1st Edition

Update on Strabismus and Pediatric Ophthalmology Proceedings of the June, 1994 Joint ISA and AAPO&S Meeting, Vancouver, Canada

By Gunnar Lennerstrand, Shinobu Awaya Copyright 1995
    752 Pages 5 B/W Illustrations
    by CRC Press

    This book provides useful information on new observations and therapeutic approaches to common problems encountered in strabismus and pediatric ophthalmology. It also discusses the ocular findings in a number of rare conditions.
    All aspects of pediatric ophthalmology are addressed. The book describes a new strabismic condition and provides updates on research in the development of normal and abnormal monocular and binocular vision, and in ocular motility. All different strabismus types and their characterizations are covered, as well as nystagmus and other ocular motor disorders. The latest advances in relevant surgical and pharmacological management are discussed. Recent research on diseases of the lacrimal system, the anterior segment, cataracts, posterior segment, and neuro-ophthalmology is extensively covered.
    Update on Strabismus and Pediatric Ophthalmology presents the proceedings of the joint meeting of the VIIth Congress of the International Strabismological Association (ISA) and the 20th Annual Meeting of the American Association for Pediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus (AAPO&S). The meeting had more than 750 participants, making it the largest conference ever held in the field of strabismus and pediatric ophthalmology.

    Vision. Refraction. Amblyopia
    Evaluating the Optical Status of the Human Eye, S.H. Hay, P. Reiner, and R. Bryant
    Inter-Observer Variability of Cycloplegic Refraction in Children, S. Jamal and G.R. LaRoche
    The Variability of Ophthalmological Parameters in Normal Children Age 4 1/2 to 5 1/2 Years, S. Lam, G.R. LaRoche, I. De Becker, H. Macpherson, and Members of the Vision Screening Group
    Polaroid Photoscreening: A New Model and Interpretation Standards, H.L. Freedman and L. Griffin
    The Results of Russel Corporation-Sponsored Eye Screenings in 14,000 Children, K.S. Morgan and J.C. Kennemer
    Deficiencies of the Fixation Mechanism, J. Lang and P. Bischoff
    Photopic Visual Field in 2-Month-Old Infants, A. Fea, M. Delpiano, A. Soldi, M. Musso, E. Miraglia, C. Martano, L. Mayer, and F. Vitale Brovarone
    A Sweep VEP Test for Color Deficits in Infants and Children, T.D. France and J.N. Ver Hoeve
    Changes in Corneal Topography after Strabismus Surgery in Children, X.-H. Wang, M.E. Wilson, and E.L.C. Bluestein
    Longitudinal Changes of Refractive Error in Esotropic Operated and Unoperated Young Children, M. Spiritus, O. Kallay Jr., C. Denis, M. Van den Broeck, and D. Hoffmann
    Focal Macular ERG in Amblyopia: With Special Reference to the Difference between Hypermetropic Anisometropia and Myopic Anisometropia, S. Awaya, H. Tanaka, Y. Miyake, T. Yagasaki, N. Nakamura, and Y. Suzuki
    Efficiency of Preferential Looking Test and PVEP in Detecting Amblyopia in Infants with or without Mental Handicaps, M.S. Roy, M. Barsoum-Homsy, L.M. Khouri, and C. Tremblay
    A Comparative Study of Near and Distant Visual Acuity in Amblyopic Eyes, W. Haase, B. Schmal, B. Damashke, and E. Meyer
    Citicoline Improves Temporarily Visual Acuity of Amblyopic Patients outside the Plastic Period of the Visual System, E.C. Campos, C. Schiavi, P. Benedetti, and R. Bolzani
    Steroid Injection vs. Conservative Treatment of Anisometropic Amblyopia in Juvenile Adnexal Hemangioma, M.V. Motwani, J.W. Simon, J.D. Pickering, R.A. Catalano, and P.L. Jenkins
    Using an Occluder Contact Lens for Amblyopia Management, C.G. Summers, L.K. Davis, and J.E. Egbert
    Binocular Vision
    The Physiology of Suppression in Strabismus, R. Harrad, F. Sengpiel, and C. Blakemore
    Neuroanatomic Abnormalities of Visual Cortex in Infantile Esotropia, L. Tychsen and A. Burkhalter
    Fly Test Calibrated, W. de Decker, E. Dannheim, and R. Gockeln
    Preliminary Evaluation of a Newly Designed Random-Dot Stereogram, L.L.-K. Lin, S.-F. Wu, and A.-H. Wang
    Binocular Sensory Testing, B.W. Arthur
    Cortical Binocular Recovery following Strabismus Surgery, L.W. Baitch and M.W. Preslan
    The Relationship between the Angle of Strabismus and Degree of Binocularity in the Monofixation Syndrome, Y.-B. Roh and S.J. Isenberg
    Observation of Retinal Correspondence in Esotropia, M. Mitta, F. Takahashi, K. Kani, and A. Inatomi
    Distance Stereo Acuity Improvement in Intermittent Exotropic Patients following Surgery, T.D. O'Neal, A.L. Rosenbaum, and R.A. Stathacopoulos
    Discussion of: Distance Stereo Acuity Improvement in Intermittent Exotropic Patients following Strabismus Surgery, D.L. Guyton
    Abnormal Motion Perception in Early Onset Esotropia, S. Hague, J. Shallo-Hoffman, P. Fells, and M. Gresty
    The Use of Bangerter Foils in the Management of Intractable Diplopia, A. McIntrye and P. Fells
    Eye Muscles. Eye Movements. Nystagmus
    The Ultrastructural Immunohistochemistry of Thyroid-Associated Ophthalmopathy, A. Pappa, P.M.G. Munro, R.C. Howes, P. Fells, and S. Lightman
    Electrophysiological, Biochemical, and Morphological Study in External Congenital Ophthalmoplegia, A. Magli, P. Vastarella, T. De Berardinis, F. D'Esposito, L. Santoro, A. Orsini, and R. Nucciotti
    Observation of Extraocular Muscle Atrophy in Cases of Peripheral Nerve Palsy using MRI, Y. Aoki, Y. Nishida, T. Murata, and O. Hayashi
    Cine Magnetic Resonance Imaging of Eye Movements, R. Harrad, M. Potts, R. Goddard, J. Kabala, and B. Hoh
    Modified Periodontal Probe for Simplified Forced Duction Measurements, H.S. Metz and R. Yeaple
    Variations in Medial Rectus Stretching in Esotropia, A. Péchereau, M.A. Quéré, and M. Weber
    The Development of Eye Movements in Infancy, M. Jacobs, C. Harris, and D. Taylor
    Saccadic Velocity Analysis in Patients with Divergence Paralysis, L. Lim, A.L. Rosenbaum, and J.L. Demer
    Saccadic Velocity and Force Development in Duane's Retraction Syndrome Type I, S. Tian and G. Lennerstrand
    Saccadic Adaptation following Adjustable Suture Surgery, R.W. Hertle, D.B. Granet, and M. Movaghar
    Stability of the Eyes in Torsional Direction: Spontaneous Torsional Eye Movements Are Conjugate, L.J. van Rijn, J. van der Steen, and H. Collewijn
    A Combination Horizontal/Vertical Prism Bar, U. Flüeler, K.M. Elhatton, and D.L. Gyuton
    Iris Plane Parallel Measurement in the Hirschberg (Corneal Light Reflection) Test for Binocular Misalignment (Strabometry), P.E. Romano
    Vergence Responses to a Base Out Prism, E. Cornell
    Comparison of Three Standard Clinical Tests and a New Test for the Measurement of Torsional Diplopia, Z. Georgievski
    OKN Asymmetry in Treated Esotropes, K.W. Wright, M. Borchert, A.A. Leverant, and J.-M. Hwang
    Waveforms following Kestenbaum, H.P. Goldstein and R.D. Reinecke
    Surgical Treatment of Exodeviations with Congenital Nystagmus: Problems Related to Deviations with Blocking Convergence and Pseudo-Latent Nystagmus, A. Spielmann and A.C. Spielmann
    Nystagmus Dampening Surgery: Cosmetic or Functional? J.E. Egbert, J.H. Anderson, and C.G. Summers
    Long-Term Evaluation of Extra Ocular Muscle Surgery for Congenital Nystagmus and Abnormal Head Posture, E. Schulz, E. Meyer, W. Haase, and J. Lithander
    The Treatment of Congenital Nystagmus with Botox, J. Carruthers
    Horizontal Strabismus
    Accommodative Amplitude in Children Wearing Bifocals, G.K. von Noorden and R.H. Jenkins
    Discussion of "Effect of Bifocals on Accommodative Range in Children" by G.K. von Noorden and R.H. Jenkins, M.X. Repka
    Hyperopia in Infantile versus Acquired Esotropia: Implication for Glasses Prophylaxis to Prevent Acquired Esotropia, G.W. Cibis and M.A. Crandall
    Progressive Increase in the Angle of Deviation in Congenital Esotropia, M.R. Ing
    Ocular Deviation under Atropine Cycloplegia as a Predictor of the Accommodative Component of Esotropia, P. Nemet
    Prism Adaptation in Variable Esotropia, S.A. Stewart, C.G. Summers, J.D. Lavoie, and J.E. Egbert
    The Influence of the Prism Adaptation Test (PAT) on Surgery for Intermittent Exotropia, S. Véronneau-Troutman, E. Traykovski, and J. DeRosa
    The Correlation between Axial Length and the Response to Strabismus Surgery, M. Gräf, T. Krzizok, and H. Kaufmann
    Relating the Angular Correction to the Amount of Strabismus Surgery, W.E. Gillies, M.R. Rivers, and A.M.V. Brooks
    Results of 8 to 9 mm Bilateral Lateral Muscle Recessions for Exotropia, J.E. Berland, M.E. Wilson, and R.A. Saunders
    Large Bimedial Rectus Recession (6.5 mm or More) in the Management of Large Angle Esotropia, A.A. Assaf
    Long-Term Effectiveness of Bilateral Medial Rectus Recession in Congenital Esotropia and Acquired Accommodative and Nonaccommodative Esotropia, D.V. Bautista, W.E. Scott, B. Zimmerman, and S. Sarin
    Surgical Success in Patients with Acquired Esotropia and High Refractive Error, J. Rysenga, J.D. Baker, J.D. Roarty, J. Petrunak, and M. Schweers
    Alignment Success following Medial Rectus Recessions in Normal and Delayed Children, J.D. Pickering, J.W. Simon, C.D. Ratliff, K.B. Melsopp, and L.L. Lininger
    Predictive Factors for Exotropia following Esotropia Surgery, W.R. Lee, R.V. Keech, and J. Kim
    Vertical Shift of the Medial Rectus Muscles in the Treatment of A-Pattern Esotropia-Analysis of Outcome, S.E. Brooks, G. DeB. Ribeiro, S.M. Archer, and M.A. Del Monte
    Treatment for "A" or "V" Patterns by Slanting Muscle Insertion, B. Biedner and Y. Yassur
    Unilateral Surgery for Exotropia with Convergence Weakness, S.P. Kraft, A.V. Levin, and R.W. Enzenauer
    Anterior Tenonectomy in Horizontal Rectus Muscle Resection: Effect on the Post-Operative Appearance of the Conjunctiva, H. Van Hecke, M.T. Miller, P.K. Rabiah, and S. El-Naggar
    Vertical Rectus Muscle Transposition in Complete VI Cranial Nerve Palsy, V. Sarnicola
    Vertical Strabismus. Oblique Muscles
    The Superior Rectus Contracture Syndrome, A. Jampolsky
    Inferior Tranposition of the Horizontal Recti (Inverse Knapp Procedure) for the Treatment of Acquired Inferior Rectus Paresis, J.P. Burke and R.V. Keech
    An MRI Study of Double Elevator Palsy, W. Cadera, J.N. Bloom, and S. Karlik
    The Spectrum of Anatomic Variations in Congenital Superior Oblique Palsy, C.-Y. Lo and T. Maruo
    Facial Asymmetry and Superior Oblique Tendon Laxity in Superior Oblique Palsy, E.A. Paysse, D.K. Coats, and D.A. Plager
    Should Early Surgery Be Performed for Head Tilts to Prevent Facial Asymmetry? C.R. Goodman, E. Chabner, and D.L. Guyton
    True versus Masquerading Superior Oblique Palsies: Muscle Mechanisms Revealed by Magnetic Resonance Imaging, J.L. Demer, J.M. Miller, E.Y. Koo, A.L. Rosenbaum, and J.B. Bateman
    Superior Oblique Myokymia, J.-T.H.N. de Faber and R.L.J. van Rijn
    The Use of the Computer-Assisted Lancaster Test in the Evaluation of a New Operation for Mild Superior Oblique Palsy, C. González, G. Cinciripini, and R. Sánchez
    Unilateral Modified Harada-Ito Procedure for Excyclotorsion Secondary to Unilateral Superior Oblique Palsy, M.H. Younis, A. Vivian, and J.P. Lee
    Effect of the Superior Oblique Silicone Expander for Superior Oblique Overaction, C. Park and S.-C. Park
    Superior Oblique Tenotomy with Expander, D. Stager, G. Beauchamp, and M. Parks
    Efficacy of Posterior Tenectomy of the Superior Oblique for A-Pattern Anisotropia, M.K. Monteiro de Carvalho, A. Simoes, F.D.C. Moreira, and N. Kara-José
    Anterior Transportation of the Inferior Oblique in the Treatment of Fourth Nerve Palsy, C. González and G. Cinciripini
    Surgical Procedure in Congenital Brown's Syndrome, H.J. Kaiser, H. Mühlendyck, and H. Thaller-Antlanger
    Inferior Oblique Overaction in Congenital Esotropia: Fundus Excyclotorsion as a Predictive Sign, H.S. Eustis
    Vertical Deviations Secondary to Inferior Oblique Inclusion in Previous Lateral Rectus Surgery, R.A. Cline
    Nasal Myectomy of the Inferior Oblique, D.R. Stager
    Dissociated Strabismus
    Observation of Dissociated Vertical Deviation (DVD) by Infrared Fundus Haploscope, E. Ohmi, G. Ohmi, and S. Ohmi
    Magnetic Resonance Imaging Findings of the Brainstem in Patients with Dissociated Vertical Deviation, A. Brown-Limon, R.R. Jasso, E. Limon de Brown, J.F. Burges, P.S. Lujambio, and T. Hernandez-Ordonez
    Evaluation of Eye Movement Characteristics in the Patients with Dissociated Vertical Deviation using Scleral Search Coil, A. Izaki, M. Shimo-Oku, K. Koyama, and T. Kashihara
    "A" and "V" Patterns in Untreated Infantile Esotropia and Their Association with DVD, C.L. Calcutt and A.D.N. Murray
    Analysis of the Vertical Factor in Early Surgery of Early Onset Strabismus, V. Paris
    Does Dissociated Strabismus Affect Surgical Outcome in Congenital Esotropia? W.O. Young, M.E. Wilson, and R.A. Saunders
    Dissociated Horizontal Deviation, D. Romero-Apis
    Dissociated Horizontal Deviation and Accommodative Esotropia: Treatment Options when an Eso- and an Exo-Deviation Coexist, M.E. Wilson, R.A. Saunders, and J.E. Berland
    Ultrastructure of the Superior Oblique Tendon, E.M. Helveston, M. Oberlander, A. Evan, B. Connors, and J. Clendenon
    Graduated Superior Oblique Surgery and DVD, B.P. Greaves and A. Chadwick
    "A" Pattern Horizontal Strabismus, Dissociated Vertical Deviation, and Superior Oblique Overaction, D.K. Coats, E.A. Paysse, M. Sato, and E.M. Helveston
    Surgical Treatment of Dissociated Vertical Deviation by Faden Operation, I.I. El Bably
    Special Strabismus Surgery
    20 Years Experience with the Faden Operation, H. Mühlendyck, J. Goerd, and S. Kellner
    Posterior Fixation Sutures (Faden Procedure) for the Management of Convergence Excess Esotropia, A.J. Vivian, L. Kousoulides, P. Fells, and J.P. Lee
    Posterior Fixation: Adjustable and without Posterior Sutures, A.B. Scott
    Augmenting Surgery for Monocular Esotropia with a Medial Rectus Posterior Fixation Suture, F.J. Elsas
    An Alternative of Faden Operations in Acquired Esodeviations with Variable Angle, L. De Clippeleir, R. Apers, L. Van Eeckhoutte, M. van Lammeren, H. Janssens, and L. Baekeland
    One Stage Intraoperative Adjustable Suture Technique for Correction of Strabismus, J.S. Davis, A.W. Biglan, R. Day, and D. Landsittel
    Effect of Adjustable Sutures in Recession of the Inferior Rectus Muscle in Thyroid Ophthalmopathy, M.S. Ruttum
    Discussion of Paper by M.S. Ruttum, M.D., S.M. Archer
    Strabismus Surgery in Patients with Moebius Syndrome, D.M. Laby, A.L. Rosenbaum, S.J. Isenberg, and B.W. Fleck
    Transnasal Endoscopic Approach to the Medial Rectus to Recover Lost Muscles, C.A. McKeown, R.B. Metson, I.M. Dunya, J.W. Shore, and M.P. Joseph
    Botulinum Toxin. Other Aspects of Strabismus Management
    Botulinum Toxin in Esotropic Patients up to Three Years of Age, R. Gómez de Liano, J.M. Rodriquez, P. Gómez de Liano, and M.L. De Andres
    Long Term Use of Botulinum Toxin for Adult Strabismus, J.P. Lee
    Persisting Hypotropia following Botulinum Induced Protective Ptosis, P.L.O. Heyworth and J.P. Lee
    Fluorescein Angiographic Evaluation of Anterior Ciliary Vessel Preservation, J. Olver and P. Fells
    The First Textbook of Strabismus Surgery, J.L. Mims III and T. Boubel
    A New Method for Doing Chart Reviews…without the Chart! V.C. Mansen, L.P. Rovick, and R.S. Freeman
    Ocular Adnexa. Anterior Segment. Intraocular Pressure
    Direct Visualization for Nasolacrimal Duct Intubation, S.K. McClatchey and M.S. Jaafar
    A Manicure for Difficult Crawford Intubations, R.W. Arnold
    Bilateral, Monocanalicular Crawford Loop: Simple Removal for Remote NLD Patients, R.W. Arnold
    The Association of Nasolacrimal Duct Obstruction with Ear Infections, C. Morse and D. Sprunger
    Periocular Infection after Strabismus Surgery, J.D. Kivlin, M.E. Wilson, and Periocular Infection Study Group
    The Autogenous Dermis-Fat Orbital Implant in Children, K.T. Mitchell, D.A. Hollsten, W.L. White, and M.A. O'Hara
    Serious Ocular Alkali Burns from the Wood Ash of Fireplaces and Woodstoves, J.L. Zobal-Ratner, J.W. Simon, S. Follett, P. Zloty, M.W. Belin, and D. Turok
    Idiopathic Tractional Corectopia, C.S. Atkinson, M.C. Brodsky, D.A. Hiles, and J.W. Simon
    Enhancement of Perkins Tonometry using an External Cobalt Blue Light Source, J.E. Berland, T.P. Powers, R.A. Saunders, H. Rowe, M.E. Wilson, and W.C. Stewart
    How Reliable Are Intraocular Pressure Measurements in Awake Infants and Children? H. Atilla and L. Tychsen
    Pediatric Glaucoma-Angle Findings and Outcome, M.M. Hastings and J.M. Little
    Gonitomy for Glaucoma Complication Chronic Anterior Uveitis Arysol, S. Niffenegger and D.S. Wilson
    Biometry Technique for Introcular Lens Implantation in Children, J. Lawson, M. Restori, D. Taylor, and C. Lyons
    Dimensions of the Pediatric Capsular Bag: Implications for Intraocular Lenses in Children, E.L.C. Bluestein, M.E. Wilson, and X.-H. Wang
    Haptic Breakage after IOL Implantation during Infancy in a Non-Human Primate Model, S.R. Lambert and H. Grossniklaus
    Pars Plana Vitrectomy and Capsulotomy in Pediatric Cataract Extraction with Intraocular Lens Implantation, T.H. Metz, M.A. O'Hara, and W.C. Bauman
    Visual Rehabilitation after Cataract Extraction in Children using Intraocular Lenses, R.W. Hertle, G.E. Quinn, D.B. Schaffer, G.D. Markowitz, D.B. Granet, and J.A. Napolitano
    Posterior Chamber Intraocular Lenses: Long-Term Results in Pediatric Cataract Patients, E.R. Crouch Jr., S.H. Pressman, and E.R. Crouch
    Intraocular Lens Implantation in Children (Techniques and Results 1991-1993), K.M. Brady and D.A. Hiles
    Review of Preceding Four Papers on Intraocular Lens Implantation in Children, J.D. Baker
    Modified Indirect Ophthalmoscopy for Evaluation of the Pediatric Retina, D.K. Coats and E.A. Paysse
    Can Non-Ophthalmologists Screen for Retinopathy of Prematurity? R.A. Saunders, E.L.C. Bleustein, J.E. Berland, M.L. Donahue, and M.E. Wilson
    Complications of Zone One Retinopathy of Prematurity Treatment, J.W. McManaway III, R. DeMaio, and G.W. Blankenship
    ROP in Discordant Twins, R.R. Fellows, M.L. McGregor, and D.L. Bremer
    Measurement of Low Vision in Advanced Cicatricial Retinopathy of Prematurity, P.J. Droste and M.T. Trese
    Molecular Diagnosis of Inherited Retinal Degeneration in Asymptomatic Children, A.V. Drack, B.E. Nichols, V.C. Sheffield, and E.M. Stone
    An ERG, VEP, and Eye Movement Assessment of Children with Bardet-Biedl Syndrome, T. Lavy, C.M. Harris, F. Shawkat, D. Thompson, and A. Kriss
    Photoaversion in Leber's Congenital Amaurosis, E.I. Traboulsi and I.H. Maumenee
    Causes of the Strabismus and Diplopia after the Retinal Surgery, J.-M. Hwang and K.W. Wright
    Retinal Re-Detachment after Strabismus Surgery, N. Sondhi and E.M. Helveston
    Management of Experimental Globe Perforation during Strabismus Surgery, D. Sprunger, S. Klapper, J. Bonnin, and J. Minturn
    Electroretinography as a Tool in Distinguishing Bardet-Biedl and Alstrom Syndromes in Early Childhood, A.V. Whittington, S.R. Lambert, W.B. Dasher, and A.V. Drack
    Discussion of the Paper "Can Non-Ophthalmologists Screen for Retinopathy of Prematurity?" E.A. Palmer
    Syndromes. Pediatric Neuro-Ophthalmology
    Ocular Findings in Rubinstein-Taybi Syndrome: Results of the First International Symposium, C.M. Ohnsman and M.J. Burke
    Craniosynostosis Syndromes in British Columbia, J. Carruthers and D. Berg
    Congenital Ocular Synkinesis (Aberrant Innervation)-New Concepts, H.L. Freedman and B.J. Kushner
    Strabismus Associated with Marcus Gunn Synkinesis, C. Lyons, P. Fells, and R. Collin
    Strabismus Associated with Meningomyelocele, A.W. Biglan
    Intracranial Pathology in Children Presenting as Concomitant Strabismus, C. Timms and D. Taylor
    Cerebellar Astrocytoma Presenting as Acquired Comitant Esotropia at Age 18 and 27 Months, M.S. Jaafar, M.L.Z. Collins, and A.I. Rabinowitz
    Outcome of Sixth Nerve Palsy in Young Children, M. Aroichane and M.X. Repka
    Prevalence of Intracranial Lesions in Children Presenting with Disconjugate Nystagmus (Spasmus Nutans), K.A. Arnoldi and L. Tychsen
    Epiretinal Membrane: An Unusual Complication of Childhood Optic Neuritis, M.X. Repka
    Delayed Visual Maturation, F. Lods and C. Gramet
    Ophthalmological Examination of Brain Damaged Children, M. de Bideron
    Oral Presentations and Formal Posters without Manuscript
    Free Posters
    Author Index
    Subject Index


    Gunnar Lennerstrand, Shinobu Awaya