The failure of foundations leads to distortion of building superstructures and a loss of structural integrity. If allowed to continue unchecked, this process will lead ultimately to non-serviceability and demolition. The chief and most successful remedial measure is to underpin the structure and restore full or partial structural integrity.
Various underpinning methods exist, and choosing a particular method or selection of methods is the job of the engineer. Consistent with the underpinning procedure is the need to retain the affected structure plus the surrounding ground and/or buildings.
Traditional methods of support. conventional piling. pali radice. the Pynford system. the Bullivant system. ground freezing. underpinning by chemical grouting. lateral shores and strutting. ground anchorages. soil nails.