and construction of a jacked tunnel below a live railway line in Australia
Q.J. Yang & S. Khazaei

Airport link and Northern Busway Project, Brisbane, Australia
A. Amon, P. Barraclough, M. John & H. Lagger

Underground works for the Express Rail Service between Toronto Airport and Union Station Railway Terminal
D. Kirkland, B. Jorge, E. Rizkalla & I.S. Fogarasi

Monitoring and data management for safe construction at the Cityringen project
A. Charalambides, K. Chmelina, K. Rabensteiner & M. Amrhein

Construction of 86th Street Station large and shallow rock caverns in New York
V. Nasri, S. Hoffman & A. Parikh

Prediction and countermeasures of surface subsidence for construction of a large-section tunnel, Yagiyama tunnel of the Sendai-City subway in Japan
K. Kawamura, H. Yoshino, M. Nishikawa, T. Yamamoto & T. Tsuruhara

Manufacture and delivery of a new EPB TBM for the Moscow Metro extension – Second Circle Line
T. Camus

Risk-based design for large tunnel cross sections in soft ground
O. Döllmann, U. Horny & A. Schulter

Conventional tunneling excavation 10 meters below existing river using 25-meter long forepoling and controlled blasting method, Pahang-Selangor Raw Water Transfer Tunnel Project, Malaysia
T. Kawata, Y. Nakano, Y. Honda & S. Isoda

Measurements and numerical investigation of the interaction between closely spaced twin tunnels in soft ground
H. Mashimo, A. Kusaka & K. Kawata

Performance of a hard fissured glacial till during conventional tunnelling
D. Elwood, C.D. Martin, F. O’Brien & A. Ornes

Summary of the Brazilian experience on ground improvement with jet grouting for soft ground tunneling
G. Guatteri, A. Koshima, J.R. Lopes & M.R. Pieroni

Underground excavation in Argentina: past, present and future
M. Giambastiani

Recent experiences in the design and construction of tunnels in the central and southern Andes
E. Chávez, J.M. Galera, G. Ibarra, C. Quiroga & S. Veyrat

Tunnelling in soft soil: on the correlations between the kinematics of a Tunnel Boring Machine and the observed soil displacements
D. Festa, W. Broere & J.W. Bosch

Influence of construction load for segmental lining by result of in-situ measurement and numerical analysis
T. Ishimura, H. Mashimo & S. Morimoto

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