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Update on Strabismus and Pediatric Ophthalmology Proceedings of the June, 1994 Joint ISA and AAPO&S Meeting, Vancouver, Canada: 1st Edition (Hardback) book cover

Update on Strabismus and Pediatric Ophthalmology Proceedings of the June, 1994 Joint ISA and AAPO&S Meeting, Vancouver, Canada

1st Edition

By Gunnar Lennerstrand, Shinobu Awaya

CRC Press

752 pages | 5 B/W Illus.

Purchasing Options:$ = USD
Hardback: 9780849389610
pub: 1995-02-22

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This book provides useful information on new observations and therapeutic approaches to common problems encountered in strabismus and pediatric ophthalmology. It also discusses the ocular findings in a number of rare conditions.

All aspects of pediatric ophthalmology are addressed. The book describes a new strabismic condition and provides updates on research in the development of normal and abnormal monocular and binocular vision, and in ocular motility. All different strabismus types and their characterizations are covered, as well as nystagmus and other ocular motor disorders. The latest advances in relevant surgical and pharmacological management are discussed. Recent research on diseases of the lacrimal system, the anterior segment, cataracts, posterior segment, and neuro-ophthalmology is extensively covered.

Update on Strabismus and Pediatric Ophthalmology presents the proceedings of the joint meeting of the VIIth Congress of the International Strabismological Association (ISA) and the 20th Annual Meeting of the American Association for Pediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus (AAPO&S). The meeting had more than 750 participants, making it the largest conference ever held in the field of strabismus and pediatric ophthalmology.

Table of Contents


Vision. Refraction. Amblyopia

Evaluating the Optical Status of the Human Eye, S.H. Hay, P. Reiner, and R. Bryant

Inter-Observer Variability of Cycloplegic Refraction in Children, S. Jamal and G.R. LaRoche

The Variability of Ophthalmological Parameters in Normal Children Age 4 1/2 to 5 1/2 Years, S. Lam, G.R. LaRoche, I. De Becker, H. Macpherson, and Members of the Vision Screening Group

Polaroid Photoscreening: A New Model and Interpretation Standards, H.L. Freedman and L. Griffin

The Results of Russel Corporation-Sponsored Eye Screenings in 14,000 Children, K.S. Morgan and J.C. Kennemer

Deficiencies of the Fixation Mechanism, J. Lang and P. Bischoff

Photopic Visual Field in 2-Month-Old Infants, A. Fea, M. Delpiano, A. Soldi, M. Musso, E. Miraglia, C. Martano, L. Mayer, and F. Vitale Brovarone

A Sweep VEP Test for Color Deficits in Infants and Children, T.D. France and J.N. Ver Hoeve

Changes in Corneal Topography after Strabismus Surgery in Children, X.-H. Wang, M.E. Wilson, and E.L.C. Bluestein

Longitudinal Changes of Refractive Error in Esotropic Operated and Unoperated Young Children, M. Spiritus, O. Kallay Jr., C. Denis, M. Van den Broeck, and D. Hoffmann

Focal Macular ERG in Amblyopia: With Special Reference to the Difference between Hypermetropic Anisometropia and Myopic Anisometropia, S. Awaya, H. Tanaka, Y. Miyake, T. Yagasaki, N. Nakamura, and Y. Suzuki

Efficiency of Preferential Looking Test and PVEP in Detecting Amblyopia in Infants with or without Mental Handicaps, M.S. Roy, M. Barsoum-Homsy, L.M. Khouri, and C. Tremblay

A Comparative Study of Near and Distant Visual Acuity in Amblyopic Eyes, W. Haase, B. Schmal, B. Damashke, and E. Meyer

Citicoline Improves Temporarily Visual Acuity of Amblyopic Patients outside the Plastic Period of the Visual System, E.C. Campos, C. Schiavi, P. Benedetti, and R. Bolzani

Steroid Injection vs. Conservative Treatment of Anisometropic Amblyopia in Juvenile Adnexal Hemangioma, M.V. Motwani, J.W. Simon, J.D. Pickering, R.A. Catalano, and P.L. Jenkins

Using an Occluder Contact Lens for Amblyopia Management, C.G. Summers, L.K. Davis, and J.E. Egbert

Binocular Vision

The Physiology of Suppression in Strabismus, R. Harrad, F. Sengpiel, and C. Blakemore

Neuroanatomic Abnormalities of Visual Cortex in Infantile Esotropia, L. Tychsen and A. Burkhalter

Fly Test Calibrated, W. de Decker, E. Dannheim, and R. Gockeln

Preliminary Evaluation of a Newly Designed Random-Dot Stereogram, L.L.-K. Lin, S.-F. Wu, and A.-H. Wang

Binocular Sensory Testing, B.W. Arthur

Cortical Binocular Recovery following Strabismus Surgery, L.W. Baitch and M.W. Preslan

The Relationship between the Angle of Strabismus and Degree of Binocularity in the Monofixation Syndrome, Y.-B. Roh and S.J. Isenberg

Observation of Retinal Correspondence in Esotropia, M. Mitta, F. Takahashi, K. Kani, and A. Inatomi

Distance Stereo Acuity Improvement in Intermittent Exotropic Patients following Surgery, T.D. O'Neal, A.L. Rosenbaum, and R.A. Stathacopoulos

Discussion of: Distance Stereo Acuity Improvement in Intermittent Exotropic Patients following Strabismus Surgery, D.L. Guyton

Abnormal Motion Perception in Early Onset Esotropia, S. Hague, J. Shallo-Hoffman, P. Fells, and M. Gresty

The Use of Bangerter Foils in the Management of Intractable Diplopia, A. McIntrye and P. Fells

Eye Muscles. Eye Movements. Nystagmus

The Ultrastructural Immunohistochemistry of Thyroid-Associated Ophthalmopathy, A. Pappa, P.M.G. Munro, R.C. Howes, P. Fells, and S. Lightman

Electrophysiological, Biochemical, and Morphological Study in External Congenital Ophthalmoplegia, A. Magli, P. Vastarella, T. De Berardinis, F. D'Esposito, L. Santoro, A. Orsini, and R. Nucciotti

Observation of Extraocular Muscle Atrophy in Cases of Peripheral Nerve Palsy using MRI, Y. Aoki, Y. Nishida, T. Murata, and O. Hayashi

Cine Magnetic Resonance Imaging of Eye Movements, R. Harrad, M. Potts, R. Goddard, J. Kabala, and B. Hoh

Modified Periodontal Probe for Simplified Forced Duction Measurements, H.S. Metz and R. Yeaple

Variations in Medial Rectus Stretching in Esotropia, A. Péchereau, M.A. Quéré, and M. Weber

The Development of Eye Movements in Infancy, M. Jacobs, C. Harris, and D. Taylor

Saccadic Velocity Analysis in Patients with Divergence Paralysis, L. Lim, A.L. Rosenbaum, and J.L. Demer

Saccadic Velocity and Force Development in Duane's Retraction Syndrome Type I, S. Tian and G. Lennerstrand

Saccadic Adaptation following Adjustable Suture Surgery, R.W. Hertle, D.B. Granet, and M. Movaghar

Stability of the Eyes in Torsional Direction: Spontaneous Torsional Eye Movements Are Conjugate, L.J. van Rijn, J. van der Steen, and H. Collewijn

A Combination Horizontal/Vertical Prism Bar, U. Flüeler, K.M. Elhatton, and D.L. Gyuton

Iris Plane Parallel Measurement in the Hirschberg (Corneal Light Reflection) Test for Binocular Misalignment (Strabometry), P.E. Romano

Vergence Responses to a Base Out Prism, E. Cornell

Comparison of Three Standard Clinical Tests and a New Test for the Measurement of Torsional Diplopia, Z. Georgievski

OKN Asymmetry in Treated Esotropes, K.W. Wright, M. Borchert, A.A. Leverant, and J.-M. Hwang

Waveforms following Kestenbaum, H.P. Goldstein and R.D. Reinecke

Surgical Treatment of Exodeviations with Congenital Nystagmus: Problems Related to Deviations with Blocking Convergence and Pseudo-Latent Nystagmus, A. Spielmann and A.C. Spielmann

Nystagmus Dampening Surgery: Cosmetic or Functional? J.E. Egbert, J.H. Anderson, and C.G. Summers

Long-Term Evaluation of Extra Ocular Muscle Surgery for Congenital Nystagmus and Abnormal Head Posture, E. Schulz, E. Meyer, W. Haase, and J. Lithander

The Treatment of Congenital Nystagmus with Botox, J. Carruthers

Horizontal Strabismus

Accommodative Amplitude in Children Wearing Bifocals, G.K. von Noorden and R.H. Jenkins

Discussion of "Effect of Bifocals on Accommodative Range in Children" by G.K. von Noorden and R.H. Jenkins, M.X. Repka

Hyperopia in Infantile versus Acquired Esotropia: Implication for Glasses Prophylaxis to Prevent Acquired Esotropia, G.W. Cibis and M.A. Crandall

Progressive Increase in the Angle of Deviation in Congenital Esotropia, M.R. Ing

Ocular Deviation under Atropine Cycloplegia as a Predictor of the Accommodative Component of Esotropia, P. Nemet

Prism Adaptation in Variable Esotropia, S.A. Stewart, C.G. Summers, J.D. Lavoie, and J.E. Egbert

The Influence of the Prism Adaptation Test (PAT) on Surgery for Intermittent Exotropia, S. Véronneau-Troutman, E. Traykovski, and J. DeRosa

The Correlation between Axial Length and the Response to Strabismus Surgery, M. Gräf, T. Krzizok, and H. Kaufmann

Relating the Angular Correction to the Amount of Strabismus Surgery, W.E. Gillies, M.R. Rivers, and A.M.V. Brooks

Results of 8 to 9 mm Bilateral Lateral Muscle Recessions for Exotropia, J.E. Berland, M.E. Wilson, and R.A. Saunders

Large Bimedial Rectus Recession (6.5 mm or More) in the Management of Large Angle Esotropia, A.A. Assaf

Long-Term Effectiveness of Bilateral Medial Rectus Recession in Congenital Esotropia and Acquired Accommodative and Nonaccommodative Esotropia, D.V. Bautista, W.E. Scott, B. Zimmerman, and S. Sarin

Surgical Success in Patients with Acquired Esotropia and High Refractive Error, J. Rysenga, J.D. Baker, J.D. Roarty, J. Petrunak, and M. Schweers

Alignment Success following Medial Rectus Recessions in Normal and Delayed Children, J.D. Pickering, J.W. Simon, C.D. Ratliff, K.B. Melsopp, and L.L. Lininger

Predictive Factors for Exotropia following Esotropia Surgery, W.R. Lee, R.V. Keech, and J. Kim

Vertical Shift of the Medial Rectus Muscles in the Treatment of A-Pattern Esotropia-Analysis of Outcome, S.E. Brooks, G. DeB. Ribeiro, S.M. Archer, and M.A. Del Monte

Treatment for "A" or "V" Patterns by Slanting Muscle Insertion, B. Biedner and Y. Yassur

Unilateral Surgery for Exotropia with Convergence Weakness, S.P. Kraft, A.V. Levin, and R.W. Enzenauer

Anterior Tenonectomy in Horizontal Rectus Muscle Resection: Effect on the Post-Operative Appearance of the Conjunctiva, H. Van Hecke, M.T. Miller, P.K. Rabiah, and S. El-Naggar

Vertical Rectus Muscle Transposition in Complete VI Cranial Nerve Palsy, V. Sarnicola

Vertical Strabismus. Oblique Muscles

The Superior Rectus Contracture Syndrome, A. Jampolsky

Inferior Tranposition of the Horizontal Recti (Inverse Knapp Procedure) for the Treatment of Acquired Inferior Rectus Paresis, J.P. Burke and R.V. Keech

An MRI Study of Double Elevator Palsy, W. Cadera, J.N. Bloom, and S. Karlik

The Spectrum of Anatomic Variations in Congenital Superior Oblique Palsy, C.-Y. Lo and T. Maruo

Facial Asymmetry and Superior Oblique Tendon Laxity in Superior Oblique Palsy, E.A. Paysse, D.K. Coats, and D.A. Plager

Should Early Surgery Be Performed for Head Tilts to Prevent Facial Asymmetry? C.R. Goodman, E. Chabner, and D.L. Guyton

True versus Masquerading Superior Oblique Palsies: Muscle Mechanisms Revealed by Magnetic Resonance Imaging, J.L. Demer, J.M. Miller, E.Y. Koo, A.L. Rosenbaum, and J.B. Bateman

Superior Oblique Myokymia, J.-T.H.N. de Faber and R.L.J. van Rijn

The Use of the Computer-Assisted Lancaster Test in the Evaluation of a New Operation for Mild Superior Oblique Palsy, C. González, G. Cinciripini, and R. Sánchez

Unilateral Modified Harada-Ito Procedure for Excyclotorsion Secondary to Unilateral Superior Oblique Palsy, M.H. Younis, A. Vivian, and J.P. Lee

Effect of the Superior Oblique Silicone Expander for Superior Oblique Overaction, C. Park and S.-C. Park

Superior Oblique Tenotomy with Expander, D. Stager, G. Beauchamp, and M. Parks

Efficacy of Posterior Tenectomy of the Superior Oblique for A-Pattern Anisotropia, M.K. Monteiro de Carvalho, A. Simoes, F.D.C. Moreira, and N. Kara-José

Anterior Transportation of the Inferior Oblique in the Treatment of Fourth Nerve Palsy, C. González and G. Cinciripini

Surgical Procedure in Congenital Brown's Syndrome, H.J. Kaiser, H. Mühlendyck, and H. Thaller-Antlanger

Inferior Oblique Overaction in Congenital Esotropia: Fundus Excyclotorsion as a Predictive Sign, H.S. Eustis

Vertical Deviations Secondary to Inferior Oblique Inclusion in Previous Lateral Rectus Surgery, R.A. Cline

Nasal Myectomy of the Inferior Oblique, D.R. Stager

Dissociated Strabismus

Observation of Dissociated Vertical Deviation (DVD) by Infrared Fundus Haploscope, E. Ohmi, G. Ohmi, and S. Ohmi

Magnetic Resonance Imaging Findings of the Brainstem in Patients with Dissociated Vertical Deviation, A. Brown-Limon, R.R. Jasso, E. Limon de Brown, J.F. Burges, P.S. Lujambio, and T. Hernandez-Ordonez

Evaluation of Eye Movement Characteristics in the Patients with Dissociated Vertical Deviation using Scleral Search Coil, A. Izaki, M. Shimo-Oku, K. Koyama, and T. Kashihara

"A" and "V" Patterns in Untreated Infantile Esotropia and Their Association with DVD, C.L. Calcutt and A.D.N. Murray

Analysis of the Vertical Factor in Early Surgery of Early Onset Strabismus, V. Paris

Does Dissociated Strabismus Affect Surgical Outcome in Congenital Esotropia? W.O. Young, M.E. Wilson, and R.A. Saunders

Dissociated Horizontal Deviation, D. Romero-Apis

Dissociated Horizontal Deviation and Accommodative Esotropia: Treatment Options when an Eso- and an Exo-Deviation Coexist, M.E. Wilson, R.A. Saunders, and J.E. Berland

Ultrastructure of the Superior Oblique Tendon, E.M. Helveston, M. Oberlander, A. Evan, B. Connors, and J. Clendenon

Graduated Superior Oblique Surgery and DVD, B.P. Greaves and A. Chadwick

"A" Pattern Horizontal Strabismus, Dissociated Vertical Deviation, and Superior Oblique Overaction, D.K. Coats, E.A. Paysse, M. Sato, and E.M. Helveston

Surgical Treatment of Dissociated Vertical Deviation by Faden Operation, I.I. El Bably

Special Strabismus Surgery

20 Years Experience with the Faden Operation, H. Mühlendyck, J. Goerd, and S. Kellner

Posterior Fixation Sutures (Faden Procedure) for the Management of Convergence Excess Esotropia, A.J. Vivian, L. Kousoulides, P. Fells, and J.P. Lee

Posterior Fixation: Adjustable and without Posterior Sutures, A.B. Scott

Augmenting Surgery for Monocular Esotropia with a Medial Rectus Posterior Fixation Suture, F.J. Elsas

An Alternative of Faden Operations in Acquired Esodeviations with Variable Angle, L. De Clippeleir, R. Apers, L. Van Eeckhoutte, M. van Lammeren, H. Janssens, and L. Baekeland

One Stage Intraoperative Adjustable Suture Technique for Correction of Strabismus, J.S. Davis, A.W. Biglan, R. Day, and D. Landsittel

Effect of Adjustable Sutures in Recession of the Inferior Rectus Muscle in Thyroid Ophthalmopathy, M.S. Ruttum

Discussion of Paper by M.S. Ruttum, M.D., S.M. Archer

Strabismus Surgery in Patients with Moebius Syndrome, D.M. Laby, A.L. Rosenbaum, S.J. Isenberg, and B.W. Fleck

Transnasal Endoscopic Approach to the Medial Rectus to Recover Lost Muscles, C.A. McKeown, R.B. Metson, I.M. Dunya, J.W. Shore, and M.P. Joseph

Botulinum Toxin. Other Aspects of Strabismus Management

Botulinum Toxin in Esotropic Patients up to Three Years of Age, R. Gómez de Liano, J.M. Rodriquez, P. Gómez de Liano, and M.L. De Andres

Long Term Use of Botulinum Toxin for Adult Strabismus, J.P. Lee

Persisting Hypotropia following Botulinum Induced Protective Ptosis, P.L.O. Heyworth and J.P. Lee

Fluorescein Angiographic Evaluation of Anterior Ciliary Vessel Preservation, J. Olver and P. Fells

The First Textbook of Strabismus Surgery, J.L. Mims III and T. Boubel

A New Method for Doing Chart Reviews…without the Chart! V.C. Mansen, L.P. Rovick, and R.S. Freeman

Ocular Adnexa. Anterior Segment. Intraocular Pressure

Direct Visualization for Nasolacrimal Duct Intubation, S.K. McClatchey and M.S. Jaafar

A Manicure for Difficult Crawford Intubations, R.W. Arnold

Bilateral, Monocanalicular Crawford Loop: Simple Removal for Remote NLD Patients, R.W. Arnold

The Association of Nasolacrimal Duct Obstruction with Ear Infections, C. Morse and D. Sprunger

Periocular Infection after Strabismus Surgery, J.D. Kivlin, M.E. Wilson, and Periocular Infection Study Group

The Autogenous Dermis-Fat Orbital Implant in Children, K.T. Mitchell, D.A. Hollsten, W.L. White, and M.A. O'Hara

Serious Ocular Alkali Burns from the Wood Ash of Fireplaces and Woodstoves, J.L. Zobal-Ratner, J.W. Simon, S. Follett, P. Zloty, M.W. Belin, and D. Turok

Idiopathic Tractional Corectopia, C.S. Atkinson, M.C. Brodsky, D.A. Hiles, and J.W. Simon

Enhancement of Perkins Tonometry using an External Cobalt Blue Light Source, J.E. Berland, T.P. Powers, R.A. Saunders, H. Rowe, M.E. Wilson, and W.C. Stewart

How Reliable Are Intraocular Pressure Measurements in Awake Infants and Children? H. Atilla and L. Tychsen

Pediatric Glaucoma-Angle Findings and Outcome, M.M. Hastings and J.M. Little

Gonitomy for Glaucoma Complication Chronic Anterior Uveitis Arysol, S. Niffenegger and D.S. Wilson


Biometry Technique for Introcular Lens Implantation in Children, J. Lawson, M. Restori, D. Taylor, and C. Lyons

Dimensions of the Pediatric Capsular Bag: Implications for Intraocular Lenses in Children, E.L.C. Bluestein, M.E. Wilson, and X.-H. Wang

Haptic Breakage after IOL Implantation during Infancy in a Non-Human Primate Model, S.R. Lambert and H. Grossniklaus

Pars Plana Vitrectomy and Capsulotomy in Pediatric Cataract Extraction with Intraocular Lens Implantation, T.H. Metz, M.A. O'Hara, and W.C. Bauman

Visual Rehabilitation after Cataract Extraction in Children using Intraocular Lenses, R.W. Hertle, G.E. Quinn, D.B. Schaffer, G.D. Markowitz, D.B. Granet, and J.A. Napolitano

Posterior Chamber Intraocular Lenses: Long-Term Results in Pediatric Cataract Patients, E.R. Crouch Jr., S.H. Pressman, and E.R. Crouch

Intraocular Lens Implantation in Children (Techniques and Results 1991-1993), K.M. Brady and D.A. Hiles

Review of Preceding Four Papers on Intraocular Lens Implantation in Children, J.D. Baker


Modified Indirect Ophthalmoscopy for Evaluation of the Pediatric Retina, D.K. Coats and E.A. Paysse

Can Non-Ophthalmologists Screen for Retinopathy of Prematurity? R.A. Saunders, E.L.C. Bleustein, J.E. Berland, M.L. Donahue, and M.E. Wilson

Complications of Zone One Retinopathy of Prematurity Treatment, J.W. McManaway III, R. DeMaio, and G.W. Blankenship

ROP in Discordant Twins, R.R. Fellows, M.L. McGregor, and D.L. Bremer

Measurement of Low Vision in Advanced Cicatricial Retinopathy of Prematurity, P.J. Droste and M.T. Trese

Molecular Diagnosis of Inherited Retinal Degeneration in Asymptomatic Children, A.V. Drack, B.E. Nichols, V.C. Sheffield, and E.M. Stone

An ERG, VEP, and Eye Movement Assessment of Children with Bardet-Biedl Syndrome, T. Lavy, C.M. Harris, F. Shawkat, D. Thompson, and A. Kriss

Photoaversion in Leber's Congenital Amaurosis, E.I. Traboulsi and I.H. Maumenee

Causes of the Strabismus and Diplopia after the Retinal Surgery, J.-M. Hwang and K.W. Wright

Retinal Re-Detachment after Strabismus Surgery, N. Sondhi and E.M. Helveston

Management of Experimental Globe Perforation during Strabismus Surgery, D. Sprunger, S. Klapper, J. Bonnin, and J. Minturn

Electroretinography as a Tool in Distinguishing Bardet-Biedl and Alstrom Syndromes in Early Childhood, A.V. Whittington, S.R. Lambert, W.B. Dasher, and A.V. Drack

Discussion of the Paper "Can Non-Ophthalmologists Screen for Retinopathy of Prematurity?" E.A. Palmer

Syndromes. Pediatric Neuro-Ophthalmology

Ocular Findings in Rubinstein-Taybi Syndrome: Results of the First International Symposium, C.M. Ohnsman and M.J. Burke

Craniosynostosis Syndromes in British Columbia, J. Carruthers and D. Berg

Congenital Ocular Synkinesis (Aberrant Innervation)-New Concepts, H.L. Freedman and B.J. Kushner

Strabismus Associated with Marcus Gunn Synkinesis, C. Lyons, P. Fells, and R. Collin

Strabismus Associated with Meningomyelocele, A.W. Biglan

Intracranial Pathology in Children Presenting as Concomitant Strabismus, C. Timms and D. Taylor

Cerebellar Astrocytoma Presenting as Acquired Comitant Esotropia at Age 18 and 27 Months, M.S. Jaafar, M.L.Z. Collins, and A.I. Rabinowitz

Outcome of Sixth Nerve Palsy in Young Children, M. Aroichane and M.X. Repka

Prevalence of Intracranial Lesions in Children Presenting with Disconjugate Nystagmus (Spasmus Nutans), K.A. Arnoldi and L. Tychsen

Epiretinal Membrane: An Unusual Complication of Childhood Optic Neuritis, M.X. Repka

Delayed Visual Maturation, F. Lods and C. Gramet

Ophthalmological Examination of Brain Damaged Children, M. de Bideron


Oral Presentations and Formal Posters without Manuscript

Free Posters

Author Index

Subject Index

Subject Categories

BISAC Subject Codes/Headings:
MEDICAL / Pediatrics
MEDICAL / Surgery / General