1st Edition

# Unsaturated Soils: Research & Applications

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Unsaturated Soils: Research and Applications contains 247 papers presented at 6th International Conference on Unsaturated Soils (UNSAT2014, Sydney, Australia, 2-4 July 2014). The two volumes provide an overview of recent experimental and theoretical advances in a wide variety of topics related to unsaturated soil mechanics:

- Unsaturated Soil Behavior

- Experimentation

- Modelling

- Case Histories

- Geotechnical Engineering Problems

- Multidisciplinary and New Areas

Unsaturated Soils: Research and Applications presents a wealth of information, and is of interest to researchers and practising engineers in soil mechanics and geotechnical engineering.

These proceedings are dedicated to Professor Geoffrey E. Blight (1934-2013), who passed in November 2013.

Preface xix

Organization xxi

Obituary xxiii

**VOLUME 1**

*Plenary lectures*

Possible frost heave mechanisms in an unsaturated high-speed railway formation

D. Sheng, G. Zhao, S. Zhang & F. Niu

Highly expansive granular mixtures

E.E. Alonso, N. Pinyol & C. Hoffmann

Validating the effective stress principle in unsaturated soil using non-failure tests

N. Lu

*Semi plenary lectures*

Some issues in hydro-mechanical behaviour of unsaturated soils and its modelling

De’an Sun, Y. Gao & J. Zhang

Raw earth construction: Is there a role for unsaturated soil mechanics?

D. Gallipoli, A.W. Bruno, C. Perlot & N. Salmon

Expansive clays, collapsing sands, unbound pavement materials and unsaturated soil theory

D.A. Cameron

Use of the yield pressure to interpret pressuremeter results in unsaturated soil

G.A. Miller

Characterization of unsaturated properties of recycled materials

H. Rahardjo, A. Satyanaga, E.C. Leong & J.-Y. Wang

Response of intermediate unsaturated soils under suction-controlled plane strain conditions: A preliminary investigation

J.A. Cruz, L.R. Hoyos & A. Lizcano

Unsaturated issues in claystones

P. Delage

Matrix suction and shear strength of unsaturated clay

S. Frydman & R. Baker

On the hydro-mechanical behavior of unsaturated soils in railway sub-structures

Y.J. Cui

*Fundamentals*

Role of matric suction on wetting-induced collapse settlement of silty sand

A.T.M.Z. Rabbi, D.A. Cameron & M.M. Rahman

Investigation of the directional dependence of soil resistivity in cracking clays

A.A. Hassan & D.G. Toll

Physical effects of liquid-vapor water transition in unsaturated soils

B. Pelizzari, J. Monnet, B. Loret, D. Mahmutovic, O. Plé, L. Boutonnier & J.-F. Daïan

Research on stress state variables of unsaturated soil

B. Qin & Z.H. Chen

Study on mechanical behavior of non-wettable sands

B.S. Kim, Y. Takeshita, S. Kato & S.W. Park

The principle of effective stress in unsaturated soil mechanics and its limitations

C.G. Zhao, Z.Z. Liu & G.Q. Cai

Necessary conditions for the critical state of unsaturated soils

C.G. Zhao, S. Asreazad, J. Li & G.Q. Cai

Exploiting suction to reduce embodied carbon in geotechnical structures

D. McIntyre & A. Tarantino

Projections of climate change on the behaviour of clays in the UK

D. Clarke & J.A. Smethurst

Interpretation of stresses and strains in unsaturated fine-grained soils

E.J. Murray, D.G. Toll & V. Sivakumar

Pore-water pressure development of a quasi-saturated compacted residual soil

G.G. Carnero & F.A.M. Marinho

Examination of effective stress and determination of state surface of unsaturated clayey silt by using suction controlled consolidometer test

H. Suzuki & Y. Okano

On controlling influence of the line of optimums on the compacted clayey soil behavior

J. Kodikara, T. Islam, S. Wijesooriya, H. Bui & B.C. Burman

A modified form of Terzaghi’s effective stress principle of unsaturated expansive clays

J. Mainka, C. Moyne, M.A. Murad & S.A. Lima

Effects of wetting on mechanical behavior and particle crushing of a mudstone particle mixture

J.-J. Wang, M.-W. Liu, H.-P. Zhang, D.-Y. Wang & W.-J. Deng

Principle of effective stress for unsaturated soils

L.T. Shao, G. Zheng, X.X. Guo & G. Liu

Experimental study on the relationship of mechanic and hydraulic state variables, and the dielectric properties of clays

M. Schwing, Z. Chen, A. Scheuermann, D.J. Williams & N. Wagner

Characterization of time-dependent contact angles for oleic acid mixed sands with different particle size fractions

Y.N.S. Wijewardana, K. Kawamoto, T. Komatsu, S. Hamamoto, S. Subedi & P. Moldrup

Characterization of the effect of disturbance on the hydro-mechanical behavior of a highly collapsible loessial soil

S. Mohsen Haeri, A. Khosravi, S. Ghaizadeh, A. Akbari Garakani & C.L. Meehan

Fundamental concepts of the mechanics of unsaturated soils

V.Y. Katte & G.E. Blight

Hydro-mechanical behaviour of unsaturated soils

V. Sivakumar & N. Vimalan

Effect of confining pressure and degree of saturation on damping ratios of sand

Z.Y. Cheng & E.C. Leong

*Constitutive modelling*

Influence of compaction procedure on elastic anisotropy

A.M. Hasan & S.J. Wheeler

An improved modeling of hydro-mechanical behavior of unsaturated compacted soils

C. Yang, C.S. Yang & X.F. Liu

Swelling of compacted expansive clays interpreted in terms of Tezaghi effective stress

D. Mašín & N. Khalili

A model for weakly unsaturated soils taking into account the three phases (air, water and soil)

D. Mahmutovic, J. Monnet, B. Loret, O. Plé, B. Pelizzari, L. Boutonnier & B.T. Lai

Inception of strain localization in variably saturated soils

D. Perić, G. Zhao & N. Khalili

Elastoplastic framework for the volumetric behavior of unsaturated soils

E. Rojas, H. Arroyo & M.L. Pérez-Rea

Elastoplastic framework to simulate the collapse of soils

E. Rojas, H. Arroyo & M.L. Pérez-Rea

A multiphase constitutive modeling framework for unsaturated soil behavior

G.D. Nguyen & Y. Gan

A simple model for prediction of the modulus of elasticity of unsaturated expansive soils

H.H. Adem & S.K. Vanapalli

Bounding Surface Plasticity (BSP) approach to model behaviour of unsaturated soils using a non-associative flow rule

H. Wong, B.T. Lai, A. Fabbri, D. Branque & M. Morvan

Modelling wetting collapse behaviour in unsaturated granite residual soil

M.J. Md. Noor & I.B.M. Jais

A constitutive model of unsaturated expansive soils considering influences of capillary and adsorptive components of matric suction

J. Li, C.G. Zhao, Y. Liu & G.Q. Cai

Influence of stress variables on constitutive modeling for unsaturated soils

J.S. Li, J.F. Yang, G.L. Ye, A.M. Liu & Y.C. Xing

Patterns of cracking in soils due to drying and wetting cycles

J. Cordero, A. Cuadrado, A. Ledesma & P.C. Prat

Nonlinear ground response analysis of unsaturated soil deposits

M. Biglari, I. Ashayeri & F. Fouladi

Incremental stress-strain and suction-degree of saturation formulation in unsaturated soils

M. Lloret-Cabot & D. Sheng

A new model adapted for unsaturated soils taking cyclic loading into account

M. Morvan, B. Chevalier & P. Breul

Discussion on the introduction of suction in an existing model

M. Morvan, B. Chevalier, H. Wong & D. Branque

Discussion on the integration of the complex hydromechanical coupling in a model adapted for unsaturated soils

M. Morvan, B. Chevalier, P. Breul, H. Wong & D. Dranque

Prediction of stress strain response by rotational multiple yield surface framework for unsaturated granite residual soil

M.J. Md. Noor & I.B.M. Jais

An elasto-plastic model for unsaturated soils with evolving anisotropy

M.A. Al-Sharrad & D. Gallipoli

Multi-scale analysis of the swelling and shrinkage of a lime-treated expansive clayey soil

O. Cuisinier, F. Masrouri, G. Stoltz & G. Russo

A compressibility framework to describe the volume change behaviour of unsaturated clayey soils

P. Sitarenios & M. Kavvadas

Directional plastic flow and stress increment dependencies: Experimental study on variably saturated soils

S. Zargarbashi & N. Khalili

Stress integration schemes for unsaturated soils

W.T. Sołowski & S.W. Sloan

Model predictions of hydro-mechanical coupling in unsaturated crushable soils

Y.D. Zhang & G. Buscarnera

*Numerical modelling*

Multi-objective management of unconfined aquifer considering the unsaturated flow zone

A.A. Javadi & M.S. Hussain

Modelling benchmark of a laboratory test on hydro-mechanical behavior of bentonite

A. Millard, J.D. Barnichon, N. Mokni, K.E. Thatcher, A. Bond & R. Blaheta

Modeling the thermo-mechanical triaxial shearing behavior of unsaturated soils using EPR

A. Ahangar-Asr, A.A. Javadi & N. Khalili

Modeling density effect on hydro-mechanical behavior of unsaturated soils

A.N. Zhou & D. Sheng

Coupling between deformation and flow models in deformable unsaturated soils

A. Khoshghalb & N. Khalili

A preliminary meso-mechanical analysis of effective stress in unsaturated soil

G. Zhao & N. Khalili

Modeling rainfall infiltration through coarse and fine-grained unsaturated geomaterials

G. Rotisciani, A. Desideri, G. Sciarra & F. Casini

Numerical analysis of unsaturated excavation by using suction stress

J. Zhou, B. Liu & X.-Y. Xie

Modelling soil water redistribution in unsaturated zone during evaporation process

J. Teng, N. Yasufuku, R. Ishikura & Z. Jiang

Compaction simulation with soil/water/air coupled FEA code and parametric study

K. Kawai, V. Phommachanh, S. Sakamoto & A. Iizuka

Obtaining factors of safety from a finite element analysis of unsaturated soils

L. Zdravković, D.M. Potts & A. Tsiampousi

Equivalent linear site response analysis of partially saturated sand layers

M. Ghayoomi & M. Mirshekari

Modeling the formation and propagation of desiccation cracks in soils

M. Sánchez, O. Manzoli & L. Guimarães

Consolidation analysis of unsaturated double porosity media

S. Salimzadeh & N. Khalili

EFG mesh-less method for coupled hydro-mechanical analysis of unsaturated porous media

S. Samimi & A. Pak

Numerical simulation of mechanical behavior of a triaxial silty soil under undrained and various controlled air boundary conditions

T. Yoshikawa & T. Noda

Three-phase coupled analysis of unsaturated embankment subjected to rainfall infiltration and seismic motion

T. Matsumaru & R. Uzuoka

The influence of time unit and element size with the numerical result of soil-water-air coupled unsaturated seepage analysis

T. Mori, M. Kazama, J. Kim & R. Uzuoka

Verification of a new soil-water-air coupled analysis based on a rate-type equation of motion through realization of uniform deformation of an unsaturated soil specimen

T. Noda & T. Yoshikawa

Application of soil/water/air coupled F.E. code to predict seepage and deformation on sandy slope

V. Phommachanh, N. Matsuo, K. Ienaga, K. Kawai, A. Iizuka & B. Tiwari

Mesh size dependent process of wetting front advancing in unsaturated soil column

X. Zhao, X. Li, J. Liu & X. Chen

A FE analysis on slope failure in unsaturated ground based on soil-water-air fully coupling theory

Y.L. Xiong, F. Zhang, X.H. Bao & B. Ye

A constitutive model for coupled thermo-hydro-mechanical analysis of multiphase flow in local thermal non-equilibrium in fractured media

Y. Bai & N. Khalili

Numerical evaluation for performance of a capillary barrier system

Y. Sugiyama, S. Nomura, K. Kawai & M. Mimura

Numerical evaluation of a multiple soil barrier system preventing water infiltration

Y. Takayama, Y. Ikuta, A. Iizuka, K. Kawai, T. Taki, R. Sakao & Y. Ichikawa

*Micro and macro structure*

Microstructural analysis of water retention property for a cemented dredged material

A.C.F. Chiu & X. Hu

An X-Ray CT imaging of water absorption process of soft rocks

A. Sato & Ö. Aydan

Influence of microfabric evolution on the retention behaviour of compacted clayey soils

A.C. Dieudonné, G.D. Vecchia, R. Charlier & C. Jommi

An approach to detect micro- and macro-porosity from MIP data

B.C.F.L. Lopes, M.P. Cordão Neto & A. Tarantino

Sand mixture density 691

E. Imre, M. Hazay, M. Juhász, J. Lőrincz, K. Rajkai, T. Schanz, Y. Lins & Zs. Hortobágyi

Qualitative and quantitative investigation of soils and porous rocks by using very high resolution X-ray micro-CT imaging

G. Zacher, T. Paul, M. Halisch & P. Westenberger

An investigation into unsaturated states of granular media using X-ray computed tomography

S. Salager, G. Khaddour, J. Desrues & P. Charrier

Experimental and modelling issues in unsaturated soils mechanics: Role of microstructure

J.M. Pereira, J.F. Bruchon, M. Vandamme, N. Lenoir, P. Delage & M. Bornert

The use of XRCT to investigate highly unsaturated soil mixtures

J.C. Smith, C.E. Augarde & C.T.S. Beckett

Macro and microstructure of Guadalquivir blue marls in cyclic suction-controlled drying and wetting test

M. Vázquez-Boza, J.L. Justo, P. Durand & A. Morales-Esteban

Observation of soil curling using 2D laser scanner

M. Zielinski, M. Sanchez, E. Romero & A. Atique

Microstructural interpretation of compression behaviour of compacted kaolin clay

M. Pedrotti & A. Tarantino

*Small strain and dynamic response*

Role of the compaction energy level on the small strain stiffness of a silty sand soil subjected to wetting and drying

A. Heitor, B. Indraratna & C. Rujikiatkamjorn

Large deformation dynamic analysis of unsaturated soils

B.S. Khan, G.A. Esgandani & N. Khalili

Constitutive model for unsaturated fine-grained soils incorporating small strain stiffness

K.S. Wong & D. Mašín

Small-strain shear stiffness of compacted clays: Initial state and microstructural features

J. Suriol, E. Romero, A. Lloret & J. Vaunat

Effect of wetting and drying paths on the resilient modulus of a compacted soil

R.C. Weber, W.Y.Y. Gehling & W.P. Núñez

Effect of pore air pressure on cyclic behavior of unsaturated sandy soil

R. Uzuoka, T. Unno, N. Sento & M. Kazama

Influence of seepage event on cyclic triaxial behavior of a compacted, unsaturated soil

T. Nishimura

Semi-empirical model for predicting the resilient modulus of unsaturated fine-grained soils

Z. Han & S.K. Vanapalli

*Thermal effects—desiccation*

Refinements in the theory to predict actual evaporation

D. Tran, D.G. Fredlund, D.H. Chan & W.G. Wilson

Temperature effect on the mechanical parameters of a clayey compacted soil

H. Eslami, S. Rosin-Paumier, A. Abdallah & F. Masrouri

Crack formation in clayey geomaterials subjected to tensile (total) stress

I. Murray, A. Tarantino & F. Francescon

Desiccation cracking in clay forms subjected to non-uniform hydraulic and mechanical boundary conditions

I. Murray, A. Tarantino, P. Gérard & F. Francescon

Unsaturated soil mechanics in geothermal energy applications

J.S. McCartney, C.J.R. Coccia, N.A. Alsherif, M.A. Stewart, T. Baser, T. Traore & J.C. Goode III

Water retention and thermal properties of nearly saturated Boom Clay

L.Q. Dao, P. Delage, Y.J. Cui, A.M. Tang, X.L. Li & X. Sillen

Variation of total suction of a clayey soil with temperature

M.A. Ali, R.M. Singh, A. Bouazza, W.P. Gates & R.K. Rowe

Behaviour of a bentonite barrier under thermal and hydraulic gradients: FEBEX mock-up test, 16 years of operation P.L. Martín, J.M. Barcala & M.V. Villar

Numerical investigation of desiccation cracking in fine-grained soil using a lattice spring model

Y. Gui, G. Zhao & N. Khalili

*Shrink—swell*

Laboratory tests on swelling due to crystal growth in sulphate bearing rocks

A. Deu, E. Romero, À. Plaza & I.R. Berdugo

Crystal growth and soil expansion: The role of interfacial pressure and pore structure

A. Ramon & E.E. Alonso

Multi-scale study of desiccation shrinkage in granular soils

H. Bista, L.B. Hu, B. Mielniczuk, M.S. El Youssoufi, L. Laloui & T. Hueckel

Relationship between swelling pressures determined by constant volume and consolidation-swell oedometer tests

J.D. Nelson & K.C. Chao

Effect of coal addition on the swelling potential of a weathered claystone

J. Johnston, S. Fityus & O. Buzzi

Wetting induced volume change behavior of compacted expansive soil with different initial state

J. Zhang & W.L. Zou

Quantifying shrink-swell capacity of soil using soil moisture sorption isotherms

L.D. Rivera, D.R. Cobos, C.S. Campbell, C.L.S. Morgan & W.J. Likos

Biological treatment of swelling soils using microbial calcite precipitation

M. Sadjadi, E. Nikooee & G. Habibagahi

Deformation of compacted bentonite due to changes in relative humidity

T. Nishimura & J. Koseki

Influence of stress-volume path on swelling behavior of an expansive clay

X.F. Liu, O.P. Buzzi & J. Vaunat

Author index

**VOLUME 2**

**Water retention characteristics**

Voids ratio dependent soil-water characteristic curves: Theoretical derivations using fractals

A.R. Russell

Study of SWCC modeling parameters with variation in swelling behavior and mineralogy of four compacted expansive clays

A. Pedarla, A.J. Puppala, L.R. Hoyos, C.E. Zapata & B. Chittoori

Generating accurate soil water characteristic curves over the full range of soil suction by combining the Wind-Schindler and dewpoint hygrometer techniques

C.S. Campbell, D.R. Cobos, L.D. Rivera & G.S. Campbell

Development of a hysteretic soil-water retention model using an optimisation technique

D.M.G. Taborda & A. Tsiampousi

SWCC measurement of two types of iron ore fines

H. Wang, J. Koseki & T. Nishimura

On the effects of density on water retention properties of expanded perlite

M. Caruso & D. Sterpi

Retention curves of bentonite under a microstructural perspective

M.V. Villar, R. Gómez-Espina, R. Campos, L. Gutiérrez-Nebot & I. Barrios

Soil water retention curves of a compacted soil used as liner of a sanitary landfill

M.A.G. Leme & M.G. Miguel

Evaluation of a geosynthetic clay liner water retention curve using vapour equilibrium technique

M.A. Rouf, R.M. Singh, A. Bouazza, W.P. Gates & R.K. Rowe

The water retention properties of the Callovo-Oxfordian claystone

M. Wan, P. Delage, A.M. Tang & J. Talandier

Effect of adding natural clay on the water retention curve of sand-bentonite mixtures

M.A. Dafalla & A.M. Al-Mahbashi

Effects of hydration fluid on moisture-suction relationships for geosynthetic clay liners

N. Yesiller, J.L. Risken, J.L. Hanson & J.B. Darius

Variability in Soil-Water Characteristic Curve associated with fitting parameters

Q. Zhai & H. Rahardjo

Water retention behavior of deformable soils—experiment and modeling

S. Salager, M. Nuth, A. Ferrari & L. Laloui

*Unsaturated flow and hydraulic conductivity*

A conceptual model for water-limited evapotranspiration taking into account root depth, root density, and vulnerability to xylem cavitation

A. Amabile, B. Balzano, M. Caruso & A. Tarantino

Dynamics of water movements with reversals in unsaturated soils

A. Scheuermann, S.A. Galindo-Torres, D.M. Pedroso, D.J. Williams & L. Li

Characterisation of the hydraulic behaviour of coarse-grained flood embankment materials

A. Pozzato & A. Tarantino

Hydration kinetics of compacted low-density bentonite1

A.C. Dieudonné, R. Charlier & E. Romero

Underlying parameters affecting estimation of unsaturated permeability of soils

A. Rahimi, H. Rahardjo & E.C. Leong

Rate of capillary rise in a column of uniform sized spheres

E.C. Leong & W. Huang

Comparison of 1D and 2D infiltration results using unsaturated transparent soil

G.A. Siemens & C.P. Oldroyd

Predicting the dependency of a permeability function on initial density for unsaturated soils

G.Q. Cai, A.N. Zhou & D. Sheng

Probabilistic model to predict soil-water characteristics on unsaturated soils

H. Arroyo, E. Rojas, M.L. Pérez-Rea, J. Horta & J. Arroyo

Hydraulic conductivity from soil-water characteristic curves with hysteresis

H. Yang, A. Khoshghalb & A.R. Russell

Inverse analysis to estimate hydraulic properties of unsaturated soil

S. Hosung

Assessment of soil texture influence on nitrates leachability in unsaturated soils

I. Popescu, Gy. Deák & G. Dorobantu

Experimental study of brown coal hydraulic behavior at low confining stress

K. Liu, R. Mackay, J. Xue & A. Tolooiyan

An experimental study on pore-air behavior during water seepage process in unsaturated soil

K. Kamiya & S. Yamada

Determination of unsaturated permeability function for clayey silt

N. Ebrahimi-Birang & D.G. Fredlund

Evaluation of the method of determining unsaturated hydraulic conductivity based on the pore size distribution curve

T.T.H. Nguyen, Y.J. Cui, A.M. Tang, G. Herrier, V. Ferber, C. Mauduit & F. Plier

Experiences with unsaturated flow modeling and unsaturated flow property determination for expansive clays

S. Houston & B. Welfert

Determination of the unsaturated hydraulic conductivity of clayey soil columns using Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI)

S. Rosin-Paumier, S. Leclerc, A. Abdallah & D. Stemmelen

Gas flow in variable permeability porous media

S. Olivella, J. Alcoverro & E.E. Alonso

The modified van Genuchten-Mualem model on Hydraulic Conductivity to improve reliability and numerical stability near saturation

S. Oh & Y.K. Kim

Derivation of mass transfer model for unsaturated soil and its applications

S. Nomura, Y. Sugiyama, K. Kawai & A. Iizuka

Evaluation on air-permeability of unsaturated soils subjected to freeze-thaw action

T. Ishikawa, T. Tokoro, D. Nakamura & S. Yamashita

Estimation and observation of water diversion in capillary barrier of soil

T. Morii, K. Kobayashi, K. Matsumoto & K. Taguchi

Influence of Fredlund-Xing-Kunze hydraulic models for the prediction of flow through unsaturated soils

T.V. Bharat

Swelling characteristics and permeability of bentonite

W.J. Sun, S.Q. Liu, D.A. Sun & L. Fang

Discrete microbubbles flow in transparent porous media

Y. Ma, G. Yan, A. Scheuermann, L. Li, S.A. Galindo-Torres & D. Bringemeier

*Slope stability*

Effect of dual-porosity material on stability of slope during rainfall

A. Satyanaga, H. Rahardjo, E.C. Leong, Y.H. Chia & J.-Y. Wang

Evaluating slope stability with respect to pore-water pressure and suction variation with rainfall: A case study of fill granitic slope in northern Thailand

A. Jotisankasa, K. Mahannopkul & A. Sawangsuriya

Infiltration and stability of soil slope with vetiver grass subjected to rainfall from numerical modeling

A. Jotisankasa, W. Mairaing & S. Tansamrit

A numerical study of hydrological effects of vegetation on slope stability

B. Balzano, A. Amabile, M. Caruso & A. Tarantino

The mechanism of soil moisture contents in a slope gully during rainfall

C.-C. Fan & H.-Z. Wang

Stability analysis of high steep saturated-unsaturated loess slope

H.J. Liao, C.M. Ning, X.P. Shan, Z.Y. Ma & F.Y. Liu

Implementation of coupled finite element analysis for partially saturated soil slope stability

J. Kim, S.W. Park & R.A. Regueiro

Slope stability analysis by considering unsaturated seepage force in unsaturated slope

K. Sako, M. Tabata, R. Kitamura & M. Niisaka

Reliability analysis of rainfall induced slope instability of unsaturated soil slopes

M.K. Sahis, G. Bhattacharya & R. Chowdhury

Experimental study on the initiation of debris flow

W. Hu, Q. Xu & T.W.J. van Asch

*Shear strength*

Unsaturated shear strength prediction of highly expansive soil

A.M. Al-Mahbashi & T.Y. Elkady

Modification of relative humidity and soil resistance at ground surface

D. Tran, D.G. Fredlund & D.H. Chan

The relationship between unconfined compressive strength and matric suction of compacted Khon Kaen Loess

R. Nuntasarn

Matric suction and shear strength of dynamically compacted soils

R. Kizza, E.C. Leong & H. Rahardjo

Generalized sensitivity for unsaturated cohesive soils

S.J. Shao, Q. Wang & W. Zheng

Unsaturated shear strength of coal mine spoil

S. Fityus, H. Robertson, L. Bradfield & J. Simmons

Experimental study and evaluation of shear behavior of unsaturated soil-steel interfaces

Y. Liang, C.-X. Wang, G.-C. He & S.-L. Zhou

Shearing behavior and modeling of disturbed volcanic cohesive soil considering dependence of hydraulic hysteresis on void ratio

Y. Kiyohara & M. Kazama

*Field studies*

Field monitoring of seasonal ground movements in expansive soils in Melbourne

A.M.A.N. Karunarathne, S. Sivanerupan, E.F. Gad, M.M. Disfani, J.L. Wilson & J. Li

Analysis of the effects of the partial saturation on the Adige river embankment stability

A. Pozzato, A. Tarantino & F. De Polo

Effects of grass on induced soil suction during Evapotranspiration and ponding

A.K. Leung, K.X. Woon & C.W.W. Ng

Improvement of expansive soil of East Java, Indonesia by using the industrial solid waste

A. Rachmansyah

Excavation damaged zone modelling including hydraulic permeability evolution in unsaturated argilaceous rock

B. Pardoen, S. Levasseur & F. Collin

Himes and Johnson Street subgrade soil analysis

C.R. Clarke, J.B. Nevels Jr. & A.S. Cabrera

Soil moisture profile of a water-shedding cover design in central Queensland

C. Gonzales, T. Baumgartl, A. Scheuermann & A. Soliman

Soil-atmosphere interaction in a slope affected by shallow landslides: An example in Northern Italy

C. Meisina, M. Bordoni, D. Zizioli, S. Chersich, R. Valentino & M. Bittelli

On the role of geotechnical properties on the response of shafts realized by the sequential excavation method in unsaturated soils

C.C. Dias, A.T. Gomes & J. Vaunat

In-situ and laboratory measurements of coal matrix and cleat permeability

J. Busse, A. Scheuermann, S.A. Galindo-Torres, D. Bringemeier & L. Li

The change of matric suction due to heavy vehicle crossing

J. Grabe & M. Milatz

Field monitoring of an experimental embankment constructed with two treated fine-grained soils

K.V. Bicalho, L.C. Araujo, B.T. Dantas, Y.J. Cui, A.M. Tang, M. Froumentin & D. Mercadier

Studies on the inhibitory effect by various adaptation measures for red soil runoff from farmland on field tests

K. Araki, K. Okumura, N. Yasufuku & K. Omine

Fully coupled flow-deformation analyses of infiltration and matric suctions within a tropical soil slope

M.S. Md. Rahim & D.G. Toll

Rainfall-induced landslides: Development of a simple screening tool based on rainfall data and unsaturated soil mechanics principles

M. Suradi, A. Fourie, C. Beckett & O. Buzzi

Experimental arguments concerning a hydraulic connection layer during limestone convective drying

N. Prime, Z. Housni, L. Fraikin, A. Léonard, R. Charlier, F. Collin & S. Levasseur

Comparison of field and laboratory data in relation to cover design on TSF closure

P.J. Chapman & D.J. Williams

Excavation damaged zone under imbibition: Evidence of self-sealing into claystone

R. de La Vaissière, G. Armand & J. Talandier

Cone Penetration Testing in unsaturated soils at two instrumented test sites

R. Collins & G.A. Miller

Modeling field load tests in lateritic unsaturated soil

R.A. Rodrigues, G.B. Georgetti & O.M. Vilar

Cyclic relationship between saturation and tensile strength in the near-surface zone of infrastructure embankments

R.A. Stirling, P.N. Hughes, C.T. Davie & S. Glendinning

Field monitoring of a highway cut slope for rain-induced instability

S.J. Harris, R.P. Orense & K. Itoh

Compression-induced saturation in coal mine spoil piles

S. Fityus, H. Robertson & J. Simmons

Slope stability analysis for Champlain sea clay deposits using the mechanics of unsaturated soils

W.T. Oh, S.K. Vanapalli & M. Sheikhtaheri

*Instrumentation and experimental techniques*

Measurement of pore water pressure properties of unsaturated brown coal using triaxial test

C. Couling, A. Tolooiyan, R. Mackay & J. Xue

Measurement of tensile strength of clayey soil during drying and cracking

C.S. Tang, D.Y. Wang, J. Li & B. Shi

High pressure triaxial cell for thermal volume change measurements of unsaturated soils

C.J.R. Coccia & J.S. McCartney

Laboratory compression of scalped coal mine spoil materials tested under dry and wet conditions

D.J. Williams & A.K. Kho

Coupled effects of suction and degree of saturation on large strain shear modulus of unsaturated sands

F. Jafarzadeh, A. Ahmadinezhad & H. Sadeghi

The use of mini-vane test to infer the undrained shear of a compacted residual soil under suction

F.A.M. Marinho & N.E.C. Vilcanqui

Establishment of water retention properties of granite saw dust using ultracentrifuge 1571

B. Hanumantha Rao, S. Kumar & S. Ghosh

Validity of a making method for a homogeneous specimen using micro-wave due to examine accurate mechanical properties of unsaturated clay

H. Suzuki & Y. Okano

Comparison of tensiometer, thermal conductivity and capacitance sensor measurements of pore water pressure in compacted clay columns

I.G.B. Indrawan, D.J. Williams & A. Scheuermann

Mechanical behavior of unsaturated argillaceous rocks under uniaxial compression through acoustic emission

J.M. Espitia & B. Caicedo

Photogrammetry for volume change measurement in unsaturated soil tests

B.J.M. Lim & E.C. Leong

Performance of the University of Newcastle high capacity tensiometers

J. Mendes & O. Buzzi

New triaxial device for unsaturated soils with local measurements

J.A. Muñoz-Castelblanco, P. Delage, J.M. Pereira & Y.J. Cui

Digital image technique for deformation measurement of unsaturated soil specimen in triaxial test

L.T. Shao, X. Liu, X.X. Guo, Y.L. Liu, C. Huang & J. Xue

Triaxial and simple shear tests on unsaturated sand specimens with negative pore water pressures

M. Milatz & J. Grabe

CRS compression tests of an unsaturated kaolin with pore-water pressure measurement

M. Wijaya, E.C. Leong & H. Rahardjo

Effective stress behavior in triaxial K0 consolidation on unsaturated soil

M. Shimizu, K. Nakamura, K. Shimogaki & K. Omichi

Experience gained from the conditioning of high-capacity tensiometers

M. Pedrotti, A. Tarantino & F. Boeck

Collapse of coarse-grained materials due to inundation under one-dimensional compression conditions

M.E. Bardanis

Calibration procedure for osmotic suction controlled testing

M.F. Abbas, T.Y. Elkady & M.A. Al-Shamrani

Interpretation of the cone penetration test in unsaturated sands

M. Pournaghiazar, A.R. Russell & N. Khalili

Removal of leached metals from flooded/drained contaminated soils using zeolites

R. Balint, I. Popescu & F. Ajmone-Marsan

Freezing-thawing tests on natural pyroclastic samples

R.R. Peláez, F. Casini, E. Romero, A. Gens & G.M.B. Viggiani

Determination of moisture content and soil suction in engineered fills using electrical resistivity

R.M. Hen-Jones, P.N. Hughes, S. Glendinning, D.A. Gunn, J.C. Chambers,

P.B. Wilkinson & S. Uhlemann

Soil-water characteristic curves from various laboratory techniques

S. Tripathy, H. Elgabu & H.R. Thomas

Effect of moisture content on thermal conductivity of soils

T. Tokoro, S. Shirai, T. Nakamura & T. Ishikawa

Development of facility and testing procedures to investigate retaining wall-unsaturated soil interactions

T. Vo & A.R. Russell

Response of tensiometers to laboratory thunder sound replicated waves

T.S. Carnavale, T.M.P. de Campos & A.R.M.B. de Oliveira

Strength/volume change behaviour of compacted silty sand using a novel double-walled suction-controlled triaxial system

U.D. Patil, A.J. Puppala & L.R. Hoyos

Gas transport properties of compacted bentonite

V. Gutiérrez-Rodrigo, M.V. Villar, P.L. Martín & F.J. Romero

Determination of the modulus of elasticity and suction modulus of compacted unsaturated expansive clay from Nanyang, China

W.L. Zou, J. Zhang & S.K. Vanapalli

Simultaneous and continuous measurements of thermal and hydrological properties of sand using Transient Release and Imbibition Method

Y. Dong, N. Lu, A. Wayllace & K. Smits

*Retaining structures, foundations and pavements*

Application of limit analysis in unsaturated soils: Numerical and experimental study of bearing capacity

B.J. Shwan & C.C. Smith

Analytical solution for one-dimensional consolidation of unsaturated soil deposit subjected to step loading

L. Ho, B. Fatahi & H. Khabbaz

In situ measurement of steel push-piles and helical piers in expansive soils

J.D. Nelson, Z.P. Fox & E.J. Nelson

Revetment walls for stiff unsaturated clays

J.A. Woodburn & R.A. Herraman

Lateral pressures on soil nail walls supporting high plasticity clays

N. Yelti, A. Elmore, M. Diaz, A.T. Papagiannakis & S. Bin-Shafique

Modeling the p-δ behavior of single friction pile in compacted fine-grained soils

Z.N.T. Kutlu, S.K. Vanapalli & Z. Han

Application of the unsaturated soil mechanics in the design of pavements

S.K. Vanapalli & Z. Han

Slip line theory extended to unsaturated soils and applied to the retaining wall—unsaturated soil interaction problem

T. Vo & A.R. Russell

Mechanisms of rainfall induced differential settlements in unsaturated heterogeneous foundations

T.M.H. Le, D. Gallipoli, M. Sanchez & S.J. Wheeler

Author index

### Biography

Nasser Khalili, Adrian Russell, Arman Khoshghalb